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Full text of "Year book ... City of Charleston, So. Ca"

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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02301 0793 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/yearbookcityofch02unse 



YEAR BOOK--i8 83./ 



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CITY OF CHARLESTON, s. 



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So. Ca. 



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1783. 



THE CENTENNIAL 



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INCORPORATION 



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TJic Coitounal of Incorponition. 



325 



TIIK CENTENNIAL OE INCOREORATION. 



INITIATORY PROCEEDINGS. 



At the regular meeting of the City Council, held on Aj)ril 
iDth, 188^, Alderman Dini^le offered the following: 

In viev\' of tlie approaching Centennial of the Jiicorjioialion of the City (A 
(/ha^le^l<>n, fin llio 13th of August m-\t, 

Res.'liyd, 'I'liat a Conmiittee of five Aldermen be a[)pointeu l)y tlie Ma3'or to 
consider and report to the City Council llie most ap[)ropriate nianncr of eele- 
Inating .^aid (."entennial. 

Alderman Aich.el mo\'ed that the Mayor be added to the 
Conimittee. This amendnient being accepted, the resolu- 
tion was then adopted. 

Aldermen Dingle, Thayer, Ufferhardt, Sweegan and John- 
son were appointed as tiie Committee. 

At the regular meeting of the Cit)^ Cotmcil, held on the 
evening of April 24th, 1883, the speci:ii ('ommittee of Coun- 
cil a})pointed to recommend the most apjjropriate \va)^ of 
celebrating, on the 13th of yVugust next, the Centennial of 
the lncor{:>oration of the City of Charleston, reported as 
hallows: 

The Comniillee reconimend : 

isl. That a Centennial Address be deii\eied in honor of the occasion. 
2(1. That on tliat day tlie marble bust of tlie late lion. Robert "S'. Ilayne 
and tlie mural tablet ordered by Council l)e' unveiled. 

3d. That a bronze medal be struck, the obverse of which shall present the 
lull st-al of the City of (Charleston, ^\ith ayipropriate commemorative inscription 
^m the reverse. 

mh. 'J'hnt the celebration l)e closed in the evening with a display of fire- 
works. 

Resjiectfully submitted, 

G. W. DINGLE. 
E, F. SWEEGAN. 
A. JOHNSON. 
Wli.EIAM 'JHAY!:R. 
WM. UFFERHARDT. 
~ Adopted. WM. A. COURTENAV, Mayor, 



326 Mayor Courtcnays Annual Rcv'ww. 

At the regular meeting on May 8th, "The Committee on 
the Centennial " asked leave to report : 

That lliey hi-ive considered tlic luaUer, and su^l^csI thai Ids Honor the Mayor 
be recjucstcd to d'. liver the Centennial Address on August I3l]i, 1SS3, recom- 
mended in oar first report. That our distini;uishcd townsman and poet, Paul 
11. Hayne, be requested to write tlie Centennial Ode. 

The Comniittee a^k for further time to report on tlie furlher detail.^ of the 
celebration. 

G. W. DINGLE. ' 
WILLIA.M TIIAVER. 
E. F. SWEECJAN. 
■ ^ \YM. IJFFERHAKDT. 

A. JOHNSON. 
Which was unanimously adopted.^ 

Tlie Mayor said : 

Genth-men of the City Council — The action of the City 
Council in arranging for the observance of the 13th of 
August, the one hundredth anniversary of the incorporation 
of Charleston as a city, has my hearty concurrence. The 
occasion in itself is worthy of commemoration, for Charleston 
on that day will mark off her first century of municipal life, 
l^ut it should not be forgotten that there are one hundred and 
thirteen years of history previous to 1783, and so it would be 
most appropriate to take advantage of these approaching 
Centennial ceremonies to direct public attention to a subject 
which sliould be of primar}^ interest to every home in 
Charleston. Seven generations have lived on this historic 
peninsular, and as yet no connected narrative, has been 
written for the information of the community. Tv/ent}'-five 
years ago that noble citizen, the late James L. I^etigru, in 
liis address before the South Carolina Historical .-Societ)', 
said with a manner and tone of voice expressive of regret 
and never to be forgotten hy those who heard him : 

*' It is a very general complaint that our people are care- 
less of records. The materials of history are treated very 
much like the rioble forest, not to be surpassed in beauty, 
with which Carolina was once covered. It is deliveied, 
without mercN', to the havoc of the axe or the ravages of 



The CcntciDiial of htcorporatioii. 



327 



the devouring fiame. IMie supply is supposed to be inex- 
haustible, and the process goes on until tlie recklessness of 
waste is checked by the alarm of approaching scarcity. \Vc 
would interpose to protect the remnant of that noble forest 
which is threater^ed witli extermination. We would be 
happy to lend our aid in preserving the memory of things 
remarkable or interesting, in our country, wdtich arc becrin- 
ning to lose their hold on living memory. The labors, the 
trials, and dangers that have proved the eridu ranee, or ex- 
ercised the virtue of our countrymen, are in our e)'es of 
sufficient interest to be preser\'ed from neglect. We would 
inscribe with a name the battlefields of Indian and British 
hostility ; a)id ivoiihi fain prcvoii the soil I hat /las been ziuafered 
with blood poured out i)i belialf of the Couinionioealtli, from 
being confounded with conunon earth ! " "^' " "^^ " * 

l^y the action of our Mistorical Society in the years just 
preceding the war beLv/ecn tlie States, much valuable in- 
formation was collected, and the knov/ledge obtained where 
the most complete and authentic material v/as accessible 
for our Colonial Histor^^ Since i860 an additional volume 
of glowing history has been enacted, but it, too, is yet un- 
written. Another generation of boys and girls are grov/ing 
up to manhood and womanhood in this historic city as 
ignorant of the story of its eventful life as their fathers and 
mothers, their grand fatliers and grandmothers before them. 
I have had tlie thought for man)' years that on some appro- 
priate occasion I would make the effort at least to direct 
the attention of our citizens to that most desirable acquisi- 
tion, a complete history of our city. 

Quoting furtlier from Mr. Petigru's address : "Perhaps 
the opinion is tinged with partiality, yet, after making due 
allowance for such bias," I think I may say that in the circle 
of vision from the belfry of St. Michael's there has been as 
much high thought spoken, as much heroic action taken, as 
much patient endurance borne as in any equal area of land 
and sea on this continent. Shall more than two centuries 
of such achievement remain longer in disjointed and con- 
fused records and traditions? There can be but one answer 



3^B 



Mayor Cuuricnay's Animal Rcviciu 



from every intLlligciit citizen, aiul llidt is th.it this desirable 
work shoLikl be UP.Jertaken at the earh'est date. 'I'hc (>.\- 
tent of it is now so great, by long neglect, tliat private en- 
terprise wilj not undertake it. The collection of data, the 
selection of material, &c., will now of necessity luive to be 
done by the city. It will be trifliiig in outlay if done in 
small annual appropriations. This will largely rerluce the 
cost to the citizens, and insure to all who desire t'o have 
copies, a reliable historic work at a moderate price. Jt will 
be monex' well spent ; such a work projected on a broad 
basis would have a sale all over the Union, for much of 
Charleston's early h.istory is the history of the Colony of 
Carolina. In accepting the appointuicnt to address )'ou on 
Centennial day in August, I do so in the hope that, by [> re- 
senting the outline and some incidents of that history, I 
may be able to elicit a genercd public interest in tin's essen- 
tial woi'k ; and the present City Council, in my opinion, 
could now give no better evidence of their public spirit and 
their ap[)reciation of the histoiac past of Charleston than to 
initiate this good work by a moderate appropriation, and 
the selection of a comn-^itlee of citizens who would direct its 
proper expenditure to the accomplishment of this great re- 
sult in the near future. I leave this subject witli you for 
your considei'ation and future action, only remarking in con- 
clusion that, when our people are able to read tlie grand 
history of Charleston, it must result in their having a higher 
appreciation of their home, for no city, ancient or modern, 
affords examples nioi'c fitted to elicit ennobling emotions. 

Alderman Tha)'er introduced the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted : 

RcsoIvt'J, That the addios of llic May(^r acccinins^ tlie a[)pointincnt of oiator 
for the Centennial celebration in August next be sj)rcad ujion the journal. 

Resolved, That so much as relate^ to an a})|)roiiri;aion f'>r collecting nialerial 
for a history of Charleston bo referred to tin? Committee of Wars and Means. 



At the regular meeting of the Cit\' Council on Ma.y 22d, 
the follou'ing correspondence v/as read and ordered to be 
published with the j^rocccdings : 



TJic CcuUiuiial of Incorpoyation. 



329 



City of Ciiarlkston, Exfxutivk Dki-arimknt, \ 

May Qlh, 1S83. ( 
Paul II. IIay>u\ Esq. : 

,Mv ])i:ar Sir— As you are (1oul)tlcs:> aware the one luiudrcdth aiinivcisai y 
of the incorporation of the City of Charleston oceius on the 13th of Auj^u.^l 
proximo, and the City Administration lias taken measures to celelnale tiic 
occasion with appropriate ceremonies. 

At a meeting of the City Council held last evening, tlie committee of nrrangc- 
ments submitted th.c following report, wliieh was unanimously adoj)ted : 

" The Comm.ittee on tlie Centennial beg leave to rei)ort tliat they have con- 
sidered the matter, and suggest that his Honor the Mayor be re(jucsted to de- 
liver the Centennial Address, 13th August, 18S3, recommended in our first 
report ; that our distinguished townsman and poet, Paul M. Iluyne, be re- 
quested to write the Centennial Ode, 

The committee ask for further time to report on the further details of the 
occasion. G. W. DINGLE. 

A. JOHNSON. 
. WILLIAM THAYER. 
E. F. SWEEGAN. 
\VM. UFFERHARDT." 

It now becomes my duty and great pleasure to convey tlic same to you, trust- 
ing it may not be incompatible with your time and engagcnients to comply with 
the request made. 

In thus levying upon you for an offering to this interesting occasion, it is 
fit we sh.ould call on one regarded as " our own" — one though 'niid time's muta- 
tion is not now v.dth us, but of us, and still held in high regard as a favored son 
of the "Old City by tlie Sea," whose Centennial could not be more honored 
than by his graceful pen. I hope that at an early date I shall Irave tlic gratifi- 
cation of conveying to the C'ity Council your affirmative res]"H)nse to the request. 
With assurance of liigh regard and csteeni, I am, my dear sir, 

Yours, very respectfully, 
Attest; , WILLIAM THAYEF^. 

W. W. Simons, , Mayor pro tern. 

Clerk of Council 

Charleston, S. C, May 12th, 1SS3. 
To Hon. WiUiarii Thayer, Mayor pro tern. : 

My De.vr Sir — I received your conimunication of the 9th instant, on behalf 
of tlie City Administration of Charleston, together with the report of your Cen- 
tennial Committee, in which. I am reipiested to compose a Centennial Ode for 
the 13th of .August, 1SS3. 

It will afford me great pleasure to comply with your request. 

Most respectfully, 

PAUL IL HAYNE, 



33^ J/r/jY^r Couriciiay s Ammal Review. 

Ri'XTORY St. Pmiic's I'akish, ) 

Chivilcstoii, S. C, July 31. )SS3. f 

Mr. C. IV. Di)i^U, Chainuaii CcntLiuua! Cotinnitlcc : 

DkaR SlK—Vout kUcr (>r25lli iiiht., iuviiino nu- lo of(kiaU; as Chaplain on 
tlic CeiilLMiui;'! IX'.), 13th AuLni^t next, Im., been duly received. Wnir paiti'il- 
ity is «;ratifying to me a.-^ llic representative of this Iiislorical TarLsli of our city, 
and I can only reply with aceeptance of the Committee's invitation. 
With senlimenti of esteem tov, ards yourself and the Committee, 
I remain your obedient servant, 

JNO. JOHNSON. 

At the rec;ular meeting of the City Council )ield on the 
evening of Angtist 2d, 1883, Alderman TJingie, with appro- 
priate remarks, offered tlie following, which was unanimously 
adopted : 

On receipt of the marble bu.st of the Hon. Robert V. Hayne, executed by 
Mr. E. V. ValLutii-e, sculptor, of Virginia, 

/•^tsohcd h the diy Council of Charlcslon, '\\\\{ the City C^ouncil, hi-ldy 
a|»prec!ating the eh<tste and elegant mannet*in Vv'hich this bust has been finished, 
congratulate the distinguished sculptor on the eminently successful completion 
of his work. 

Resolved, That his Honor the Mayor be requested t(t extend to Mr. Valen- 
tine an invitation to be jiresent as the guest of the city on the unveiling of the 
bust at the apjaoaching Centennial. 

Council then adjourned. W. W. SIMONS, 

Clerk of Council, 



PUJ^LIC OBSERVANCE OF THE DAY. 

" The public observance of the Centennial of Incorpora- 
tion of tlie City of Charleston took place on Monday, Atigust 
13th, 18S3. The day dawned clear and briglit, and vv'as 
ushered in b\' the chimes of St. Michael's asid a Centennial 
salute of one hundred guns, fired frons Marion Square, l>y 
the German Artillery, Captain F. W. Wagener, and the 
Lafayette Artillery, Eieutenant C. W. Stiles. The early 
morninfr trains brou<?"ht a larc:e number of vis'tors from the 



TJie Coitouiial of I)icor/>ora/iou. 3-1 

country, and the display ot buntino- was General on all the 
bitsinL'ss streets and aiiionc^r the shi|)])ing in the h<irl,)or. 

Idn's anniversary happening at tlic warmest season of the 
)'ear, and being entirely a civic occasion, it v/as deemed best 
not to have a military parade or out-door celebration during 
the lieat of the da3\ llie ceremonies were, therefore, ap- 
pointed at the Council Chamber, City Hall, on account of 
the proposed unveiling of pictures and statuary wliich were 
in future to adorn this apartment. The committee of arrange- 
ments, of wliich Alderman Dingle was the Chairman, ch'd 
all that ingenuity could suggest to utilize the capacity of 
the Chamber and the adjoining apartments to the best pos- 
sible advantage. The desks and alderrnanic chairs were all 
removed and several hundred chairs placed in all the avail- 
able spaces. 

By lialf-past four o'clock the guests of the occasion and 
the citizens general!}' beg;an to assemble, and b}' the hour 
fixed for opening the ceremonies the Cliamber, galleries and 
the I\Ia\'or's and Clerk-'s rooms were well filled. Every pre- 
caution had been talcen to secure perfect ventilation, and 
the pleasant South v/ind wdiich swept througli the rooms 
kept the air delightfully cool and pleasant during the pro- 
ceedings. 

Tlie officers of S>tate and other invited guests haviiig 
assembled in the Executive ofhce, at five o'clock IMayor 
Courtenay entered tlie Chamber escorting his Excellenc}^ 
Hugh S. Thonipson, Ciovernor of South Carolina.; Alder- 
man Thayer followed with Lieutenant-Governor John C. 
Sheppard ; Alderman Dingle with the Honorable James 
Simons, Speaker of the House; Alderman Rose wdth Rev. 
John Johnson, Rector of St. Philip's, as Chaplain of the 
day; Alderman Ufferhardt wdth the Sculptor, Valentine, of 
Virginia ; Alderman Barkley with the Artist, Stolle, of Dres- 
den — the first having executed the bust of [La}ne and the 
last the portrait of \Vm. Enston, the unveiling of which 
were included in the interesting programme of the after- 
noon. Then followed the other members of Couiicil with. 
the follovring guests: Attorney-General C. R. A'liles, ex- 



332 Mayor Couricnays Annual Review. 

Mayors P. C. Gaillard and G. I. CunniiKdiani, Ivecoidcr 
Pringle, General VA. IMcCrady, General C. I. Walker, Colo- 
nel W. L. Trciiholm, Senator G. L. Buist, Representatives 
C. J. C. riutson, a grandnephew of the first Intcndant, 
Charles Ingiesby, J. F. Brilton, John Gonzalez, M. V. Ken- 
nedy, ex-Alderman Bernard O'Neill, and many others, wlio 
occupied seats on the platform." 

Alderman William Thayer, acting- as iMayor for the occa- 
sion, opened the ceremonies by introducing the Chaplain 
of the day, the Rev. Jolin Johnson, Rector of St. IMiilip's ■ 

Parish, who offered the following impressive prayer: 

O Lord, our Heaven!}' Father, tlie hi,^h and ni'ua.ity ]\uier of llic Universe, % 

who dost from Thy throne behold all (\\c dwellers upon earth, we humbly be- I 

seech 'i'hee to h,ehoId with Thy favor this assembly of our people. Our elders % 

and our youth are gathered together to teli how our fathers came out from the | 

Old World into the New ; how they declared unto us the noble works that I 

Thou didst in their days, aiid in the old time before them. And, now, we j 

praise Thy Name, O Ciod, for thai upoii tbiis broad land, from ocean to ocean, J 

the Sun of Righteousne.-.-. hatli arisen with liealing in his wings, and the i>ure I 

oOeiing of a great peojile's v.-orshdp goeth uj) continually to be accepted in Thy | 

beloved Son. 1 

On tliis memorial day, <\o 7'hou, O Lord, drav/ nigh to us as we draw nigh | 

to Thee. Keaien)ber us in mercy, iiot in wrath, hide not Thy face from this % 

city for all the evil tiiat it hath done, but save our ])eople from the i-eproach of % 

sin. May it please Tliee heiiceforth to bless our rulers and magistrates, giving ^ 

them grace lo execute justice and to maintain truth. May it please Thee to \ 

give our citizens an heart to love and fear Thee, and diligently to live afier 1"hv ^^ 

commandments. ]')Ies>, our institutions of learning, charity and medical relief ; ;' 

raise up fiiends lo endow them, and make us al! rea !y to sustain thc:n. Pros- f.' 

per us now according to the days wherein Tlir)u hast alllicted us, and the years '..- 

wherein we have seen evil. ._^ 

I'inally, make us to reniemf)er that v^-hile Thou art the same, and Thy years v 
shall not fall, we are but sc<j(_)urners bicre upoii earth, as al! our fathers were, 
'i'hey ho[)ed in Thee, they trusletl in Thee, and Thou didst deliver tliem. T-e 
Thou with us, Ui Thou wast Vsitli tlieni, c:)ur Ruler and (hiide, through the pil- 
grimage of cartli to the re^t of Heaven; through, the wilderness of this world lo -.: 
the shining and Eternal City, who>e builder and maker is < lod. Grant these % 
our j>etitions, for the worthiness of Him Nvho ever liveth to make intercession 3.<- 
iox us, Thy Son, our Lord, jesus Christ. Amen. %■ 

Acting Ma}'or Tha}-er then said : "^■ 

Goitleifun of the City Couneil, Ladies and Gentlemen — W' e 
close to-day our first one hundred )x-a!s of corporate city 
life. In commemoration thereof tlici-e has been erected in 
our Council Chamber a beautiful mural tablet inscribed 
with the date of settlemt-nt, 1670, the date of incorporation 
1783, ar.d a roll of the Intendants and :\Ia}^ors who liave 
occupied tlie Executive office din'ing the centur\' just past. 



The CcH/eiiiiial of Incorporatio)i. 






It is a complete record; cvc;n tlio military i\Ta\'ors of i 86s, 
fur the truth of history, are inscribed thereon. 

7\nd not this alone. The long deferred oblip^.ition of a 
worthy memorial to our great townsman, Robert Y. llavne, 
is this day consummated in tlie imposing marble bust by 
Valentine, of Virginia, while the features of our great pub- 
lic benefactor, William Enston (preserved to us in an oil 
portrait of great merit by the artist Stolle), as also tljose of 
our city's first Intendant, lion. Richard Hutson (iii a i)or- 
trait hallowed b)' age), adorn our walls and grace the occa- 
sion, 'ihese works o\ sculptor and artist will now be un- 
veiled. Numismatic art also makes its beautiful offering in 
memorial bronze, udiicli will transmit to posterity the record 
of the event we this da)' celebrate. 

l^oesy, too, adds her tribute in the beautiful commemora- 
tive ode, wliich will be read in your hearing, from the grace- 
ful pen of our o\\ n townsman and poet, Paul H. Hayne, Esq., 
and our laborious and efficient i^Iayor will address you on 
the history of "The Old City by the Sea." 

I'his, in outline, fellow-citizens, is the programme for the 
celebration of our city's Centennial of Incorporation. 

To \'Our Excellenc)', the Chief Executive and the ci\'il 
and military officers of State, and other gentlemen re|)resent- 
ing the various departments in our city, the clergy, ladies 
and citizens who have honored us with their presence on this 
interesting occasion, in belialf of the City Council and our 
citizens I exteiid greeting and bid you welcome. 

Just as these words were pronounced, the veils which hid 
from view the memorial tal)let, the portraits of Enston and 
Ilutson, and the bust of Ha}Mie, by the sculptor Valentine, 
were deftl}' removed, an.d as these beautiful work's of art 
were disclosed to view a burst of applause gave evi(Jence of 
tlie admiration of the audience. • 

THE MURAL TAP. LET. 

This tablet occupies a position in the North wall of the 
Council Chamber, and is the work of Mr. T. H. Re)'nolds, 
the marble-worker of this cit}'. The tablet is a handsome 
piece of work, of pure white marble. At the top, upon a 



334 



Mayor Coiirtcmiys Ainiudl Rci'iriv. 



raised scroll, a|)p('ar in lmU letters the words: " ( j'ly cf 
Charleston. Foinided 1670 — lnct)rj)orated 178 "5." ])ciieath 
tlje scrol! api)ears the folh^winf; i-oll of the InU:iulants ami 
Mayors of the cit)' frop.i the date of its incoiporation ^\^)\\■\^ 
to the present day : ■ 



1836— RoiJi'-RT Y. LlAVxr:. 

1837-11. ].. PiXCKXKV. 

1 840-- J ACQ H F. i\[ I NT/ 1 xr;. 
1 842-- J 01 1 X Sc 1 1 X [i-;r (j:. 
1 846 -T . L . 1 1 u 'it: 1 1 1 X so x . 
1 8 so- -J 01 1 X Sc II xiK RiJ :. 
1S52— T. L. HuTciJixsox. 
1855— -W. I'ORciiKR Milks. 
1857— CiiAR]j-:s Maciikth. 
1865— P. C. Gairlard. 

Military Ajjpoinliaoiits. 

/ Gen. W. W. Rprns. U. S. A. 
\ Feb'y Qtli — Marcli "lii. 
Col. M. Co(.s\vj-.!j., U. S. A. 
ARirch yih— July (A\\. 

G. \V. Cl.AUK, 

July 6tli — Xov. lotli. 



i7^^3- 


-RlCHARD IIUTSOX. 


1785- 


-A. YAxr)p:RHORST. 


178G- 


-J. F. Grimkk. 


1788- 


- R A \\ R I X s F ( )^^■ x d e s . 


1791- 


"A. Vaxderhorst, 


1792- 


-JOILX riUGl-R. 


1/94- 


-jGliX B. lloRMES. 


1795-^ 


-J Of EX Edwards.' 


1/97- 


-IF W. DeSaessure 


1799- 


-4^1 [OS. 1voi'i:r. 


1 80 1 - 


-Jonx Ward. 


KS02- 


-Da\'ed FJeas. 


1803- 


-Jonx Draytox. 


1 804- 


-Te[os. Wixs'j axeev. 


1805- 


-Chas. H. Cocitrax. 


1806- 


-Jonx ])awsox, J]^. 


180S-- 


-WnjJAM Rouse. 


18 10- 


-Tho>e\s McCaeea. 


1812^ 


-TnOS. ]'»EXXETT. 


1814- 


-l^nos. Rdett S^nTn 


1815- 


-Ellas Horry. 


1818- 


-J (MIX Geddes. 


1<S20- 


"D. Stevexs. 


I82T- 


-Eetas Horry. 


T822 - 


-J A^n:s FFa ai 1 etc )X, J r 


1824- 


-Jonx Geddes. 


1825- 


-Samuel Prioleau. 


1826- 


-JosERii Jonxsox. 


1827- 


-Jonx Gadsden. 


1830- 


-James R. Prixgee. 


I831" 


-\\. F. PiXCKXEY. 


1833- 


-E. W. NoRxn. 



1868 



1 868— Gilbert Piesrury. 
1 87 1— Jonx A. Wagexer. 

1873— G. F CUXXIXGIIAM. 

1877— W. W. Sale. 

1879--AVM. A. COURTENAV 



1 he CcnlcJinia! of Incorporation. 335 

TilE ]^>UST OF lIAVNi:. 

The chaste and bea'itifu] bust of Ivobert Y. I]a)'ne, the 
first l\fa-)'ur ctf Cliarleston, was placed to the- right of the 
stand on a teniponir)- pedestah It was executed hy the 
sculptor Valentine, of Richmond, Va,, for tlie (Jit)- Cx)unci!, 
and was made from a sniall engraving. The bust \> shglitiy 
above h"fc -size, and tlie work is finished v.ith excjuisite taste. 
The neck and cliest are covered with classic drai)ery, and 
the artist has written the charactei' of the man in the face. 
Tlie liead is turned slightly to tlie left and the {)oise of the 
hea.d and the cast of the features give the aj)pearance of 
one whose attention lias just been attracted. There is in 
the turn o{ the head and neck that fine, noble bearing, and 
in the face that force o\ expression, softened b\' the gentle, 
genia.l smile so characteristic of tlie man. The full force of 
his broad, noble, brow and full mouth are strikingl}' deline- 
ated. 

The pedestal u[Jon which the bust rests has been elabo- 
rately carved b)' Mr. Reynolds, k:){ King Street, and bears 
this inscription : 

ROP.ERT Y, IIAYNE, 

Speaker of liic House; AlLoriicy-Geiicial ; United States Scnritor ; 

Governor of South Caroliau ; First Mayor of Cl);u]e3ton. 

His last public service was Ills effort to oj^cn direct Railroad couinuuiication 

with the vast interior of our Continent. 

"Next to the Christian, relii^iou I know of nothing to be compared witli tlie 
inlluence of a free, social and commercial intercourse, in softening asperities, 
removing prejudices, extending knowledge, and promoting human happiness.'' — 
JIayne. 

Born November 10, 1791— r)icd September 25, 1S39. 



This completed memorial is conceded by all to be one of 
the niost elegant in the Union, and reflects great honor on 
the present City Council wdio, after the lapse of forty-four 
years, have so handsomely redeemed the pledges of a pre- 
vious Qencration. 



33^ llhiyor Conrtoiays Annual Rcviciv. \ 

Lines upon tJiL Unveiling of the Ihist of Gen. Robert Y. llayne, \ 

in. the City Heill of Charleston, S. C, ijth August, rSSj ; :'■ 

written by Paul 11, llayne, and read by Mlddletoii \ 

Miehel, AL D. % 

J. 

Bcliold thi> grave, bold, knii^htly head, so faaced by power and sweetness, — 

A e(_)tdial dome of thought and will, ciii-ved to a calm coinidetene-.s ; 

With mouth pure-lipped, cleai-elefted ehiii, and brow exalted, regal, 

And hciglitening all, that air which girds the asidring Alpine Eagle ! --'.' 

II. ;, 

Knightly ! — liis faith was Sydney's own, — as soilless, reverent, lo)-aI ; 

Few of earth's Kir.gs have owned as crown, a soul so largely r;>yal ; '•_ 

Vet iouic durst call our (kdahad false ! Ah Christ ! what magic leaven 'G; 

Could sweeten tJiat foul charge before the unbribed Courts of Heaven? $. 

III. ^ 

False ! Traitor I On the watch-tower's height lie stood serene, unouailinrr, — % 

Wlieu many a slanderer's lip was hushed and coward's face v.-as paling ;. ~\ 
Nor deigned to lower his golden helm, his torch of fiery warning, 

Until th.e stormy niglir waves ebbed beyon^d tlie reefs of Morning ! |- 

% 

Fal.-^e ! Traitor! On so\ue future day — victorious and gigantic, 1 

The Demon of his dread'-'- inay stalk along the waste Atlan.tic, ,^ 

Or, sneer beside Pacific tides, to view the wise oblation % 

Wiiich throttled State by State to gorge your 'J'itan, styled — 'inK Nation ! i 

^'- . 1 

Meanwhile, udth reverent love we gaze on this, his sculptured piesence, S 
Whose soul so long I'ath l)ieat!ied above our niortal evanescence ; 
lli^ life-web brightly v.oveu within Fame's tapestry of wonder, 
What Tower can dim the splendid warp or rend the woof asunder ? 

THE ENSTON PORTRAIT. ., 

I 

On the right of the Centennial Tablet was placed the I 

portrait of the late William Enston, by Stolle, artist of I 

Dresden, Germany. The portrait is a life-like likeness of | 

Mr. Enston, and represents him sitting in a chair attired in f 

a dark black coat with white vest, high standing collar and | 

black stock. The portrait is framed in a heav)- and hand- | 

some gilt frarne, and takes the place in the Cotmcil Cham- | 



*Consolidatior^. ! Centralism ! 



TJie CoitoDiial of Incorporation. 337 

her of an inferior portrait, wliicli is still preserved, liowcvcr, 
in the treasury department. 

On the left of the tablet was displayed tlu; portrait of 
tlie ]Ir)n. Ricliard IIut^o^i. the hrst Intendant of Charles 
Town, V. liich was kindly loaned for the occasion by a lady 
of Orangeburg, in the possession of whose family the por- 
trait has been for nearl}^ a hundred years. Jt is in a re- 
nuirkabl)' fine state of preservation, and said to be a capital 
likeness of the original. 

A GRATIFYING SURPRISE. 

Alderman Thayer having paused for a few moments, 
while the audience inspected the worlvs of art which had 
just been unveiled, continued his remarks as follows : 1 have 
been charged with a pleasant duty, and I ask your indul- 
gence while I read the following letter, which indicates more 
fully and better than words of mine, the dut)^ so enjoined : 

s 

25 Lynch Strf.et, August 13th, 1S33. 

GoitlePien of tke Cily Ccuncil — At the opening of the pre.-^ent year it occurred 
to me that some token of acknowledguieiU, liowcver inadequate, v.as due f.-om 
ine for the generous su})po! t, tiie C(jnitaat and cheerful co-operation, ^vhich I 
liave received, not only from you, but from all classes of the community, in the 
efforts I liave made to improve the condition of our city, and which have been 
continued up to this time. 

In thanking you, Messrs. Aldermen, and through you the whole body of my 
fellow-citi/ens for their confidence and good-^v•iil, I have felt tliat I could not 
more appropriately mark njy gratitude than l)y aslcing your acceptance, in be- 
half of the city, of a work of art which, while adding to the attractions of this 
beautiful Council Chamber, vvill preserve to posterity the features of a loved 
citi/en, and keep in perpetual remembrance the grand charactcri-^tic^ of his 
noble life. It has been said, and with trulh, that when heroism in moral or 
physical things is to be commemorated, the real thing celebrated is not the 
thing accomplished, but the effort to accomplish it. Success can always dis- 
pense with praiiC, but earnestness and fortitude, even to self-sacrifice, are the 
betkr subjects for contemplation, if we are to derive profitable lessons from the 
memories of the pa.^t. 

In choosing my subject I have selected a citizen of such placid endurance, 
undaunted tra.^t in the rightudness of his opinions, such nobility and indepen- 
dence (.>f character, that unselfish devotion, all through his long life, was like 
the steady and constant flame of patriotism ^\hich the ancients used to keep, as 
a symbol, o\\ their altars. In January last I sent a commission to Mr. Ilarnisch, 

43 



33S ' Mayo?' CourliJiays Annual Ri'viczv. 

the scu1j)toi, at Koine, for a inarlilr \)uA, in tl\c; cKi.sbic style, of [.mie.-. Louis 

TctiiM-u, lliat o!i l!ie au'^piciou-^ occasion, when wc v\'ould c:oinnieinoialc the 

Centennial of (jur civic life, we u-ii_t;ht al .(,i filly mark and connnenioratc one of 

the loftiest example^ an'l liii;hest types of civic life and duty and foilitvide 

within that c)cle. No words can bettcf paint thi-, liiL,di, brave soul, in his }^re.it 

fortitude, than tliose of his just, generous eulogists, uttered when tlie roar of ] 

cannon on the very issue of difference was still breaking on this beleaguered « 

city. \ 

Said i^avid Ramsey, at the iSar Memorial Meeting, in March, 1S63; " From > 

the date of man, through all liistory, interwoven with the very thread ciftime, \ 

is an eternal riglu. Seldom does it fall to a purely kgal activity to vindicate _,i 

essential principle ; iiut that which, is placed upon this height, wliatever else i 

the waters of oblivion may overwhelm, is far above their surge. Idle greatest ': 

jurist of tlie past, whf.> linked his name with th.e greatest Code in human law, j 

had in his remote age to clioose between righ.t and life, lie sealed his testa- I 

ment with Idood, preferring the v.-rath of Caracalla to the accusation of inno- j 

cence ; and long as remaiiiS language, v,-ill vibrate through its various channels j 

the dying jurist's undying answer : 'QitiC facta liJinii pictatcin cxistimatioyicin, | 

verc-i-undiam, ei, ut •iicUcraliter dixcritu, contra honos niores /hint, ncc nos facerc \ 

posst lycdoidiim' James Louis I'etigru laid 'an ofiering of age upon the altar ;• 

of Justice,' as uni|ucnchable lustre. | 

" When the Sequestration Act required the confidence of clients to be be- | 

trayed, the trusts of imbecile age, incapable infancy, irresponsible lunacy, the 5 

defence of v/itlows and hopeless women, the ties of nearest kindred and sacreil » 

gratitude, all to be abandoned, his v/as the voice that gave denial to the delator's | 

search. His last efiorl was truly the coronation of his work. Who can forget \ 

his voice, so long el':'quent for others, tlien pleading for him^^clf as to the qucs- \ 

tion why ho made refusal, as he answered with a despairing accent, 'Because I » 

ivas free born' " :; 

* , . I 

(Alderman Thayer paused a moment wliild' Governor Thompson, of Soutli j 

Carolina, at I he request of the donor, unveiled the bust.] : 

The sculptor'.-, worl- is before you. As out oi this j^ure vv'hite marble, as if it j 

had been buried wilhan it — at the bidding of the artist, and under his creative 1 

inspiration, has come foith ihe cheery face and commanding brow of otii' great • 

fellow-cilizen, so may those who govern here, and all his peo{)1e, kindled by the 1 

associations of hi^ memory ami by the insj)iralion of alfection and reverence, | 

make this enduring marble syml^olize high thought and true feeling, and conse- | 

crate for themselves forever here the abiding truth that the life that is loyal to '\ 

the i)r>:)n"iptirigs of conscience and duty outlasts the fickleness of pjublic opinion, ■ 

the violence of revolution and the slow decay of time. 1 

Very respectfully, 

, WAL A. COURTENAY. 

THE BUST OF J'ETIGRU. 

AH eyes were turned in the direction of this new work of 
art, the presentation oi which, to every one present, was a 



IIlc Centennial of Ineurporatioii. 



339 



complete surprise. The bust is of licroic size auil massively 
executed in the clrissic style. Those who knew Mr. l^etigru 
well, say tliat the likeness is a good one, and even to those 
who have only seen his portraits the likeness is strongl}' aj)- 
parent. I1ic long- hair falling nearly down to the shoulders 
and partly covering the brow, the peculiarly shaped eyes, 
tlie massive, full mouth and large broad nose, are all charac- 
teristically portrayed. At thci. proper elevation the bu^t will 
appear to even, better advantage than in its present tcmpo- 
rar)' position, and it v/ill ahva)'s be a work- of art which will 
arrest attention and strike the observer at a glance as worthy 
of' close study. Mr. Harnisch, the artist who executed this 
bust, is a young American residing in Rome, where he is 
fast acquiring a reputation, and has been for some time at 
work on the bronze statue of Senator Calhoun for the La- 
dies' iMoMumental Association, soon to be erected on the 
Calhoun Street front of Marion Square in this cit}^ 

CENTENNIAL ODE. 

Alderman Thayer next introduced IMiddleton Michel, 
M. D., who had becii requested by the committee to read 
the Centennial Ode contributed by Paid H.Mayne, "the 
poet-son of Charleston." This agreeable dut}' was dis- 
charged in a very graceful and effective manner. 

Poem upon the One HnndredtJi Anniversary of tJte Incorpora- 
tion, of tJie City of CJiarleston^ S. C. 

L 

Pallid, yet proud she stood that day, half sad, half joyous hearted, 
As one who hears far-off the roar of tluuider-clouds departetl ; — 
The war-bolt on her brow liad left searrcd furr(nvs, hot and gory ;■— 
r>ut lo ! her calm exultant smile ! — her dark eyes flushed w\V\\ ghuy ! 



II. 

She saw the Iniids of lierocs weave her crown of eivic honor- 
She felt the I'.and.- of ]iatiiots place that ]iriecless crown updh hei 
ill her veins were tilled with fire of strong and sweet cmnu 



An 

Ah ! best beloved of loval souls 



ah ! stainless Maid uf ocean ' 



340 Mayor Court cnnys Annual Rcvicuf. 

\ 

Since then an luuiclicd yeai>. liave told tlu-ir story har.^li, or tcii'lcr. I 

Our Maid hath ripened to a Queen on liei-hts of k^fiiei si.l.jiuUjr ; \ 
Heights lield tJirough steel, and hrc-.and li!...xl, till all m,-;, hai!-.] wiili wonder 
Tliis new Athene, throned above the bolt, tlie llame, the thunder ! 

Three wars have raged about her liome, and writhed their waves of slaughter, — ; 

But still serejie in tljouglit, as niiea, oin- Jove's uncon*jucred dauglUer, ^ \ 
Each dark death mound hath formed a round whereon her luill was [)lauted ; — 
And up the mouutaiu-wall of fame her Ibm feet rose enchanted ! 

i 

And what if power too strong to foil, with all her sheer endeavor, , \ 

Once hurled her from her "vantage coign " aiKl seemed to hurl forever ; — j 

She nerved her torn and liaftled limbs, and in her heart urivoarnin<^ ' i 

God kept the crystal kamp of Faith divinely briglit and })urinng ! ■ j 

! 

VI. 

Tlsongh ruffian luiftets smote her cheek, and liell was round her ringing, ' 
Above, a hymn of rescue senied to pour i:s//v.fc7V7// ringing; 

She saw beyond tlie hail of hate, the rage, and bitter scorning, ; 

A rose-bud Hope, v.iiose petals fold the perfect Rose of rviorning ! \ 

vn. ; 

Then luslied a Hero to her side ! one of earth's stateliest scions, — : 
His aim an eagle's aim. his Jieart a l)old Numidian lion's ; 

He pealed a bugle note so loud, it shook the sca-!)orn fountain.^, ; 

And sowed its fruitful echoes kar, 'mid the deep-clefted mountains ! ;■ 

vni. " 'l 

We know the issue \ rdl unsmirclied, with passionate gi'atulation, i 

She rose, she towered ! {ox luho could touch //tr soul with degradation, '^ 

The cruel fire that singed her robe died out in rainbow-tki->hes, i 

And bright her silvery sandals shone abo\-e the hissing ashes ;- — • j 

IX. ; 

But now the times of blood are pass<;;d ! put by the vir,ion dreary ! ; 

Away with hate and scorn and strife ! hush, hush your inisetere ! ' 

Your sea-winds blow their clarions clear across the restless spaces, J 
And every sea-wave liurls a hint o{ aelion in your faces ! 

X. -' 
Away ! away, lioth night au'l day, v.^ith thoughts by grief '■)'er freighted ; — 
Have yc not !)orne and toiled and bled? have ye not prayed and waited? 
A gcdden Day lias dawned at last ! a morti of cknidless vision ; 
Up gallant Heai ts ! and cro\\'n the dieam w ith full and fair fruition ! 



The Ciiitoinial of Incorporation. 



341 



XI. 

Uj) i;-a11aiU Hearts! your LoikIct';, here! no ^uiide tluat cniideih Min.lly— 
(Mcthinks our J.ady's softeniiig eye< re>t on him sueclly, kinrlly)— 
V'oui civic chief .so firmly wed to harsh aiul riiL^gcd Duty. 
1 vow his kiss hath nlipost flushed her liuinely face to beaut)' ! 

XII. 

"S'our civic chief is here to lead ! who, 7ijJio will blithely follow? 
l)e sure ye shall not find tlic path beneath your footsteps hollow ; — 
This man, I deem, wi>nld gladly fall in Labor's armor breatliless, — 
If deeds, or death of his could make his cif)'s glory deathless ! 

XIII. 

O, City of my Fathers' love ! beside whose streamlets straying, 

My boyish feet, to jocund tunes, liave gone so oft " a-MnyiiibT," 

O, City of ancestral gravc> ! — each clod a Sacred treasure, — 

What marvel that one mournful chord vs'ails through tliis dying measure? 

XIV. 

The sea-songs come, the sea-songs go across thiiie ocean reaches, 
The sea-tides ebb, the sea-tides fiovr far up tliy glittering beaches \ 
Not mine to draw a ne\s-]v.ii-]i Iiope from waves so brightly glowing, 
X'ot mine to hear in dcejiening winds a trump of onset blowiiig ! 

XV. 

Ah no ! ah no ! across the ^o^'.■, half welcome, h.alf appalling, 

1 catch the voices of tliC dead froai twilight-verges calling;— 

The shadows grow more gray that shroud this strange, outwru-n existence ; 

And still tiiose yearning voices call from out the sea-bound distance! 

XVI. 

Quaint City of my youth, farewell ! no more these eyes may qui\'er, ' 
Da/ed by the glint of surf and sail on flickering bar or river, 
Nomore these weary limbs ma}' own the soul\ impeiious order, 
To bear mc where the sun-caps flash beyond thy billowy l)order ! 



XVII. 

r.ravc City of my youth, farewell ! Wlien safe from midday riot 

Kissed \)y the slumberous star that sways her lotus-land of (|uiet, 

I still shall see th.ro' half-clo^ed lid.,, tliy nioonlight beauty beaming, 

And hear St. Michael's mellowed, bells swoon down tlie tides of dreaming! 



342 



Mayor Court oiay s Aujiuai Rci'ieio. 



THE CENTENNIAL OE CI E'\ K EI- STON 
AND EETIGRU. 



HAYNl 



" A lun!dr(,^d years ago Cliarlcston was already a century 
old, but she then first acquired corporate existence and be- 
came the senior city of the United States. On Monday the 
Centennial of this event was appropriately celebrated, and 
our columns this morning arc full of the ceremonies of the 
day and the brilliant pagcaiit of the moonlit night. 

The address of Mayor Courtenay is a treasurs' of noble 
records and of suggestions pregnant with hope and promise 
for the future, a work of intellect arid industry in every \va\- 
worthy of the da}% the theme and the incomparable admin- 
istration of which he has been for four years the head and 
moving spirit. 

The occasion was further signalized by the unveiling of a 
bust of the Hon. Robert Y. lla}me, which the City Council 
has erected, to its own honor and to the adornment of its 
new hall. The tribute of remembraiice and gratitude thus 
rendered to the illustrious Carolinian by a generation to 
whom his name is only a tradition, but wdio are inheritors 
of his fame, is also an act of homage to the virtues and 
services of a long line of civic magistrates. Of these MaN'ue 
was most eminent, not only in being the first to u'car the 
title of Ma\'or, but also in having bi'ought to the municipal 
chair the trophies of the Senate Chamber and the highest 
honors of the Commonwealth. He had served the State as 
soldier, orator, statesman and Chief Executive during a 
period of unexampled trial, and in 1833 he filled the public 
eye as a character of heroic proportions; yet such was the 
genuineness of his patriotism, so pure was his singleness of 
purpose, that he assumed the n^iodest functions of Mayor at 
the call of Charleston, and spent in the effort to enlarge her 
commerce and extend her influence all the riches of his ex- 
perience and all tliC resources of his untiring energy, h^rom 
the Mayoralty he passed, with the same high ainis and pur- 
poses, to the helm of the then newly launched scheme of 



1 he Coitcniiud of Incorporaiion. \\^^ 

railroad extension to tlie West, and fell a.t liis post, a niartv-r 
to tlie service of his State and of Charleston. 

It was but an incident in tlie brilliant career of llayne 
that he was A tt' )rney-General of the State; but it was an 
epoch in the laborious life of Petigru, two years Mayne's 
senior, to succeed him in that honorable office, when lla\'ne 
was Ccdled to a hiL;her held of activit)'. 

The iMa)-or, under an inspiration of re\'erent appreciation 
that does liim the higdiest honor, has presented to the ctt)' 
a bust of the Hon. Jaincs L. I'ctigru, and the unveiling- of 
tiiat was also part of the proceedings in the Council Cham- 
ber yesterday afternoon. It is remarkable that these two 
men should ha\'e been thus associated in public remem- 
brance just half a centur\' after the great contest in which 
tluw' stood confronted as opposing cldcfs in the fiercest 
political strife ever known in the history of South Carolina, 
'idle passionless marble wliich recalls their features indicates 
the spirit in wliich we should revi\-e the st()ry of the conflict 
into which they v/ere plunged when life was hottest in 
their veins amd the forces of conviction m'spelled the.m with 
ecpial eneigy to contrar\- conclusions. Champions of the 
unlik-e sides of a still ambiguous shield, who shall sa)' now 
that either was wrong? Alike in vigor of mind, in tKlelity 
to principle, in force of character, lla)-ne and Petigru were 
in strong contrast in reL'ition to all other things. Ha)n^c 
had begun life on a higli plane, a.nd was a conspicuous char- 
act(n- before he attained his majority. He came to the great 
struggle in 1832 fluslied with, triumph on every field of per- 
sonal and political achievement, tlie pride of a cultivated 
and fastidious society, the idol of the people, glittering with 
a renown that shone over the whole Union, arraj^ed in 
gubernatorial dignity and wielding the force of a united and 
enthusiastic people. 

Over against tins imposing figure, barring its imperious 
way, stood Petigru, without fame, fortune, influence or ma- 
terial force, armed only with uncompromising dissent and 
equipped with nothing but the innj)assioned eloquence of 
earnest dissuasion. The end is written in the memories of 



344 Mayor Court cnnys Annual Review. 

his friends and foes, and its pathos is still frtsli after fifty 
years. Defeated and ostracised, • lie resuniiMJ with patient 
lcd3or tlie practice of a profession whicli called him (^fteii 
without reward, to be tlie shield of the defenceless and a 
refuge for the weak, but opened to liiin no avenue to fortune 
or distinction, ^^et when the storm was o\-er, Petii^ru and 

Ilayne, vanquished and victor, united with equal and most | 

rare magnanimity to calm the pp.ssions it had lashed to fur\', ] 

and to mend the friendships which had been shattered by '\ 

its violence. | 

It is well for us that their effigies shall henceforth stand ! 

forever side by side, in enduring marble, to remind us that j 

they both belong to us, that it is j^ecidiarly oui' privilege to 1 

reverence their memories, to learn by their example and to j 

emulate their characters. Our children will thus ever pos- j 

sess the highest types of contrasted greatness as models for I 

their conduct, whether it be in success or failu)-e, in glory or ] 

obscurit}', in fortune or in poverty.' If our youth ma)' light j 

at Mayne's shrine the torch of exalted ambition, they may | 

also learn at Tetigru's how even defeat may be ennobled by 1 

tenacity of principle in the scorn of consequence." — TJic \ 

News cDid Courier, August i\/, iSSj. 1 



EVENING EXldlJ^lTION— THE PYROTECHNICS-" A 
VAST MULTITUDE AND A GRAND DISPLAY. 

" So far as the general public was concerned, es])ecially the 

youthful portion of the public, the display of hreworks \ 

which was announced to close the day was the inain and all- \ 

important feature of the celebration. People who had | 
boats beijan to haul them to the Take early in the afternoon, 

and by $ o'clock the rippling bosom of th:it now beautiful \ 

sheet of water w^as covered with a fleet of over a hundred j 

boats of all descriptions — skiffs, }'awls, gigs, punts, bateaux, j 

canoes, outriggers and Whitehalls. Almost every boat had \ 

a pole rigged up in stem and stern with lines stretched | 



1726897 



Tilt Centennial of Ineorponition. 345 [ 

across for han^i]]^^ lanterns, and clurini,^ the aflcrnoon many 
of tlicm were 'jailv decorated with flaes. 

The wcatlicr was deliglitful, and tlie small boy was out 
in force loni^ before 5 o'clock watching tlie preparations 
with the most intense and eager interest. Two enterprising 
Greek merchants had caught an inspiration and transported 
their peanut and soda water stand bodily to the scene. 
They will retire from business bloated bondholders. 7\t 6 
o'clock the small boys had fringed the three sides of the 
concrete wall oi the Lake, and thousands more of them 
were lolling around the Lake sporting on the grass. 

As early as 7 o'clock the crowd of grown persons began 
to get undv;rwa)- for the Lake. They came in groups of 
three, lour, five and more, many groups consisting of papa, 
mamma and all the children. The only available line of 
railway was tlie Rutledge Street line, and for three hours 
before tlie time appointed for the commenccmeiit of the 
display the cars were taxed to their utmost capacity to 
transport the crowd. Many people brought camp stools 
with them, and those who didn't have camp stools brouglit 
chairs. At fifteen minutes past 7 o'clock, an hour and a 
cpjarter before the time announced for the opening, there 
v;ere five thousand persons at the Lake, and every street 
leacling to it was thronged vvitli people wending their way 
thitherward. 

The seats put up and railed in by Von Santen, 600 in 
number, were filled an hour before the show began. People 
came on foot and on horseback and in vehicles, and as the 
darkness increased the crowd increased and swelled and 
swelled until when the little boats on the Lake began to 
light up their lanterns and the lights in the windows of tlie 
surrounding houses began to twinkle in the deepening 
shades there u-ere not less than 15,000 persons on the 
grounds. The three sides of the Lake were densely packed 
with people of every sliade of color, sex and condition of 
life, while the roadways were ecpially crowded with vehicles 
of every description loaded v.'ith people. The windows and 
piazzas in the vicinity were also crowded. The invited 
44 



TftBasv.i: 



34^ . Mayor Courtcuays Aiuiual Rcvic\v. 

guests orthc city were [>iovidcel with scats in the enclosure 
and had a hne view of the disp]a}^ 

As darkness came on tlie fleet of boats on the Lake 
began to light up their Chinese lanterns and occasionally t(; 
give an amateur display of fireworks in the shape of various 
colored Bengal lights. Now^ and then a lantern would take 
fire and the event woudd be hailed with clieers from the 
bo)'s on shore. Then the band began to play, and as the 
strains were wafted across the water to the boys in the boats 
they would cease rowing and keep time to the music b}- 
clapping their hands very much after tlie fashion of bo}'s at 
a liiatinee. And so the crowd waited patiently and good 
humorcdly for the hour u'hieh came at last. K\. precisel)" 
half-past 8 o'clock tlie first *' detonating mortar" was fired, 
and the 15,000 people at length settled themselves down to 
the business of the evening, which commenced soon after. 

thp: fireworks begin. 

If we except a few ordinary rockets sent up by some 
impatient ones from the boats on the lake the hrst display 
of any consecjuence was a striped and fiery balloon whieti 
rose majestically and floated off toward the North, followed 
by thousands of eyes, as it changed from striped to red, 
then white, and exploded, letting fall a shower of brilliant 
sparks, and continu.ed floating, floating, ever higher and 
higlier, till the feelings of the spectators were aptly ex- 
pressed by a little darkey, who called out, " Deh, now! he 
done tu'n into a star!" Another balloon of equal splendor 
followed, changing as it rose, from red to green, from green 
to white. Large colored rockets arose, exploding and falling 
to earth in the form of what the programme calls " peacock's 
plumes," "silver streamers," '^ golden clouds," "eagle's 
claws," and a great many other romantic things, but which, 
in reality, looked like a huge chandelier, depended from mid- 
heaven, or lilce an aerial fountain of fire. On the bosom of 
the I>ake clianging fires burned and glowed, lighting up the 
watery depths, the fairy-like boats, and the immense throng 



Jlic CcntciDiial of Incorporation. 34;;' 

of luimanfty packed in masses along the three sides of tlu: 
Lake, witli sliccts of flame blue, crimson and o-oldcn. Tlien 
to the extreme delight of the small boys, manifested in their 
squeals and hoots of ecstacy, fiery porpoises began to leaj) 
and plunge and disport themselves with unexpected pla\'- 
fulness in the water. They leaped, they darted along the 
surface of the Lake; they dove, they circled over and over 
tlirough the air, and fmally sought a watery graver The 
first set piece was " The Sunburst," quite successful, yet we 
doubt whether even the most appreciative knev/ exactly the 
terms in which to describe what they saw. The uninitiated, 
and especialh' the childish mind, merely gathered a genera! 
impression of indescribable magnificence, and knew not that 
the whirling fires were " rayonet fires, marooned." Indeed 
it v/as quite impossible to follow out the programme or to 
guess wliich were the '' salvos of aeriak saucissons," &c., but 
nevertlicless to the mind unsurfeited by spectacles the scene 
was one of rare beauty and richness. One of the m.ost suc- 
cessful of the set pieces was " The Peruvian Glory," which 
whirled, and spun, in dazzling perfection, without, a wheel 
of silver, encircling a smaller star of gold, which held within 
its centre a tiny brilliant wheel, wliich spun on in determined 
fashion when the other portior.s of the splendid fabric hao 
fallen avv-ay in fragmentary glory. The moon, meanwhile, 
was no unnoticed participant in all this beauty, seeming to 
veil her splendor while each exhibition went on and then 
shining forth serenel_v to fill up the gaps between the more 
exciting because less familiar performances. The " Casket 
of Jewels" shov/ed an arrangement of what \\^ell may be 
called '* gem>s " against tlie dusl:y sky, and the showers of 
sparkling spray added to the v\'onderful spectacle. The 
fun grew fast and furious as fiery serpents frolicked througli 
the sky and then fell curving into tlie Lake, and fiery 
globules of every hue flew hither and thither througli the air. 
The " Jewelled Cross of ]\Lilta " was really perfect, stand- 
ing in compact brillianc}' while a rain of gold and silver fell 
before it. Listead of growing weary of such length)- ad- 
miration the crowd manifested Its pleasure arid delight by 



34S Mayor Court ciiay s Aunual Rnuczu. 

ecslatic thouL^li low-t()iu\l inurnuirs, wbicli cnc^v loiulc:r and 
more gleeful with cacli successive display, till they culminated 
in a sort of wild roar of dcligiit over the '• (di.irlcs Town, 
1670," which ar)peared worked in jewelled letters a,^aiiist 
the dusk)' setting of the skies. This nnide the spectators 
hungry for more set pieces, and they hardly looked at the 
"display of bombshells in great variety" whicli intervened 
between tliis and the " Fort Moultrie, June 2<S, 1776." - 

Again the sky was lighted up by meteoric rockets of 
every luie, and the waters illumined by changing fires. 
And finally the climax to all this magnificence was reached 
when there appeared against the sky " Charleston City " in 
letters of llame, fianked by the dates 1783 and ]<S83, u'ith, 
two monuments or pillars 'of diamonds, vvith gushing foun- 
tains on either side. This w^as virtually the closing, for 
evcr)-body made for home, seeing the "Gigantic aerial 
bouquet" only over their shoulders; but every one was 
loud in adn^iiration and praise of the grand success of the 
evening's entertainment and their own special cnjo\'men.t. 

When the last Roman candle had sent up its last fiery 
ball and darkness once more pervaded the Lynch Sti'cet side 
of the Lake the crowd began to disperse. Notw^itlistanding 
the numerous avenues of exit in all directions, locomotion 
in any of the sti'eets was very slow. In Inroad Street the 
pedestrians occupied the entire width of the street, sidewalk 
as well as carriage way, and not until the crowd reached 
Logan Street had it sufficiently thinned out to- render the 
side\\'alks sufficient for the purposes of locomotion. 

THE ELECTRIC DISPLAY. 

The Electric Light Company celebrated tlie Centennial 
by a brilliant illumination of King Street from F»road Street 
to Calhoun Street. For sometime past the company has 
been at work adjusting lamps at the intei-section of the 
streets along the route nanied, and last evening the lamps 
were lighted and King Street wns as brig:ht as da)-. Al- 
though many of the lights were a square apart the in- 



The CcuiciDiial of Incorporation. 349 '^'i^r^ 

tcrmediatc spaces were brightly illuniiiiatecl and the cficct 
oavc a fair idea of the comfort whicli pedestrians will enjoy 
when the [)ub]ic thoroughfares of the city are lighted with 
electric lights. 

AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION. 

During the afternoon the Board of Firemasters seirt a 
steam engine to Lynch Street to wet down the shavings 
and other combustible material in the yards of the saw and 
lumber mills in the vicinity. The engine was kept on duty 
until II P. M. in order to guard against even the remote 
contingenc)^ of an accident." 



Tht CciitiiULial of Incorporation, y-^\ 



TUB CENTENNIAL ADDKl'SS. 



? R E I' A C E . 

The pro});n;>t ioj) of au Addiess to be delivered on tlx'One iruifdicHlh Au- 
niven^nry of tlie iucorponitiou of the City of Cluiilcstoti, ]:>l,b of Aiiiiust, 
188l>, was uiideitakeu. at slioil Dolice, with a desire lo use tlie occasiou in 
directing pul)lic att'cutiou to the need of a connected and complete history 
of the city Ironi tbe time of'its .settlemmt. Tiie leisure which I could com- 
mand, in tbe JVuc ol \\i\ ))uVilic and commercial engjigements, was m cest-a- 
rily limit*-d, and I speedily realized that- I could not tiope to do more than 
]))es'-nt in the Address a few of the many interesting inutters conuecled with 
Charlesiou's fouudatiou, rise a.ud progress. The iuij)ressions derived from 
desultory reading during a number of yeais were continued b.y the closer 
examination vvbieh was undertaken for the purposes of ibe Centennial Ad- 
dress, and I risk nothing in .'<aying that, in The history of the people who 
lived and live within the territory that may be seen fiom the Imlfry of Si. 
MiehaeVs Church, there is materia! for as interesting a chapter as can be 
(nuud anywhere in American annals. 

A part of the Centennial Address was published in The News and 
CoijltiEU, and tbe favorable comments at the tiuje, and the suggestion that 
it ])c atnplified lor publication in permanent form, induced me to undertake 
the labor of making it as fall and thorough as my opportunities would per- 
mit. In its present extended shape tbe sketch of the history of Charleston 
is no longer a, simple Centennial Address, and will ])e foujid to contain much 
that is entirely new, or has not heretofore been accessible to the general 
reach r. Forming part of the Year Book for 1S83, it will, I hope, find a place 
in public libraries throughout the United States, and be weicome in the 
homes of our people. If it shall elicit such interest as shall lead to the rea!- 
ization of my life-long hope and desire for a coraplcLe history of Charleston, 
1 shall V>e amply compensated for the labor and thought I have bestowed 
uj)on the introductory work. 

It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge the courteous attentions of 
the Secretaries of State, the Treasury, War and Navy, and of the I'ostmaster- 
Ceneral and tlie Attorney-General of the United States, who have sent lae 
from the departments at Washington valuable documents which I required, 
and who, in sc^vcral cases, have given me even more informatiem than I 
asked for or expect^id to oljtain. Siujilar assistance has been rendered by 
Ccu. l^atou, Superintendent of lldacalion, aiid Mr. Dwight, the Librarian of 
the State Department, From the lion. J. N. U!i)Scomb, Secretary of State of 



1 

> 



352 ^ ^]ayor Court oiay s Ainiual Rcvicio. 

South Carolina; Col. Sloan, Clerk ol'ilie House of r^cpicat'iitalivcs ol" Souih 
Carolina; Mr. Siuiiktr Sini<;us; Hon. Ch. Kicliardson Miles; Coruuiamlur 
Merrill Miller, U. S. N., Li^lit-ffou.se Department; Lan^dou Chevf-.^, ICmj. . 
Ge.n. W. G. DtSauj^sure ; J. 1'. K. i'.ryan, Esq.; Hon. T. W. Glover and 
John J.uea-"-, Esq., Orajigt-horu, S. C. ; Uev. John Johnson; Col. W. L. Trrn- 
holni; J. L. Sheppard, Esq. ; Daniel lley ward, Esq. ; Dr. G. J^.. Mani^auh : 
Mr. Winsor, Lihrarian orjlarvard Golkj;;e; Mr. Jeivey, Ei!>ranan CharK'ston 
]jibrary Society; F. Peyre Eoreher, M. D. ; Major Wilsis; i.'ev. C. C. I'inek. 
uey ; N. Levin, Esq.; i'ev. D. J. Qui'iley ; W. G. Jlinso.-j, E.-q.; J.'jJamtt 
Cohen, Esq.; U. B. Uorlbtck, M. D. ; I'lutessor F. A. Porcher; Jos. T. Dill, 
Esq., and many others, for the use of rare 'nooks, and Jor valuable piipers 
placed at my disposal. 

Stiany;e as the stateujent may seem, the fact is so, Ihat eij^diteen years 
af.'er tlie close ot the war Vjetween the Suites, there is 710 correct official infoi- 
mation of the Companies iii the sn^rvice from Cliarestf^n, and their nnmlxrs. 
To Gen. Edw;ird M;-Crady, wiio h:ts for ytars h-ecu intci-cs.ed iu making a 
record, and to Major \\. C (vilclirist and L*ev. C. E. Chichester, 1 am indelit- 
ed foi the statt-ment her(-in made. 

It is a jjlt-asure to acknowledge here the courteous and coutinin)US atten- 
tions of Mr. Vr. Xoel Sainsbui Y, of the Pul>lic liecoid Ordce, J^ondon. to 
ivliom I am ureatl^^ indebted. 

For mueli intelligent and laborious clerical assishiuce 1 am under obliga- 
tions to n)y y^oung friend Mr. Xormand M. Porter. 

W. A. C. 



Charkstvn, S. C, Januari/, 1884. 



TJic CcntcJDiial of Incorporation. 



CIIARLL'STON 1670-1883 



353 { 




The first permanent Rncjiisli set- 
tlement on this continent was made 
at Jamestown, Virginia, May 13th, 
1607, wlien one hundred and five 
colonists landed from three ships. 
Sixty-three years after, in the nionth 
of April, 1670, Governor William 
- ' '' Sayle with 'his colonists landed at 

The Ship,,! the Period. Albcmarle Point, on the West Bank 
of Ashley River, opposite^what is now Charleston. 

It was an eventful era in the world's history; "the 
air of Europe was filled with the romance of primeval 
forests, dusk}' figures and feathered crests along the new 
Western horizon," and so it came that in those sixty- 
three years. Englishmen, Irishmen, Hollanders, French 
Huguenots, Scotchmen, Germans, Swiss, Swedes, and 
other Europeans, were landing \\\ a steady immigration 
on these American shores. No ships of state convey- 
ed them over the ocean; "they came in coarse cloth- 
ing, not in raiment of velvet and gilded armour." They 
came to stay — alive in every fibre, with an exultant life, and 
they stepped ashore with freshly awakened activities. A 
broad territory was to be subdued, and with crude imple- 
ments; with axe, hoe and plough they were to conquer a 
wilderness, and .they may have felt, too, that the century 
tliey represented would be more illustrious by their action. 
From Plymouth to Charles Town, with a daring spirit 
they set up their banners of concpicst, and as they bivouac- 
ed by the murmuring shores of the Atlantic, they realized 
that there was no land behin.d them to which to retreat; a 
broad ocean was rolling in their rear. Under such condi- 
tions they and their children were to be actors in the vast 
45 



3S4 Mayor Courtoiay s Annual Review. 

iiiiroldip.g- of a continent, wliicli they then httle knew \va^ 

to be ultimate!)' fashionetl into the form of many free cum- - 

m on wealths. 

THE FIRST LORD PROPRIETOR. < 

Twenty-four years after the landing]; at James Town, and < 

eleven years after the landing at Plymouth, "Charles 1, by the ^■ 

Grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland- '% 

Kinh;, Defender of the Faith," &c., initiated measuies, which \ 

were pronipted by the stir and fervor of the pei'iod, ant! I 

which he hoped would lead to a new and prosperous settle- | 

ment adjoining the James Town Colony on the South. I 

This ro)-al thought found expression in what is known as I 

Sir Robert Heath's Patent, which seems to have been draft- I 

ed and made of record on the 4th of August, 163 j, and sisb- \ 

sequently confirmed to him '' at Westminster tlie 30th Octo- I 

ber " in the same year, being the 5th of the Reign. "The I 

King to all to whom these pr'et'es,"^'^ &c., greeting— -Whereas | 

our beloved and faithfuU subject and servant, Sir Robert | 

Pleath, our Attorn.ey-Gencral, kindled w'th a certaine ) 

laudable and pious desier, as well of enlarging the \ 

Christian Religion as our Empire, and increasing the \ 

trade and commerce of this our Ivingdome," the King f 

generously conveyed to his beloved subject for these f 

high purposes, " a certaine Region or territory, in the | 

parts of North America betwixt one and thirty and | 

thirty-six degrees of Northern latitude inclusively pla- | 

ced, yet hitherto until'd, neither inhabited by ours or the 1 

subjects of any other Christian King, Prince or State, &c.," | 

an imperial domain, including what is now part of North j 

Carolina, all of South Carolina and Geori'-ia, and extending \ 

to a rather indctinite distance Westward ; " he beeing about j 

to lead thither a Colonye of nien large and plentifull, pro- j 

fcssing the true Religion, sedulously and industriously ap- . I 

plying tliemselves to the culture of ye sayd lands and to mer- \ 

chandisin.g, to be performed by industrye at his own charges, \ 



* Present Letters. 



The Ct'utoiuial of hicorpoialio)). 355 

;iir1 others by iiis example." Sir Robert was ruitlier crc-ated 
*' Sole Lord Proprietor," atul it was also stipulated thai he 
was t(; pay for tlie lands, " in chiefely Kniidits Service, and 
b}' paying for it, to us, our heirs and successors, one circle 
of Gold formed in tlie fashion of a crovvne of the vvciglU of 
20 ounces, with this inscription inoraved upon it— 13cus 
coronet opu'^ suum ;" and further, " by the fulnes of our 
power and Kingly authority for us, our heirs aiid succes$r)rs, 
wc ^o<c erect and incorporate (these lands) into a Province, 
and Name the same CAROi.ANA or the Province of CakT)- 
LANA, and the fores'd Isles Carolanv Islands," &c. 

So royal a gift under such auspici(uis environments, v/liich 
promised so much, was doomed to disappointments. 

hi the years immediately succeeding the issue of this 
royal patent of broad acres and great privileges,. I find no 
evidence that any worth}^ effort to colonize v^as made; and 
nine years after the date of Sir Robert Heath's Patent, Oli- 
ver Cromwell begun to figure in England's history as a mem- 
ber of j^'arliament, contesting Cambridge with the Poet 
Cleveland, a zealous loyalist, defeating him, it is said, 
by one vote — and eliciting fi'oni the defeated candidate the 
remark that " that single vote had ruined both churcli and 
kingdom." 

THE SECOND LORDS PROPRIETORS. 

The political struggles in England in the ensuing years 
seem to have diverted public attention from the settlement 
of '*CaR0LANA" — and the next movement we find was 
under the authority of a grant b}^ Charles II, in 1663, by 
his letters patent under the great seal of England, to the 
Right Ilono'ble Edward Earle of Clarendon, Lord High 
Chancellor of England ; George Duke of Albemarle, Capt. 
Gcner'l of all His Ma'ties forces in the Kir.gdoni of Eng- 
land, Scotland and Ireland, and Mast'r of the Horse; W'm. 
Lord Craven; John Lord l^erkeley ; Anthony Lord Ashley, 
Chancellor of the Exchec|'er ; Sir George Cartrett, Wzg 
Chamberlain of His Ma'ties Household; Sir Wm. Jn:rkelc\', 



35^ Mayor Court cnays Animal Rcviciv. 

Kn't,and Sir John Colleton, Kn't and Baron'tt — the true and 
absolute Lords Proprietors of all the Province of Carolina. 

They adopted a <^reat seal, the obverse and reverse of 
whicli is presented herewith with their autographs in fac- 
simile, which will be viewed with interest. 

This new title to the Lords Proprietors for tliis Province 
was confirmed by an order made at the Court of Whiteliall 
on I2th August, 1663, v.'hen His Majesty, '' taking 'into 
consideracon the state and pr'sent condicion of the Province 
or Region called Carolina, in America, and his Grant of the 
same by his Letters Patents under the Great Scale of Eng- 
land," to the Lords Proprietors (before named), and upon 
information, that all pretenders to former Grants had been 
summoned to bring or send to His Majesty's Attorney- 
General theii- Letters Patents, Grants or other evidences of 
title, and that none such had appeared; "and forasnuich as 
no Englisli whatsoever have, by virtue of such Grants, 
hitherto planted in the said Province, by which neglect 
such Lettt-rs Patents (if any were) arc become vo}d," it 
was ordered, that the Attorney-General proceed to re- 
voke and make void all former Letters Patents and Grants 
of the said Province ; and tliat henceforth, that when any 
like Grant of an\' foreign plantation should be prepared "to 
passe his Ma'ties Great Scale," a clause be inserted, "that 
if within a certain number of yeares no plantacon be made 
and performed tlie said Grant shall become void. " 

And it was further ordered, that the Duke of Albemarle 
and others, the before naiiied. Patentees, "do proceed in 
the planting of the said Province of Carolina," and that 
henceforward " no person or persons .whatsoever do pr'sume 
to goe into the said Province or molest or disturbe tlie said 
Grantees or any persons by them or any of them trusted 
or imployed upon pr'tcnce of an}^ former Graii^ whatso- 
ever," &c. 

The Proprietors, therefore, were imj^elled by two mo- 
tives, at least, for establishing the Colony— the one, the 
hope o{ a profitable return fiom their investments; the 
other, to prevent a reversion of their Grant. 









d 

;r 
n 
e 
n 
e 
t. 

2\' 

of 
le 



The great Seal of the LORDS PROPRIETORS of the PROVINCE OF CAROLINA, displaying on the Reverse the Coats of Arrr.s of tho 

Eight Lords Proprietors, being a fac-simile of a wax impression of the Seal, now in the PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE, 

LONDON, ENGLAND, obtained thence through the kindness of Mr. W. Noel Sainsbury, 



\ 



The imperfect Coat of Arms on the Re 

BERKELEY nearly opposite. e«c 

!ast and Sir Guorc-e Cs' 



■rse is that of JOHN, LORD BERKELEY, which is the same as the Co 
>t for the Baron's Coronet where the wax has been quite broken off. 



of Arms of S,r WM. 



AUTOGRAPHS OF THE LORDS PROPRIEiOF 




'^ofir/p, 



r^ 



/ 



/[j4M's 



y 



.l-^mmrhp 



no r/rj-i-TZr^A 



drm (n^xej^i 



"f 



a 



^ 



^:^- 



if 



The Ccninuiutl of Jiicorporatioii. 



.^D/ 



c 



Previous to this Grant ci few sottlcmcnts liad been inarlc 
near Albemarle Sound by dissenters fi'om Yir^n'nia, and a 
little Colony had been planted near the '.n.mth of Cape 
Fear River by New Eno-landers, which was subsecpiently 
abandoned. 

THE INITIATORY rROCEEDlNGS— HILTON'S VOVACE TO 'JlIE 

COAST. 

The first response to the proposals of the Conunissioners 
of the Lords Proprietors to secure settlers in the ''Province 
of Carolina," was made by "several gentlei-nen and mer- 
chants of the Island of Barbadoes," v;ho undertook a voy- 
age to the coast "Southwards and Westwards of Cape Ro- 
mano," in August, 1663. The history of this exploration of 
the countr)' is full}^ recorded in — 

"A True Relation of a Voyage, upon discovery of part 
of the Coast of P^LORIDA from the latitude of 31° to 
33° 45' North latitude, in the ship Adventure, William Hil- 
ton Commander and Commissioner, with Ca.ptain Anthou)' 
Long and ]\"ter Fabian, set fortli by several gentlemen and 
merchants of the Lsland of Barbadoes, sailed from Spikes 
Bay, Aug. 10. 1663." 

They visited several points on the coast between Cape 

I'earcand Port Ro^^ale, notabh' Edistowand " Saiiit Ellens." 

/ ^ J 

where they had communic<itio!i with the Tndi:ins, and Icarn^^d 
that an English vessel had been "cast away some four or 
five leagues to the Northw^ard of tlie place where we then 
rode (North Edisto) on the 24th July past," and of the 
"thirteen persons wdio had come on shoar, three had been 
killed by the Indians." Miltoti's narrative proves that the 
Spaniards were frequent visitors to this locality from St. 
Augustine. " sometimes in canoa's within land," at other 
times in vessels by sea. which the Indians describe as 
" having two masts." There were Spaniards then in the 
vicinity, and Milton communicnted with theni. In one of 
his visits ashore at "Saint Ellens" (St. Helena) he gives the 



358 Mayor Courtcnays Aiinual Rcviciv. 

following- intcrcsrino- accouiUof an Indian scUlcnicnt wliidi 
clearly indicates frequent interconrsc with tlie Spam'arrls : 

"That which we noted there, was a fair house IniihK-d in 
the shape of a dove-house, round, two hundred foot at 
least, compleatly covered witli Pahneto leaves, tlie wal- 
plate being twelve foot high, or tliereabouts, and within 
lodging Rooms and forms: two pillars at the entrance of a 
high seat, above all the rest; also an other house, like- a 
Sentinel-house, floored ten foot high v/ith planks, fastned 
with spikes and na)ds, standing upon sul)stantial posts, 
with several other small houses round about. Also we saw 
many planks, to tlie quantity of three thousand foot oi' 
thereabouts, with other timbers squared, r-'//;/ ^ Cross before 
tJic great house. Likewise we sav/ the Ruines of an old 
Fort, compassing more than half an acre of land within 
the Trenches, v/hich \ve supposed to be Chari's Fort, built, I 

and so called by tkie French in 1562," &c. \ 

\ >^^ ^ The earliest visitors I 

\g^ e| -^.^ '^^ ^^ to America, in the six- | 

' -" ' ^'^'' teenlh century, found | 



/T^ 



i/. _ ^^ _ , . ,' the^Indians veil sup- 

'Mci'iciih TIcrid<inoivm c)c trimrQ ttwus plied with small boats. 

arJjomijne c^^cupii, Irt 'Ptr^tmJikikshahJt . "made of one tree 

twenty foote long four foote broad, wliich are not made with 
iron or stone or any otlicr kind of metall, they help them- 
selves, with fire burning so much of the tree as is sufficient 
for the hollownesse of the boat, the like the}' do in making 
the stem and fore part, until it be fit to sail upon the sea." 

From an old map I present a picture of one of these Iri- 
dian boats, which, in more comely form, we have seen in our 
own time fashioned from the trunk of a black cypress, used 
even for speed, in boat racing. 

Milton's narrative sliows that the Indians had " plent)' 
of corn, pumpions, water-melons and musk-melons," and 
the country abounded with ''grapes, large figs and peaches." 
flis voyage occupied five months, having, " after several 
known apparent dangers, both by sea and land," cast anchor 
in Carlisle Bay ^ Barbadocs, "our long wished for and mucli 



I 

llii CoiloDiial of IncoyporaiioJi. 359 | 

desired [)orl," 0:1 6tli January, 166], " lo rciRlcr an ac- 
count, of our Discovery tl\e verity of which we aver." It is 
siLHied hy " Antliony Lon^-, William Milton, Peler Fabian." 

In 1665 the ]*!Oprietors themselves entered on the taslc of 
colonization with a persistency and a disregard of outla)- 
which recalls the early days of the Yiry;inia Colony. In Oc- 
tober of that yeai, the}' sent forth an expedition on a voy- 
age of discovery iri the region of country previously visited i 
by Milton. It was placed in charge of Sir John Yeamans, 
who seems to have been a prominent person in the English 
Colony of Barbadoes at that period, but the plans were 
finally executed by Robert Sandford, an official, represent- 
ing the Lords Proprietors in the '* County of Clarendon, 
on Cape Feare River." 

His adventures, told b\' himself, with great fulness and 
gra].)liic sim^jlicity, lecall the d:i)'s o\ Amidas and Gosnold. 
He explored tl^.e coast from Charles River to Port Ivoyal, 
an.d followed the course of a river for thirty miles inland, 
deh>hted v,'ith tlie kindness of the Indians, and the rich- 1 

ness of the country. He was also accompanied on this voy- ■ 

age by' Dr. Woodward, a friend of the Earl of Shaftesbur)', 
and his name appears frecjuently in the annals of Carolina. ; 

Ainong the transcripts of the " Shaftesbury Papers," 
owned b}^ the City Council, is this manuscript of thirt}'-six 
pages: "Iking the Relation of a Voyage on the Coast of 
the Province of Carolina, formerly called Florida, in the , 

Continent of Northern Ameiica from Charles River, neere ^ 

Cape Feare, in the County of Clarendon, and the lat. of 34 : 
deg : to Port Royall in the North Lat. of 32 deg : begun 
14th June, 1 666— performed b}' Robert Sandford, Escp, 
Secretary and Cheife Register for the Right Hon'ble the 
Lords Proprietors of their County of Clarendon, in the Pro- 
vince aforesaid." This record gives an authenthic and 
complete narrative of the tirst vv'cll considered and success- 
ful effort to prepare for a Colony in Carolina. From it I 
learn, that in 1665 the Lords Proprietors constituted Sir 
John Yeamans, Raronet, their Lt. Gen'i with ample powers 
for placing a Colony in sornc of the Rivers to the Soutliward 



360 Afayor Court v nay :; Aiunia/ Rci'inu. 

and Wcslwarci of Cape Romano, who dcijartin- from the 
Ishind of tlic ]]arbadoes in Octohcr 1665 in a fly hoatc of 
about 150 tons, accompanied by a small iVii^-aic of his own 
and a sloop, purchased by a common purse for the Service 
of the Colon)', after they had been Separated by a ^n-eat 
Storm att Sea, wherein the fri^i^^ate lost all her masts and 
himself liad liked to have been foundered they were all 
brought together againe in the beginning of Nov. to an 
anchor, before the mouth of Charles River, nea)- Cape 
Fcare. Subsequent!)- a violent gale totally wrecked the 
Fly Boate with t.he greatest part of the provisions, clothes, 
m'agazine of arms, powder and other military furniture of 
the PLxpedition, but no lives were lost. The necessities of 
the Colonists at Cape Feare were so great however that 
Sir John V(^aman_s was constrained to consent to have the 
Sloope go to Virginia for supplies, and the losses incurred 
compelled him to Return at once to Barbadoes, ' yett that 
the designe of the Southiern Settlement might not wholly 
fall, he conditioned with the freighters of the .Sloope tliat 
in case she miscn.ri-\'ed in her A^rginia voyage, they should 
hire Capt. Edward Stanyon's vessel, then in their harbour, 
but bonnd for ]^arbadoes, to perform the discovery, and left a 
commission with me for effecting it, upon the Return of the 
Sloope or of Capt. Stanyon, which should first happen.' 
The vSloope m her coming home from Virginia laden u'ith 
vituall, 'being Read)' by Rt^ason of her extreme Rotteness 
in her timbers to sinke,' was driven on Cape Lookout and 
lost, \vith two of the crew, the balance making their w^ay 
th]ough the. Sound to Roanoke Lsland." 

Captain Stan)"on, returning from Barbadoes " weakely 
maned and without any second to himself, driven to and 
fro on tlie sea for many weeks by contrary winds and con- 
quered with care vexation and watching, lost his Reason 
and after man)' Vv-ild extravaganc)X'S leapt overboard and was 
lost," leaving his small company and vessel to be brought 
b)' a miraculous Providence after many wanderings back to 
Charles River. 

" 1 l)ad now a vessell to performe my Southern Expedi- 



TIic Coiioiiiial of Incorporation. 36 r 

tion, bul disfurnislicd of a master and none here skilled in 
navigation to be persuaded to the voyage, least therefore a 
worke so necessary to promote the Settlement of this I'ro- 
vince, sli'd be poorly left, without an attempt, Myself un- 
dertooke the office, thou.gli noe better capacitated for it, 
than a little Reading in the Mathematicks had Rendered 
me, with the helpe of a few observations, made whilst a 
passenger in some h\te Sea voyages to divert their tedium." 

It was not until the i6Lh June, 1666, that he left Charles 
River, in a sloop of 15 tons with seventeen of the Colony ; 
himself, two men and a boy being the ships company, with 
a small shallopc of three tons "belonging to ye Lords 
Pro[)rietors," and appointed by the " Lt Gen'l to that Service 
in which I placed Henry Brayne of some experience in Sea 
matters and two other men." 

It is not possible to do more than mention that the first 
entrance he effected was at " Edistoh,"'" where he found the 
land a ''rich fatt Soyle, black mould on the topp " — and had 
pleasant interviews with the Indiaiis ; Shadoo, the captain 
of the tribe having been at Barbadoes. I find this inter- 
esting item : " Amongst these Indians was one, who used 
to come v.ith the Southern Indians to trade Vv'ith us att 
Charles Tou'n in Clarendon, and is known by the name'of 
Cassiqne, he belongeth to the Country of Kiwaha, and was 
very earnest with me, to 'go witli my vessel thither, assuring 
me a broad deep entrance and promising a large welcome 
and plentiful entertainmicnt and trade. I told him I must 
first go to Port Royall and that in my Returne I would see 
his country, but for his better security, he would need ac- 
conipany me to Fort Royall, and be my Pilot for their 
River," and actually did so. The narrative of this visit to 
" Edistoh " is ciuite extensive and most interesting, but can 
only be so referred to here. The voyage was resumed to- 
wards Port Royal, and in the first days of July both vessels 
arrived there. The country was viewed in various direc- 
tions, the numerous water courses explored, and the In- 
dians told them of a great river, "that run far into the 

*Nortl! Edisto. 
4(3 



3^2 Mayor Court ciiays Annual Rcviczv. 

Continent," which I infer was the Savannah Kiver. Tlic 
voyagers were greatly impressed witli numerous oyster 
banks and piles of oyster shells at many [)oints, and con- 
cluded it would "put an additional value upon the Settle- 
ment that shall be made here," having such " necessary 
material for lime for many ages ;" and near by, '' finde clay 
for making brick and tile" — while " the great and freque^nt 
sculls of fish we mett with gxxc us expectation of advantage 
and employment." I quote the following narrative of the 
conclusion of their visit to Port Royal, to illustrate the 
friendly reception of the Indians here, as at " Edistoh," 
a!id the mutual confidence exhibited on both sides, by the 
receiving and giving of hostages. Another interesting- 
episode is the persistent efforts of the " Cassique," from 
Kiawah, to induce the voyagers to visit his country. 

" The next day being the /th of July, I tookx in some 
fresh water purposing that night to. leave Port Roycdl and 
return homeward, haveing in the discovery already made 
exceeded all our owne, and therefore confident to answere 
all other expcctacons, besides each, mans proper occasion 
hastened him and the consideration of the charge of the 
vessell hired, att five and twenty pounds sterling per month 
made us earnest not to detain her a minute of time unnec- 
essarily. Wee also designed ourselves some dales to see the 
country of Kywaha, one of vvdiosc Inhabitants remained still 
witli us, for that onely purpose ; But a little before night 
the Cassique of Port Royall came aboard and brought with 
hirn a propper young fellow, whome hee made mee to un- 
derstand to bee his sister's sonne. Hee demanded of mee 
when I would retorne thither, and shewing mee the moone, 
asked, wdiether within three times of her compleating her 
orbe ? I told him noe, but in tenn monthes I would ; hee 
seemed troubled att the length of time and as it were 
begged mee to come in five ; But I continued my first given 
number, att length hee gave mee this young fellowe, told 
mee liee should goe and retorne with mee and that I must 
clothe him and then hee asked mee when I Vv'ould sayle, I 
told him presently that night, but hee very much impor- 



TJic Ccnlcniiial of Licorporalion. 363 

tuned mec to stay until the next day, that hce mi<>]it pic- 
pare nice some venison, and made signcs as hce parted, thai 
if in the morning bee should not see mec hee should cryt-. 
and soe hee left mec, and the Indian with mee ; I was some- 
what pleased with the adventure, haveing before 1 came on 
the Discovery wished that if 1 liked the Country I miglit 
prevailc with the Indians to tell one of their Nacon, to goe 
with mee, I leaving an English man in their roome for tlie 
mutuall learning their language, and to that purpose one 
of my Company Mr. Henry Woodward a chirurgeon, had 
before 1 sett out assured mec his rcsolucon to stay with the 
Indians if I should thinke convenient, wliereforc I resolved 
to stay till the morning to see if the Indians would remaine 
constant in this Intencon. according to which. I purposed to 
treat further with them on tl)e morrowc, therefore I went 
a shoare to their Towne tooke Woodward and the Indian 
with mee and in presence of all the Inliabitants of the 
place and of the fellow's rclacons asked if the}' approved of 
his goeing along with mec, tliey all with one voyce con- 
sented, after some pause I called the Cassiquc and another 
old man (His second ir^ authority) and their wives and in 
sight and hearing of the v/hole Towne, delivered Woodward 
into their charge, telling them that when I retorned I would 
require him att their hands. They received him with such 
high Testinionyes of Joy and thankfuUnes as hughely con- 
firn^cd to me tlieir great desire of our friendshipp and so- 
ciety. The Cassique placed Woodward by him uppon the 
Throne and after lead him forth and shewed liim a large 
field of maiz which hee told him should be his, then hee 
brouglit him, the sister of the Indian that 1 had with mee 
telling hinri that shec should tend him and dresse his vic- 
tualls and be careful of him that soe her ])rother might be 
the better used amongst us. I stayed a while being woun- 
derous civilly treated, after their manner and giveing 
Woodward formall possession of the whole Country, to hold 
as Tennant att Will of the Right Hono'ble the Lords Pro- 
prietors, I retorned aboard and imediatcly weighed and fell 
downe towards the sea." On the loth of July in the 



364 Jllayo?- Court c nay s Annual Review. 

morning, "I ^,va.s fayrc before yc River that leadcth into 
the country of Kywaha,'' i^iit the Indian o{ that i)hace, 
who undertook to be my ouide and had accompanied me 
from Edistow for that sole purpose, wouhl not know it to 
be the same, but "affirmed that it was more Easterly; 
This confidence of his made mee stand away, and wlien it 
was too Late his error was discovered and tlie wind not fa- 
vorin^^^ my return wee proceeded on our journey and on the 
1 2th July entered Charles River, and Landed at Charles 
Town, County of Clarendon." 

Referring to the opening of which he had sailed up to 
and w^]]ich was not entered, Sandford says " the River lyes 
in' a bay between ' Harvey Haven ' and ' Cape St. l^.omano ' 
where we found seven o\ eight fathoms water very neere 
the shore, and not the least appearance of shoales or daji- 
gers in any part of itt. It shewes with a very faire large 
opening cleare of any fflatts or bareing in ye entrance, only 
befoi'c tlie Easterne point wee sawe a beach but not farre 
out, I persuade m)\self it lead into an excellent Country, in 
hopes that it may prove worth)' the dignit}^ I called the 
River /Vshle)' from the Right Hon'ble Anothony Eord Ash- 
ley, and to take a^v'a}' every little Remaine of forraignc 
title to this Province, I blotted out the name St. Romano 
putt before the next Easterly Cape, and writt Cape Cartrett 
in tlie roome, to evidence the more Real! Right of Sir 
George Cartrett, as he is a L-ord Proprietor of Carolina." It 
thus appears that the brave and adventurous Mr. Ivobert 
Sandford, gave a name to one of our Rivers without 
having explored it, and nearly four years before it was en- 
tered b}' an Englishman, v^dnch name survives to this day- — 
while liis patriotic purpose to affix the name of another 
Eord Proprietor on "the next Easterly Cape," has failed — 
Cape Romano survives, with the loss of only a single letter — 
being on the maps now as Cape Roman. 

In 1667 the Proprietors determined to found a Colony in 
the region explored by Sandford. The settlemeiU was to be 
compos :d of emigrants fron^ h^ngland, reinforced by others 

*CharIe>lon Harljor. 



Tilt Centoniial of hicorpurafioji. 365 

from Ireland, Barbadocs and the Hcrmudas. It seems to 
have required more than two years for preparations, and 
tlie extent and completeness of this undertaking may be 
inferred by the outlay of /; J 2,000 (§60,000), a large sum of 
money at that date, equal to four times in present money 
A^alues. 

To accomplish this, three vessels had been purchased and 
laden with stores, merchandise, munitions of war, and'all 
equipments necessary for planting and propagating a 
Colony of 200 people, a number that was believed would 
be strong enough for self-protection and to begin a perma- 
nent settlement. On the 17th August, 1669, we find the 
frigate " Carolina^ the ''Port Royally and the sloop " Albe- 
viarle'' at anchor in the Dov/nes with their crews, ninety- 
three passengers, and supplies of all kinds, all aboard and 
ready for sea. The copy of the original letter, which gives 
the names of tiiose passengers embarking is most interest- 
ing, and an examination of the famil}' names shows somic 
surviving at this date. 

These for thd Right Ho hie the Ldd Ashley att his house near Exceltcr House, in 
the Strandc, London. 



Ft^OM ABOARD THE " CAt^OLINA," [ 

Now Rhmxg in the Downks, August the lotli, 1669. S 

May y\^ I'LKASK vo'r Lo'irr : Tliis (after begging yo'r Honor's pardon) is to 
give yo'r Lo'hp a perfect accompt tliat wc are witli our slupps now ridinge aU 
anker in the Downes. And may itt please yo'r Honor, I hope to yo'r Lohp 
satisfaccon, I Irave taken all the care I cnnn, although veiy troul)lesoine to lat 
out and make ready with what expedicon I }iossible could, all the shipps now 
ouely by the permission of tlie AliniglUy. expectinge a good winde and beinge 
well fitted with, and by tlie leave of God, I doe intende to wayc and sett to 
saylc, expectinge under God a good and prosperous voyadge foi' Ireland into 
the T'ort of Kingsale, and upon our arrivall from thence yo'r Honor shall re- 
ceive a more fuller aceomjit than I att present cann give yo'r J.o'hp. I have 
liere enclosed sent yo'r Honor a particular accompt of what passengers are 
aboard. I'"irst Masters an<l then Servnnts and then, those persons that arc 
single and have noe Servants, \\liicli. witli yo'r ko'lip's ipaidoim, is all at pres- 
'ent Uoxw yo'r f-o'hp's most hunibk^ and olicdiente .Servant, 

T0sp:fh west. 



'^66 Mayor Courtcnays Annual Jvcvicn'. j 

A I,ist of all such !\rasters, fixe Passenc;cr.s and S's'l's. whicli ate now { 

aljoanl tlie Carolhm, now ridint^e in tlic Downer, y\ugust the rolli, iT/jq: j 

CAl'T. SULLIVAN. ] 

Ralpli ALarsliall. James Montf^onicry. \ 

Kicli. Allcxandcr. Stephen Whce]\vri<^liL ) 

Tho. Kingc. Eliz. J)niimncke. 
YXvi. Mathews. 

STEP LULL. '■■ 

Robt. Done. liurnaby JUiU. 

Tho. Ingram. jonatlian Barker. 

Jolm Larniouth. Dudley Widgier. '■ 

ED. HOLLIS AND JOS. DALTON. 

George Prideox. Thomas Younge. ■ 

Henry Price. Will. Chambers. 

John Dawson. Will. Roades. 

Alfrd Hnrleston. Jane Lawson. 
Susanna Kinder, 

TIIO. (TiiK First Lanuorave) and PAULE SMITH. 

Aice Rixe. Jo. LJudlesworth. ^ • 

Jo, Burroughs. Hugh Wigleston. 

Eliz. Smith. Andrew Ijoorne. 
Francis Noone. 

HAMRLETON (JNO. HAMTL/rON). • 

Tho. Gourden. W^'ill. Lumsden. 

Jo, Frizen. Step. Flinte. 

Edv/. Young. Jo. Thomson. 

Samuell Morris. Tho. Soulhell. 

Agnis Payne. Jo. Reed. 

JO. RIVERS, 
Tho. Poole. Rol). Williams. 

Henry Burgen. Math. Smallwood. • 

NIGH. CARTHWRIGHT. 
Tho. Gubbs. Jo. Loyde. 

Martin Bcdson. , Step. Price. 

WMll Jenkins. 

MORRIS MATHEWS. 
Abra. Phillips. Reighnohl Barefoot. 

Mathew Hewitt. Eliz. Currle. 

WILL. BOWMAN. 
Abraham Smith. Millicent Howe. 

DOCTOR WILL. SCRIVENER. 
Margaret Tuder. 



The Centennial of hieorporation. 367 

WILL. OWLNS. 
John Humphreys. • Christopher Swa.dc. 

Johii.Borlcy. 

TllO. MlDDLtrrON— Em/, uxor kjus. 
Rich. Wrii^ht. Tho. Wovnics. 

SAMUELL \VES1\ 
Andrew Searle. Will, West. _> 

JOSEPH BAILEY. 
John Carmtichaell. 

Passenijers that have noe servants : 

Mr. Tho. Ridcall. Mr. Will. Houghton. 

• Mr. Will. Hennis. Mr. Tho. Lfumfreys. 

Eliz. Humphreys. ^L"lrie Clerlce. 

Sampson l^arktinvell. Nathanyell Darkenwell. 

Mrs. Sarah Erpe. Eliz. Erpe. 

Martha Powell. Mrs. ^Llry Erpe. 
Thomas Motteshed. 

The anniversary by which we are assembled, carrie.s iis in 
memory to that landing on the Ashley \w 1670, from which 
small settlement, despite vvars, disease and great privations, 
has grown up in the environment of Province, Colony and 
State, this city ai]d people, who, from the earliest times 
down through all the governmental changes since, in peace 
and in war, have borne themselves always on the highest 
plane of honor and duty. 

Our first thoughts, then, are of those earliest emigrants, 
pioneers in "the settlement of an immense hunting ground, 
filled with wild animals, overgrown with forests, partly 
covered with swamps, and roamed over rather than in.hab- 
ited, by a great number of savage tribes, subsisting on the 
chase, and accustomed to war among each other." In the 
midst of such conditions these colonists laid the founda- 
tion, and their descendants reared this noted city; enduring 
hardships, facing the Indian and thie wild beast, and at times 
pestilence and famine. They vvere plain, earnest, hard- 
working people, who had left native land and crossed the 
ocean ; their compelling motive, the enjoyment of civil and 
religious liberty; their hope, to secure a larger opportunity 
of life, and worl; for theniselves and children. 



3^8 Mayor Courloiays Aiuiiial Rcviciu. 

In the kittcr part of Atu^ust, 1669, these tJirec vessels, 
the Carolina. Port Royall and Albomarlc, sailed from F.ii"- 
land and anived at Kintjsayle, Irehind, about 1st Sej. I em- 
ber. Here tliey hoped to fmd additional colonists, but 
after being detained, by adva^rsc winds, longer than they 
anticipated, were much disappointed, and they departed on 
the 1 8th of September, having secured only seven persons. 

From Kingsayle their prows were turned Westward and 
Southward for the island of Barbadoes, wdiich they reached 
late in October following. This objective point of the 
voyage is explained by the fact that the planters o{ Barba- 
does had previously taken an interest in the intended new 
settlennent, and had furnished means to that end. 

Sir Peter Colleton, one of the Proprietors, was a large 
planter in I^arbadoes, and his brother, Thos. Colleton, (who 
lived th.ere) was the person to whom the expedition was 
"consigned." Sir John Yeamans (on account of his expe- 
rience in Colonies) had been appointed Governor in 1665, 
to make the adventure; but his ill su.ccess witli his Cape 
Fear Colony liad cooled the fervor of the Proprietors, who, 
though they recommended the expedition to his care and 
assistance, did not re-appoint him its Governor, but sent a 
blank commission to be filled according to circumstances. 

This island was over-populated, and the inhabitants were 
continually lea\'ing for the Ikahamas and other Lslands, in 
quest of plariting lands. It was thought that over 100 in- 
habitants for settling new plantations could be secured here. 
The Barbadian planters had been for years anxious to make 
the settlement, and. many of the chief planters had, some 
years before, offered to join in it, and had subscril>ed 
one or more thousand pounds towards the discovery, &c. 
For which the)- were to have lands, &c.; see Barbadoes Con- 
cessions, List of Adventurers in Mr. Saulsbury's Report, 
Council Journals, &c. 

While lying here, a gale struck the Beet, and on 2d Novem- 
ber, 1869, the Albcniarlt was driven on tlie rocks o{ the coast 
and shipwrecked. C)ne of the cables of the Carolina was 
also broken, and the Port Royal lost an anchor and a cable. 



The Centennial of Ineorjwratw)i. ' i^Cycj 

To save the ships' stores for tlie remaining voyage, many 
were put ashore until the :>3cl, wlien repairs eould be com- 
pleted and another sloop hired to continue the journey. 
Another vessel was procured in place of the Albeniarle.^^ 

The fleet sailed from Ixirbadoes for Port Royal, for Jos. 
West, writing from l^arbadoes to Lord Ashley, says : " The 
People here seemingly show a great inclinacon for Porte 
Royall. Sir Jno. Yeamans being resolved to goe dovvnc 
doth give good encouradgm't, and will hope to make our 
complem't of 200 persons." The next ])lace, however, at 
which v/e fmd the Carolina, is Bermuda Island. 

Leaving Barbadoes, and meeting with bad Vveather, the 
Fori Royal WRs forced to put in at Nevis, a British West 
India Island, in latitude 17° 14^ N., where Sir Jno. Yea- 
mans put on board one Christopher Barrowe, with instruc- 
tions to pilot the ship to Port Royal. From Nevis they 
had good weather until near land, when they w^ere parted 
from the fleet. P'or six weeks they were beating from place 
to place by reason of bad weather, being three times driven 
off land and nearly perishing for water. 

By advice of Barrowe they sailed Southward for fair 
weather and endeavored to touch at the Bahama Islands. 
Near the Island of Munjake, near Abaco, one of the Ba- 
hamas, they were cast av/ay 12th January, i66-.^^y. \\y 
means of the small boat all were put safely on shore, but 
many lost their lives on the Island. Here Russell, the 
Master of the Port Royal, built a boat with which they got 
to the Island of Eleuthera, another of the Bahamas, where 
he hired a shallop and sailed to New Providence, whence 
most got transportation to Bermuda. The rest they left at 
Providence, except Barrowe and his wife, who went to New 
York. 

At Bermuda Sir John Yeamans wholly withdrew from 
the management of the expedition, and persuaded the ad- 
venturers to take Col. Wm. Sayle, "a man of no great 
sufficiency, yet the ablest I could tlien meet with," as he 
describes him, to accept the office of Governor to the new 
Colony, and caused his name to be inserted in a blank com- 
47 



370 lilayor Courtcnays An nun I Review. 

mission which he hdd from the Lords Pro})rictors, assioniii^ 
as his reason for this course, that he was " obliged to return 
to Barbadoes to be in reacb'ness to act as one of tlie 
commissioners, previously ap})ointed, for ne<^otiatin;^^ witli 
French commissioners the affair of St. Christopher."- 

Also, tliat Sayle being a Bermudian, he thouylu itmiL;ht 
induce oth.crs of that Island to embark. This f^^ave rise to 
much discontent, and two of the party in particular, \Vm. 
Scrivener and Wm. Owens, were for bringing suit against 
Sir John, but the matter was " salved over," and the expe- 
dition sailed from Bermuda 26th February, 166/'^^ a sloop 
having been procured liere in place of the Port Royal. 

After leaving Bermuda the expedition encountered bad 
weather again and were once more separated, the Carolina 
and the Bermuda sloop seeming to keep near each other, 
but the Barb.idian sloop had a separate experience of h.'er 
own, not coming up with, the other vessels until about 
the 23d May, and more tlian a month after their arrival at 
Albemarle Point, Asldey River. 

Mr. Carteret, who was ]\\ the Carolina, gives the follov/- 
ing account of her trip from Bermuda : 

" Sayling thence, on Feb'y 26th, we came up with land 
between Cape Romano and Port Royall at a place called 
' Sowee ' or ' Scwee,' and next da}^ bi'ought the ship in. 
through a very liandsome cliannel and lay there at anchor 
a week." 

P^rom a careful examination of the oldest maps available, 
1 conclude that this locality was what is now Ikdl's Bay. 
The Indians told them that the " Westocs " had "ruin- 
ated " St. Helena, and the country Northward as far as 
Kiav/ah (Ashley River), about a day's journey distant. 

We have recorded the visit of the " Cassique " from 
Kywaha in Sandford's vessel in 1666, when at Edistoh, South 
of the Ashley, over three years previous, and it is certainly 



* Another writer describes Governor Sayle as "of Bermuda, a Puritan ?nd 
non-Confonnist, wb.ose religious big«)iry, advanced age and failing health prom- 
ised badly for the discharge of tlie task before him." 



t 

e 

CO 



The Ccutouiial of hicurporatiou. 371 

1 curious coincidence that at " Scwee," Nortli of tlic Asli- 
ley, we should find in the later account this staUinent : 

"The Cassiquc of Kiawah, and most of liis people soon 
came, to the vicinit)' of the ships, and were loud in their 
praises of Kiawah. Takin^^ him aboard, after a conference, 
hey left their anchorage and sailed to the Southward, and 
ntered Port Ro)al River. It was two days before ,thcy 
ould communicate with the Indians who confirmed wdiat 
liad been told at Scwee." 

Was it one and the same Indian chief that made tlie 
voyages to Port Royal, with two different parties of English 
with an intei va! of neai 1)' four )'ears, telling to eacli, cai)tivat- 
ing stories of the richness of the lands of Kiawah, and if 
this be so, is it not singular that his declared purpose n\ 
i66g"^g should have been accomplished in 1670? 

THE FIRST ELECTION IN CAROLINA. 



During their short stay at and near Port Royal, perhaps 
while at St. Helena Island, it is interestiiig to note that the 
first election held in Carolina took place. The record 
says the Governor summoned all the ficcnioi to elect five 
men " to be of the Council." Wm. Owens, who by this 
time had developed into an active politician, was " whole}' 
rejected," and the freeliolders chose as their representatives, 
Paul Smitli, Robert Done, Ralph Marshall, Samuel West 
and Joseph Dalton, *' which accordingly was recorded." 
These were the first Commissioners elected b)' the Colonists 
at tlieir landing. But Wm. Owens, "always itching to be 
in authority," censured the legality of the election, where- 
upon, the freeholders, or the major part of tliem, met a 
second time RVid rofifnyjicd their former election, " by sub- 
scribing of their scverall names." They then left Port 
Royal and ran in betv/een St. Helena Iskmd andCombahee. 
Alan)' went ashore at St, Helena, and found tlie land good 
and many peach trees. P^rom this point the Bermuda sloop 
was dispatched to Kiawah to view that land, so much com- 



372 Mayor Courtcnay s Annual Review. \ 

mended by the Caseeka, and word was hrou^dit hack tliat '■ 

the land there was better to plant, and the matter was dis- ' 

cussed w^hether to remove there or not. The Govei nor favor- 
m^ Kiawah, it was determined to land permanently there, 
and weighing anchor the vessels stood to the Northward, 
and entering the Ashley, the Colony landed at " Albe- ' 

marie Point." This must have been in April, niaking al- 
lowance for the time spent to the Southward.- 

Mr. Morris Mathews' account, who was in the Barba- 
dian sloop, procured to supp!)- the place of the Albemarle, 
which was lost at Barbadoes, enables us to follow this sloop 
in her perils, after leaving Bermuda. 

On 15th Ma}', through stress of weather, she was forced 
into the Island of St. Katherina, about latitude y."" where 
they proceed to "' wood and water" the vessel. They traded 
with the Indians, and entertained tliem aboard the vessel. 
On the next day, a semi-Spaniard Indian came aboard with 
a present of bread, ^vC, for the Master, and promised pork 
in exchange for truck. Upon the 17th inst., the Master 
and mate and Mr. Rivers, three seamen and one man-ser- j 

vant, went ashore with truck, to buy pork* for the sloop's 
use. Also, two men servants went to cut wood, and two 
females to wash linen. The Spaniards and Indians treach- % 

erously made prisoners of a part or all ashore, and com- 
manded the sloop " to )M'eld to the sovereignty of St. ! 
Domingo." This demand was politely declined, on the < 
ground that there was neither wind with which to bring ■ 
the vessel in, nor small boat with which to come ashore. i 
They importuned for the release of their Captain and the 
other prisoners, but all to no purpose. The Spaniards and 
Indians, hnding that their orders were not to be obeyed, . 
opened fire from the shore with their muskets and bows, ; 
but only succeeded in damaging the vessel's sails. The 
next day, a favorable wind springing up, the men aboard 
the sloop gave the Indians a parting salute with their mus- i 
kets, which sent them all beh.ind the trees, and hauled the 
ship out of gun-shot. Leaving this Island, several da)'s \ 
were spent in sailing about the Carolina coast, until they = 



TJie Centennial of Ineorporntion. y/-:^ 

arrived oi)posite what proved to be Odistash. Here tlie 
Indians welcomed tlieni, told them of tlie En^lisli at Kia- 
wah, and also of one Captain Sliecdon and Captain /Mush 
ashore, who desired to speak \y\\\\ tliem. This Sheedon 
may have been the Sliadoo spolvcn of hy Milton. Thc-y 
liere met Captain SJieedon and Captain AlnsJi (who were at 
l^arbadoes), and many more. Tliis Sheedon told them 
tliat "Ye English with t-i.'o shipps had been at Port Royall 
and v/ere now at Kcyawah," and ofJered to show them the 
way over. Tlie next morning they arriv'cd at the entrance 
to Keyawah. where they met tlie I'ermudian sloop going out 
fishing, wh.ich piloted them into Keyawali River. The 
prisoners taken by the Spaniards had been subsequently 
sent to St. Augustine. 

The colonists were once more unircd. Two out of the 
three ships that sailed from the Thanii^s had gone to bot- 
tom and some lives liad been lost. Just how many of the 
original settlers arrived at Kiawah, we are unable to ascer- 
tain from the papers before us. l^csides, others were taken 
aboard at liarbadoes and probabl)' at l^ermuda also. One 
sliip only of the original expeditioii reached the desired 
port. Five vessels, at least, had been emplo}'ed in landing 
the colonists at Kiawah from the time they left the 
Thames. \\\ May, 1670, the Carolirui was sent to \'^irginia 
for provisions, and on the 27th day of June the l^arbadocs 
shallop was sent to ]]crmuda, possibU' for settlers or on a 
similar errand for supplies. The Carolina returned on the 
22d of August to Kiawah, and early in Septeniber was sent 
to ]3arbadoes, where she was in November, and wlience she 
returned early in the new year with sixty-four new settlers, 
XhcJoIiJi and Thomas bringing forty-two more. So it appears 
that a very ingenious Indian chief, tlieCassique of Kiau'ah, 
who has not been known before as an historical character, 
is responsible for the final location on tiie Ashley, which, 
early in i67i,j-iumbercd over two hundred inhabitants, and 
was called in honor of thie rcie'ning King, Charles Town. 



374 Mayor Ccmrtcnays Au)iual Rcviciv. 

WANT OF A Cl.KRGVMAN. 

1\ o-limpsc of the affairs of the htlle Cohiny in \W first 
weeks of their new h'fe, is presented in the foliowini^ letter 
and narrative : 

AlJJEMARLK Point, June 25th, 1670. 
Go'i'crnor Sayle to Lord AsJilcy : 

''Thougli we are (att pr'sent) under some straight for 
want of provision (incident to the be.^t of new phantations), 
yet we doubt not (through the goodness of God) of remits 
from sundry phaces to w'cli we have sent. Hut there is one 
tiling \\-\\\q.\\ lyes very heavy upon us, the want of a Godly 
and orthodox Minist'r w'ch I and many others of us have 
ever lived under, as the greatest of o'r Mercys. May it 
please )'our Lords'p in my late country of Bermudas, tliere 
are divers Minist'is of whom there is one r\Ir. Sampson 
Bond heretofore of long standing in Exeter Colledge in 
Oxford, and ordaigned by the late Bisliop of Exeter, the 
the ole Do'r Joseph Ifall. And b)- a commission from the 
Earl of Manchester and. company for the Sumer Islands 
sent theere in the yeere 1662, for the term of three 
yeeres, under whose powerful! and soul-edei}'ing Min- 
istry 1 have lived about eight yeeres last past: There was 
nothing in all this world soe grievous to my spirit, as the 
thought of parting with his Godl)- society and faithfnll 
ministry. But I did a little comfort myself that it might 
please y'r Lord by some good measures or other to enclyne 
his heart to come after us, who hath little respect from 
some who are now in authority in Bermudas w'ch is a great 
discouragm'nt to him, w'ch is taken notice off in other 
places, and he is invited to Boston in New h2ngland and 
to New York by the Govern 'r there wdth tenders of large 
encouragement if he will come to ye one or other place. 
I have likewise writt most earnestly to him desiring that 
he would come and sitt downe with us, assuring him that 
it is not only my urgent rec|uest but withall tlie most 
heart}' rccjuest of ye Colony in generall, who were exceed- 



1 he Ctiiiciniial of Incorpoyation. 375 

ingiy affected witli him <iik1 iiis ministry all tlic lymc tlicy 
wcM'c iti ]^ermudas." 

Tlie Lords Proprictoi's authorized an offer bein^^ made 
to Mr. Hond of 500 acres of hind and ^"40 per annum to 
come to Carolina, but we have not discovered that lie ever 
accepted the same. 

FIRST ATTEMl'T AT A rAKLTAMENT, AND lllE EARLIEST 
rOLITIClAN IX CAROLINA. 

The coincidence of date is again remarkable, as the narra- 
tive reads that "On 4th July 1670 the Gov'r and Council 
having been informed ' liow much the Sabbath day was pro- 
plianely violated, and of divers o\.\\q:x grcDid abuses practiced 
by the people to the great dishonor of God Almighty and the 
destruction of good neighborhood,' did 'seriously consid- 
er,' b)' vvhich wa\' or means the same might be redressed — 
but finding the number of freeliolders in the Colony ' nott 
ncere sufficient to elect a Parliam't,' the Gov'r Vvith the 
consent of his Council made such orders as were thought 
convenient to suppress the abuses, and summoned all the 
people to hear the orders; all \.\\^ freemen consenting there- 
unto, tile orders were published. Whereupon, \Vm. Owens, 
' willing to doe any thing, though ever so ill in itt sclfe, 
rather than not to apeare to be a man of accon (action), 
persuaded the people, that without a Parliaiiieiit, no such 
orders ought or could passe.' While the Gov'r and Coun- 
cil were discussing this and other matters he persuaded the 
people to elect a I'arliament among themselves, which they 
did aiKl returned to the said Governor. But after the 
names of the elect had been taken down, by \Vm. Owens, it 
is recorded, they left Jiim and his paper, without taking 
further notice of him, or their own 'election into dignity.' 

This was the first attempt at a Parliament. 

DEATH OF GOVERNOR SAVLE. 

It is curious that in those early days the dates of 4th 
March and 4th July should marlc impoitant events. The 
Governor died on the 4th March, i67i,aged about 80 years. 



37<^ J^hiyor Conrlcnays Aiinual Review. 

A very short time before his death he nomiiKitec] Joseph 
West as his successor, tlieii the leading man in tlie Cohiny. 
This act:ion was ratified by the Council after Sayle's death, 
until they could hear from the Lords I'roprietors. They 
strongly opposed Sir John Yeamans' appointment, as he 
had abandoned them in their distress at Bermuda. Never- 
theless he arrived with a commission as Governor, and w;is 
"disgusted that the people did not incline to salute him as 
Governor." Then followed the first disagreement in the 
Colony, growing out of the rivalr)' between A\'amans and 
West, the dissolution of the first I'arliament and a popular 
discontent which found expression in the declaration that 
" Sir John intended to make this a Cape Feare settlement." 
Yeamans finally entered upon his duties as Governor, as 
West was made " Register of the Province." 

The map hereto annexed is curious in many respects, and 
interesting for the names of the land-holders printed thereon, 
on both sides of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers. The exact 
date cannot be ascertained, but it was doubtless previous 

to 1700. 

POPULATION AND ITS SOURCES. 

No reader of the history of P^urope in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries can be otherwise than impressed 
with the religious agitations that marked that period. 
The religious troubles consequent upon the separation of 
Luther and his followers fron; the See of Ronie, were felt 
in many countries of Western Europe, and one hundred 
and twenty years after Luther's historic interview with 
the Emperor Charles V, at W'orms, the author of Paradise 
Lost wrote his plaintive lamentation concerning the reli- 
gious status of the people of Christian England. "What 
numbers of faithful free-born Englishmen and good Chris- 
tians have been constrained to forsake their dearest home, 
their friends and kindred, wliom nothing but the wide 
ocean and the savage deserts of America could hide and 
shelter from tlie fury of the j^ishops ! Oli, if we could 
but see the sha[)e of our dear Mother Country, as poets 
are wont to give her a personal form to what they 




iii-VlliifJ 



,-'■:/" 



^iyJ 



'%.. 






,4 i /t"ti* "^-J^ County: cij |l ° - 







The Ccniciuiial of Iiicorporatwii, 



^^77 



j)lccisc, how could she appear, think ye, but in mourning 
weeds, with ashes upon her head, and tears abundantly 
flowirif^ from her cyc>, to behold so many of her children 
e.\'})osed at once and tlirust from thin^^s of dearest neces- 
sity, because their conscience could not assent to thinc^s 
which the Bishops thought indifferent. '^ '^'' - -' -^ 
I shall believe there cannot be a more ill-boding sign to a 
nation than when the inhabitants, to avoid insufferable 
grievances at home, are enforced, by heaps, to forsake their 
native country." 

In the causes which led to the rapid peopling of our 
country, this utterance of ]\Iilton is fuU of significance, and 
the story of the flow of population to America might be 
correctly v/ritten by denominations. Our purpose, however, 
is only to state this as a potent factor in the great West- 
ward bound current of population, and endeavor to show 
the sources as well as the grov/th of population in our city. 

However easy this may seem, it is full of difficulties. 
Charles Town was the port of the Province, and through it 
thousands passed to the interior of Carolina and to Georgia, 
so that it has been a work of great labor to gather approxi- 
mately correct information from numerous scattered authori- 
ties as to the numbers and composition of tlie town popu- 
lation. 

The colonists under Governor Sayle, as already stated, 
left England in August, 1669, and, as appointed, stopped 
at Kingsale, Ireland, and the Barbadoes ; sailing thence, 
the fleet was scattered and driven by stress of weather to 
Bermuda and other points, and .finally in March, 1670, 
seven months after leaving the Thames, looked for the first 
time upon the coast of Carolina, and in the following 
month, after several changes, finally settled on the Ashley. 
The first settlers then were English and Irish, and the in- 
ference from the tenor of these Shaftesbury papers is, that 
the long stay at the English Islands where they stopped 
was partly for the purpose of augmenting their numbers, 
but nothing is known of the nationality of those who may 
liave joined the ships there. 
4S 



378 Mayor Ccmrtaiays Annual Review. \ 



l"hc first German Ihat set foot in Carolina was John Led- 
ercr, who was sent by Governor William Ik^rkeley, of Vir- 
gim'a, to explore the lands lying South and West of Jam.:s 
River; from his map of the country which he explored, as 
well as from his journal, u'e learn tluit he [)assed through 
North. Carolina, and as far South as the Sanlec River in 
South CaroHna. He was a man of learning; his journal 
was written in the Latin language, and his map indicates a 
knowledge of geographical calculation. The translator of 
his journal. Sir William Talbot, Governor of Maryland, also 
speaks highly of his literary attainments. 

Lcdcrer p.iade his journey through the primeval forests, 
inhabited by Indians, alone with a single Indian guide. In 
his journal is this entry : "On 20th May, 1670, with Maj. 
Harris and 20 Christian horsemen and five Indian Guides, 
marched from the falls of James River Soutliward : On 3d 
June I moved to cross a River to continue our journev.but 
the rest of the Company were so weary of the haitcrprise, 
thcit they abandoned it: On the 5th June my company 
and I parted, good friends — they back again and I \\\X\\ 
only one Susquehanna Indian, to pursue my first enter- 
prise." Had he crossed the Santec and reached the Ashley, 
he would have found Governor Sayle and his Colony only 
just arrived. 

The account of this journey was published and circulated, 
and doubtless had its effect in the settling of Carolina, for 
it is certain "that in 1680 German emigration had fairly 
set in." It is worth considering, if this knowledge of the 
practicability of journeying Soutliward by land from, the 
older Colonies North may not account for the subsequent 
overland movement of population into Upper South Caro- 
lina, and into the Eastern sections of the State, small at 
first, but which, before the Revolutionary v/ar, had grown 
large enough to extensively occupy the lands as far as the 
Upper and Western boundary of South Carolina on the 
Savannah River. 

Early in 1671, the Carolina Packet arrived from Barba- 
docs with 64 new settlers, "Oix^ JoJui and TJiovias bringing in 
42, as previously mentioned. 



The CoitcHiiial of /ncorporatio/i. 37r) 

Under date 20th January, 167',, we find tlie followino- 
definite information, as to po[)uIation, in the correspon- 
dcnceof Sccretar)^ Jos. Dalton. To Lord Ashley lie writes : 
*' By our records it appears that 337 men and women, 62 
children, or persons under 16 yrs of a^je, is the full num- 
ber of persons who have arrived in this cnuntr}% /// and 
since \hQ Jirst Heet out of England to this day, whereo( 43 
men, 2 women, 3 children are dead, and 16 absent, so 
as there now remains 263 men able to bcare arms, 69 wo- 
men, -59 children or persons under 16 yrs of age.'* Here, 
in a nutshell, was the status of the Colony furnished by 
the Recording Officer to the Proprietor, about twenty 
months after the first landing. The plant had taken root, 
and it was grown'ng steadily; the winds of adversity had 
only fixed its hold firmly in the soil. 

In August, 1671, the Proprietors' ship Biesshig, arrived 
from Englaiul, " bringing several families," for whom a 
town was proposed to be laid out on the Stono River, West 
of Charles Town. During the same month Capt. Halsted 
sailed for New Yorl:, aaid returned in December with a com- 
pany of emigrants from the Dutch settlement o{ Nova 
Belgia.''' A number of families also arrived in the Pro- 
prietors' ship PJicodx, from the same Province, and were 
assigned land " to the Southwest on the Ashley," believed 
to be on James Island, where they laid out land and called 



*We find the following entry under dale of 5th September, 1671, locating 
the Dutch settlement of " James Townc " : "5 September 1671. At a meet- 
ing of the Governour & Councill, on consideration of what disposal should be 
made of the people arrived in tlie Lords Proprietors' ship Blessing, agreable 
to the Lords Proprietors' directions. Ordered, a certayne parcell of land con- 
teyneng five and twenty acres Westward from the marsh joyning to the V\'est 
side of the land laid out for Mr. Thomas Gray, nere this Towne, and soe run- 
ning along Stonoe Creeke be layed out for the Towne, whereof five acres shall 
be reserved for a church yard, and the rest of the land backward on the said 
marsh be preserved for planting lotts for the said people and others who shall 
hereafter arrive to settle there. .'\nd it is further ord^.-red, that the said people 
shall {orthwitli goe and settle tlieir several proportions of land alotled to thcrn 
in and about tlu' saiil 'j'owne (that is to saye) four p-ules of land \\'ilhin the 
Townc for a Tov.'ue lott, and five acres without the Tounc for a planting lott 
for every per^nn in each family. — Journal 0/ Grand Connn'll." 



380 Mayor Courtoiays Aiiiiual Rcviciv. 

it James Town. This settlement was in after )-ears aban- 
doned, and these Dutch settlers spread themselves ihroiioh 
the other settlements. This was the first Colony of Dutch 
wliich settled here. Their first home in America havin<,r 
been conquered b)- the En^disli, they abandoned New York 
and came to Carolina. '' Their industry surmounted in- 
credible hardships, and their success induced many to join 
them liere from Ancient Belgia." 

In 1619 a Dutch man-of-war landed in the h^nglish Colon\' 
of Virginia twenty negroes, who were sold as sla\'es for life. 
"Fifty-three years after, on the 19th April, 1672, Sir John 
Yeamans entered upon his duties as Governor of Carolina, 
having brought with him from the English Colony of Bar- 
badoes tJic first negro slaves who were seen in Carolina." 
It is important to fix thiese dates and circumstances in the 
subsequent consideration of the subject of population. 

The new Governor's entrance upon office was also sig- 
nalized by several important measures. The one in wdiich 
we are most interested is his order, of date July 20, 1672, 
'Maying out of a. town at 'Oyster Point,' the present site 
of Charleston," which had been decided upon in the prece- 
ding year, and had been hrst suggested by Govern.or 5^a\-le. 

In the same year "certain persons in Ireland received 
overtures from the Proprietors in which tliey conceded to 
them the free exercise of their religion according to tlieir 
own discipline," N<3thing authoritative can be stated of the 
religious opinions or numbers of those settlers, but it is 
believed, from cotemporary references and other circum- 
stantial evidence, that they were the first aggregate of Irish 
Roman Catholics v\'ho came here. 

In 1682 Landgraves Morton and A.xtell induced immigra- 
tion to a large extent- five hundred persons arriving in one 
month "including many persons of good estate." 

During the gubernatorial term of Sir Richard lC\'rle, of 
'Ireland, there was a considerable movemerit from Ireland, 
" under the guidance of h^erguson, which mingled at once 
with the mass of the inhabitants of Charleston." 

*' During several vears imme^liately preceding this date 



TJic Ceiitciinial of fiuor/^oralion. :;S[ 

(1683) we begin to rccoo-nize more and more distinctly the ac- 
cession ofl^^rench Protestants. In the rcdistril)ntinii of h;ts 
in Old Charlestown, July 2?a\, 1672, Richard Ilitin, lacques 
Jours and Ricliard Dc}'os recei\'ed town lots with other free- 
holders. In 1677 grants were made to John Inatton ; in 
i67<S to Jean BazasU and Richard Gaillard; to John Alonke 
in 16S2, and in 16S3 to Marie Batton, wife of Jean BatTon 
(ci-devant Mary Fosteen). Jn 1679 the petition of Rene 
I^etit for transportip.g French Protestant families to Caro- 
lina, came before the Committee of Trade and Plantations, 
in the Council Chamber at Whitehall, and on the 29th of 
October the petition was granted, and his Majest}' Charles 
II gave orders for fitting out two suitable ships for their 
conveyance. '-^ One of these vessels was the frigate Ric/i- 
-moiid, which arrived in l6Sc^, bringing out forty-five French 
refugees. Charles himself bore the expense of their trans- 
portation. A more considerable number soon followed in 
another vesrel, also at the expense of the government. It 
was expected that these P^rench Colonists would be speci- 
ally useful to the Province b}- introducing the manufacture 
of silk ami the culture of the olive and vine, but this expecta- 
tion was not realized." 

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 16S5 resulted in 
a large addition of population directly from P'^rance, and a con- 
siderable number after a sliort residence in the Northeni 
countries of Europ^e and in New York and other Northern 
Colonies, repaired to Carolina as having a climate more simi- 
lar to the one from which they had been driven. Carolina 
then became a general place of rendezvous for P^rench Protes- 
tants. A considerable number remained in Charleston, but 
very many settled on the Santee and Cooper Rivers, and 
soon became in.fluential in all that section of the countr\\ 
"Their church was in Charlestown, thitlier they repaired 

*N. C. B. T., B.>)k II (1679, December 17. Whiteliall), Vol. I, page lO'J. 
'' To tJu- Go7h-niOr and C'piincil of AshU'v Rii'cy : Rccomniende'l to tlieii care 
several familie- of fureii^n-i I'rotesiant.-, wh > leave with iliis (li's[>atcli to >ettle 
ill Carulina, a> licini; skilled in tlie iriaiivif\u-iure of certain c Miiirioditif -, may 
instruLt tb.e Knylish jettler^. -'^ ''' * A grant to Mr. Rene I'l-lit and Jacob 
Crenard of 4000 acres of bip.d each." 



3*^2 Mayor Court oiay s Aiiiiunl Rrvicw. 

every Sunday from tlicir plantations on Cooper River. 'V\\v\ 
could be seen, |)roriting by the tide, arriving- by families, in 
their canoes, at the public landing at the fool of (juccn 
Street, preserving a religious silence, which was alone inter- 
rupted by the noise of their oars." 

In 1686 there were four Huguenot settlements in Caroli- 
na: at Charles-Town, Santec River, St. John's Berkeley a>iul 
Cooper River. Lawson, Surveyor-General, who visited these 
settlements in 1700, speaks of the French colonists in high- 
est terms of praise. There has not been, throughout the 
two centuries since tlicy first came, any better citizenship 
than lias been shown through their seven generations, and 
if tliey had only contributed Francis Marion to South Caro- 
lina and the Union, they v/ould have won distinction. The 
lot on which the present or fourth church building stands, at 
the corner of Cluircli and Queen Streets, is doubtless the old- 
est continuous title in occupancy and ownership in the city. 

In 1680 Lord Cardross took measures for establishing a 
Colony in Carolina, with a view to furnish a place of refuge 
to his persecuted brethren. This was destined to Fort 
Royal, as the following paragra|)h from the records in 
London shovv's : 

" Several Scotch going from Glasgow to Carolina, are to 
be permitted to settle at Port Royal, if they so desire, and 
land to be accorded to them conformably to an agreement 
(heretofore forwarded) u'ith Sir John Cockram and Sir 
George Campbell, but in the event of their settling am.ong 
the English, are to be assigned land upon the same terms 
as all others who come and settle in the Province. Desire 
that they may receive all manner of countenance." 

" In consequence of an invasion by the Spaniards, the 
Colony abandoned their lands in 1688."^' Many, however, 

*In the report of the Coniraittce to the Commons House of Assembly, r.iade 
in 1741. on t]ie Oj](jthor[)e expedition to St. Aujnistiiie, the (.'omuiiltc'C in 
assignini^ reasons for tluit expeilition, }}itcr alia assii^ni : " Tn i6S6, peace still 
suhsistini;, llu; J /nil Eadross (? Cardross) who had. ol)tained from the Lords 
I'roprietcns a (ir.uii; .if a lar^je Tract rtf laaii in Granville County, haviiiij^ just 
before conu- over and settled at I'.eavifort on Port Royal with a number i>l 
North Ihitains, the Spaniards eomini^ in 3 t^fallie.s from Augustine landed up')n 
them, killed and whipped a L^-eat many after- taken in a most cruel and bar- 
barou- nianaer plundered tliera all and broke up that settlement." 



.,x.- 



The CcnioDiial of hicorporaiioii. :jS^ 

remained in Carolina, who were gathered into congrec^ations 
under the eare of Presbyters, which continued to exist until 
about the close of the ei^lUeeiith century. 'I'he only one 
now surviving i-; the old "Scots Church \x\ (Charleston." 

This element of Charleston's population must have al- 
ways been prominent, for the earliest benevolent society, 
" TIic St. Andrews," was founded in 1729. and has had a 
continuous existence ever since. 

Between 1715 and 1745 there were accessions from Scot- 
land, a nu.mbcr of the vanc|uished Highlanders voluntaril\- 
seeking an asylum here. 

. It was natural that, under the oppressions incident to the 
times, the thouglits of the persecuted Quakers should turn 
t(^ a new Vv'orld, and five years after the settlement on the 
Aside}', we {^\\i^ the first Quakers arriving under the patron- 
age of the Earl of Shaftesbury liimself, whose letter of intro- 
duction is hereto appended. 

Letter from Shaftesbury to IMr. Percivall, 9th June, 1675, 
fixes the date of the first departure oi " Friends " for 
Charles Town : 

jMr. Percivall — There come now in my dogger, Jacob 
Waite and two or three other familys of those who are called 
Quakers. These are but the Harbciiocrs of a greater nmn- 
ber that intend to follow. 'Tis there purpose to take up a 
whole Colony for themselves and theire P'^riends here, they 
promised me to build a town of 30 Houses. 1 have writ 
to the Gov'r and councill about them and directed them to 
set them out 12,000 acres. I would have you be very kind 
to them and give them all the assistance you can in the 
choice of a place or anything else that may conduce to 
theire convenient settlement, for they are people I have a 
great regard to and am obliged to care of. I am 
Your very affectionate friend 

SPIAFTESBURY. 
To Mr. Percivall of St. Giles Plantaeon, 01 AsJiley River in 
Carolina. 

The same day, Shaftesbury wrote to the Council direct- 
ing them to " grant tliesc people a Colony of 12,000 acres, on 



384 J/dj'or Courlciiays A)uiiial Review. 

condition tiial: within 5 years thc\- Iniilcl :\ town of 30 
houses ami 100 inhabitants at the least, to each of whicli 
houses must belong as a lionie lot 3 score acies inse])arably 
forever, which 3 score acres belop.^in!:;- to each house, tliey 
are to liave, each householder as he comes, immediately in 
possession." 

In 1696 Jolm Archdale, a Quaker, was appointed Gov- 
ernor, but seems to have served onl)^ a few months. Tiiat 
their peculiar religious views were jniblicly respected, I 
quote from one of the earliest public Acts; " And whereas 
there be several inludjitants called Quakers who upon a con- 
scientious principle of Religion, cannot bear arms, and 
because in certain civil UKitters, they have been persons 
obedient to Government and very Ready to disburse their 
monies in other necessary and public duties— Be it there- 
fore Enacted that all such whom the present Gov'r John 
iVrclKkde Escj shall judge, that they refuse to bear arms on 
'd conscientious principle of Religion, oidy shall by a cer- 
tificate from liim be excused." Shecut sa)'s : 

•' T/ic Friends or (J^^^^^'^^^' -'^^^"^'^^'^''J/ ^^^^•'-'''^' was situated with- 
out the limits of the town, on the West border of Governor 
ArcJidales Square, which occupied the greater pro]:>ortion 
of the larid from Meeting to King Street and from Queen 
to Inroad Street. The xMeeting Mouse occupied the same 
site on which their present house of worship now stands ; 
the date of its erection is not mentioned by any J have 
consulted, but it is presumed to have been built shorth" 
after the arrival of Gov. Archdale in 1696, the Governor 
himself being a Quaker." 

This " Quaker Lot " on King Street, just South of Queen 
Street, is a most interesting locality. It forms part of Gov- 
ernor Archdale's Square, and the occupancy and title date 
bade to among the oldest, without change, in the city. A 
very interesting narrative prepared by Mr. Chas. J. Allen, 
of Philadelphia, says: "(17 1 8). .'\fter. having made use of 
the lot of ground for a considerable nuniberof years, with- 
out any regular title or fee in it, Friends \\\ London applied 



The Ccntinniial of lucorporatioti. 3S5 

to the Kino- in Council to have the property duly vested ;" 
and this was granted. At least three separate houses of 
worship have been erected on this lot ; the last was built in 
1856, at a cost of §3,751.46, and destroyed by hre in 1861. 
There are several graves in the lot, but it has long since 
ceased to be used for its original purpose. 'J1ie dwelling 
house in the rear is rented out. 

The late Rev. George Howe, D. D., gives the following 
interesting picture of the population of Carolina in 1685 : 

" h'ifleen years have now passed since the first ])ermanent 
settlement of Europeans was made within the bounds of 
South Carolina. A population of about 2,500 persons have 
been transferred from the shores of the old Continent, and 
have established themselves here. A portion of them are 
of the Established Church of England, to which a majority 
of tlie Proprietors belonged. The large majority from the 
beginning have been Dissenters from that Church. They 
have come from various portions of Britain or its Colonies, 
and from France. They are of English, Irish, Scotch, 
French or Dutch extraction. They have almost all been 
disciplined in the school of affliction, and their sufferings 
have, to a large extent, resulted from the conscientious 
maintenance of their religious opi)iions against the pos- 
sessors of inHuencc and power. The majority of them 
have- high and just ideas of personal responsibility, and of 
civil and religious freedom. They have come to these 
shores, some to better their condition in things temporal, 
the majority of those dissenting from the English Church, 
for freedom to worship God ; some, voluntarily, to escape 
bitter persecution, and others banished for religion's sake 
to a savage wilderness, They have been obliged thus far 
to contend with those inconveniences incident to first set- 
tlers in a new country, in a trying climate, with everything 
to learn, and surrounded by a savage foe." 

In 16S6 the leading elements of population, classed 

denorninatively, were English Churchmen, Scotch and Irish 

Presbyterians, Dutch and German Lutherans, P'rencli Cal- 

vinists, a few Irish Catholics, and Quakers. There were 

49 



■I I 



386 Mayor Coiirioiay s .Ifinual Rcvinu. 



also various otlicr small elements of po[)ulati(jn from l)er- 
mucla, tlie West Indies and elsewhere. It is hard to aseer- 
tain the relative numbers of each, as many had come sin^^ly 
in the numerous vessels arriving at Charles Tow 11. To give | 

some idea of these ship facilities for reaching this port, it / 

may be stated that there were 16 vessels discharging and ' 

loading cargo at one time as early as 1680, ten years after ; 

the first landing. 4 

In 1696 there was a small accession of po})ulation from \ 

New England, mostl)' passing through Charles Town ; a I 

pai'ty from Dorchester, Mass., under the Rev. Joseph Lord, ! 

settled in a body on the Ashley River, and the ruins of \ 

their fort and buildings may yet be seen near Summervillc. | 

No considerable groups of settlers are known to have emi- ^ 

grated here between 1696 and 1730, but there was a constant \ 

gain in population b}' ever\' arriving vessel. In 1704 the f 

white T:)oi.)ulalion was between five and six thousand for the 5 

whole Province. It is impossible to state the numbers in ' 

the town with accurac}', but there were only four places of \ 

public worship, tlie Iluguenot Church, the First Ijaptist 1 

Church, St. Philip's (Episcopal) Church, and the White \ 

Meeting (Presbyterian and Congregational) Church. 'i 

During the first ten )'ears on the Ashley, there was a \ 

steady increase of growth at '' Oyster Point," and a steady : 

decline at " Albemarle Point," wliicli latter was officially \ 

abandoned in 1679 in favor of the new settlement. As t 

there vv^ere only 2,500 people, including slaves, in the two \ 

Ashley River towns, and outside in different places, the j 

numbers of any one denomin.ation in cither town may ' 

reasonably be supposed to have been very limited. The 
fundamental Constitution was liberal in construction as to ; 

numbers, for it authorized seven persons agreeing among J 

themselves as to belief, &c., to constitute a Church ; but, j 

nevertheless, there is no authentic record of there having • 

been a place of public worship in Charles Town previous j 

to 16B0. \ 

Between 1730 and 1750 a great addition was made to the 
population of the Colony, from Switzerland, Holland and 



("4 



The Cent III iiial of Iiicorporafion. 3S7 

Cicrniany. The dreadful war \vliich sc()in'i;cd llic pcactrful 
inhabitants of tlie PaL-i.tinatc for so many 3'cars (h-ovc lli(.)u- 
sands to America : a portion came here. The vessels that 
brought them to Charles Town made profitable vo>'ages, 
because of the full outward cargoes always offering. 

When the Province of Nova Scotia, originally settled b>' 
the Frencli, Vv'as surrendered to the English, by the peace 
of Utrecht, it was stipulated for the inhabitants that they 
should hold their lands on condition of taking the oath of 
allegiance to their new sovereign. With this condition they 
refused to comply, without annexing a qualification that 
they should not bear arms — this was allowed b}^ the militar\- 
commander, but subsequent!)^ disallowed by the crown. 

In the struggle between France and England for Ameri- 
can territory, beginning in 1755, the continuance of Acadian 
Neutrals in Nova Scotia was not regarded favorabl)'. To 
expel them from the country with choice of residence, would 
be to reinforce the French in Canada. It was finally de- 
termined to adopt the severe policy of settling them in the 
English Provinces, and this liarsh measure was forthwith 
put into execution, and about twelve hundred were sent to 
Charles Town. 

From the land of " the forest primeval, the murmuring 
pines and the hemlocks," these Acadian farmers were tlirust 
forth from tlieir peaceful homes by a Royal edict. 

" When ou the falling tide tlie ficighted vessels departed, 
Bearing a nation, willi all its household goods, into exile. 
Exile without an end, and without an example in story, 
Far asunder, on separate coasts, the Acadians landed. 
Friendless, homeless, hopeless, they wandered from city to city, 
From the cold lakes of the North to sultry Southern savannas." 

Some of those who came here "achieved wealth and dis- 
tinction and remained in Carolina "; others as soon as peacrr 
was declared, left their new Southern homes and made their 
way back to their native land. 

" Only along tlie shore of the mournful Atlantic, 
Linger a few Acadian peasants, whose fathers from exile 
Wandered back to their native land to die in its ho-,om," 



388 Mayor Courloiays Annual Review. 

They were a frugal hard-worldng people, and for years 
some of Ihem plied their vocation as fishernien in this har- 
bor, furnishing our markets with an abundant supply of fish. 

As early as 1740, there were several Jewish faniilics in 
Charleston, and in 1750 they were sufficient in numbers to 
have a house of worship. This was located in Union, now- 
State Street, near Queen Street; the Rev. Isaac de Costa 
was the first pastor, and the name of the congregation 
"Beth Elohim " is preserved to the present day. In 1757 
the congregation moved to a building No. 318 King Street, 
near Hasel Street, and there worshipped until 1780, when 
they again removed to a building in Hasel Street ne<ir the 
site of tiie present handsome Synagogue. This last location 
was purchased in 1795 from tlie heirs of Nicholas Trott. 

Among the names in tlie first congregation, with the pas- 
tor, I find the followinp;: Isaac de Costa, Moses Cohen, 
Joseph and.Meshod Tobias, M. Pementa, iJavid D. Olivera, 
Abraham de Costa, Mordecai and Levy Shefftall, M. Laz- 
arus and Abraham N. Cardozo. 

These names are of foreign accent and are of different 
climes, and proclaim the far reaching hope, witli which flee- 
ing the persecution and the hate of Europe, they sought th.e 
peace of home and fireside, civic freedom and religious 
liberty in this new \^'orld. 

" For in tlic baclcgvound fii^ure^ vat^ue and vast 
Of PatriaidiS and of Prophets rose sublime, 
And all the great traditions of tlie past, 
They saw rePiected in the coming time." 

And a safe refuge it has proved to be where the ancient 
faith of the fathers m.ight be the unmolested faith of the 
children from generation to generation — a hope realized in 
thcdiospitable city of their adoption, through all its history, 
to them even as to others. 

In the War of Independence, numbers were enrolled in 
the Arm)' of the Revolution, and upon the formation of the 
governn)ent of the United States, the Jewish citizens of 
Charleston, New York, Richmond and Philadelphia united 



'IJic Ccutoniial of 1 ncurporation. 389 

in presenting a congratulatory address to W^ishiugton as 
President of the United States, which was pubh'cly ac- 
knowledged. 

In 1764 about 600 Palatines arrived here, liavin^- h^cin 
aided to accomplish their journc)' by the liberaHty of pub- 
lic-spirited citizens of London, and the friendly aid of the 
King of Fingland. In the same year there was a third arri- 
val of French Protestants under the Rev. ?vlr. Gilbert ; llicse 
finally settled in .Ybbeville, South Carolina. ■ 

Dr. Ramsay, the historian of South Carolina, himself of 
Irish parentage, alluding to the large foreign Protestant 
immigration to Cliarleston, says: " I'rior to the American 
Revolution in 1776, there v/ere very few Roman Catliolics 
in Charleston, and these liad Jio niiiiislryr 

In a later edition of his history (1809), ^">^' says: " But of 
all other countries, none has furnished the Province v/itli 
so many inhabitants as Ireland. Scarce a ship sailed from 
any of its ports for Charleston, that was not crowded with 
men, women and children. Tlie bounty allowed to nev/ 
settlers induced numbers of these people to resort to Caro- 
lina. The merchants finding tin's bounty equivalent to the 
expenses of the passage, persuaded the people to embark. 
Many causes ma}' be assigned for this spirit of emigration 
from Ireland, but domestic oppression was the most po^\■er- 
ful and prevalent." The period alluded to is betwx^en 
1784-1809. 

The first Roman Catliolics to arrive were Irish immi- 
grants, or " Redemptionists," as they were called, from 
having to work out, upon arrival, the expenses of their 
passage over. 

About 1786, a vessel bound for South America, having 
on board an Italian priest, put into Charleston and remained 
for a time. At the request of a few Irishmen, this priest 
celebrated Mass in an humble abode, to a congregation of 
about iivchc persons. 

This was the first Mass celebrated in Ch.arleston, and 
may be regarded as the introduction of tlie Catholic reli- 
gion to the States of North Carolina, South Carolina and 



39^ Mayor Court cnays Annual Rcvicio. 

Georgia, wliicb afterwards const iluted the See of Charles- 
ton. 

The/;-.?/ church in this region was erected at Newbernc^ 
in 1790, by the Gaston family. 

Father O'Reilly, a priest of IrisJi birth, was tlie next to 
exercise his ministry in behalf of the beginners, lie arrived 
about two years after the Italian, but feeble health pre- 
vented his remaining long. Soon after the departure of 
Father O'Reilly, the Rev. Dr. Keating arrived, and entered 
upon the discharge of his priestly duties. 

In 1789, the Catholics, assisted by their fellow-citizens, 
purchased for a place of worship a small tract of land near 
to tlie town, now Hasel Street, containing an old Methodist 
Meeting House. This building was fitted up for divine ser- 
vice and called " St. Mary's." 

St. Mary's Church was incorporated by an Act of the 
Legislature in 1790, and in tlie following year, 1791, the 
Roman Cathob'c Church of Charleston was likewise incor- 
porated. 

During their dependent state, the Colonies derived their 
jurisdiction through the Vicar Apostolic of the London 
District, but after their independence was achie\'ed, Haiti- 
more v/as selected as a convenient location for an Epis- 
copal See, and the Rev. Jno. Carroll, consecrated on 15th 
August, 1790, was nominated her Bishop. His Diocese 
comprised the entire thirteen of the United States of 
America. 

In 1793, the Rev. S. F. O'Gallagher, a native of Dublin, 
arrived with authority from the Bishop of Baltimore to 
collect the scattered flock, and repair the house of worship 
which had almost crumbled into ruin. 

He removed the old wooden structure (in Hasel Street), 
and replaced it with a substantial brick building, which j^cr- 
ished in the conflagration of 1838. After the destruction 
of the latter building, the present one, St. Marys, was 
erected. 

On the iith July, 1820, the Carolinas and Georgia were 
separated from the .See of Baltimore and placed under the 



The Coitounal of I iicorporafion. 391 

jurisdiction of a new Sec erected in Charleston, cc^rnpiisiug 
North Carolina, South Carohna and Georgia. 

Tlie Rev. Dr. J no. l^ngland was ap])ointed to the new- 
See, and took possession in December o{ the same year 
(1820). De was thcy/rj/ Bishop of Charleston. Upon liis 
arrival, the Bishop found only two churches occupied, and 
tivo priests doing duty — one at Charleston and one at Au- 
gusta. 

Dr. Ramsay says: " Hitherto Carolina had been an asylum 
to those who fled from tyranny and persecution, to the 
exile, the v/ear)- and heavy laden." In 1793 a new varictx- 
of human misery was presented for the exercise of its hos- 
jjitality. The indiscriminate massacre of Frenchmen in St. 
JJomingo, and their necessary flight, dro\'e thousands to 
this countr\', several hundred o{ wliom kmded at this port 
in great distress, l^hey vv'cre kindly received in the homes 
of Charlcstonians, until permanent arrangements could be 
made for them. So great was this misfortune that the Con- 
gress of the United vStates appropriated money for their re- 
lief. From a letter of Mr. Edward Randolph to Mr. Daniel 
DeSaussure, dated Philadelpliia, Februar\' 27th, 1794, I 
make the following extract : " I do myself the honor of 
enclosing to )'ou the copy of an Act passed on the 12th inst., 
by Congress, for the relief of certain inhabitants of St. 
L)omingo." ^ """ ''' ^' " Tiie cpjota assigned to 
South. Carolina is §1,750, this sum the President consigns 
to your care and management." 

IMr. Daniel DeSaussure, acknowledging the receipt of this 
letter and enclosure, says : " In Jnly last it was foreseen 
that a number of these unfortunate people would come 
here. Several gentlemen associated themselves to receive 
and distribute such contributions as should be made for 
tiieir succor, in consecjuencc of wdiich they collected from 
time to time about §^2,500, which has been n.early distribu 
ted amongst about 430 people, in supplying them with 
clotliing, blankets and fire-wood during the winter, and 
in a regular distribution of a certain weekly allowance of 



* The following action was taken by the General Assembly of South Carolina : 

hi tJic }loi'.sc of RtpyescntfJh'fs, Dccenibc}- u, /"/gj. 
Rfsoh'c-d, Tliat the \'eridae Tax, arisini; in tlie course of the ensuini; year, 
on the property to be sold in the City of Charleston, be and tlie same is hereb-y 
appropriated to the relief of the unhappy sufferers from St. Domingo, and the 
Treasurer residing in Charleston, is hereby directed to pay the same into the 
liands of the Committee of the Benevolent Society, for the use of the said 
sufferers 

Ordered, that this resolution be sent to the Senate for their concurrence. 

JOHN SAND FORD DART. C. II. R. 
By order of the House. 

Ill the Senate, Dcctimber 21^ n93- 
Rfsolved, That this Hou-^e do concur with the House of Representatives in 
the foregoing resc^luiion. 

Ordered, tiiat the resolution be sent to the House of Representatives. 

FELIX WAR LEV. C. S. 
By order of the Senate. 



392 Mayor Couricnay s AjDiual Rn'icw. ' \ 

1 

money according to the number \\\ families and circin)i- .? 

•I 
stances. ''^' 

This money contribution of our citizens alone was seven 
times as great as the proportion of the Congressional ap[)ro- 
priation sent to Charleston, but did not represent all tliat 
was contributed, not including the large amount of private 
entertainment. It is equally a pleastire to refer to this 
incident, as showing the hospitality and generous action of 
our citizens, as to recall the fact that through all the vicis 
situdes of nearly a centur)- tlie St. Domingo refugees and 
their descendants have invariably discharged their duties as 
good citizens, in prosperity and adversity. 

As germane to the subject of tlie local population of 
(diaries Town, the dates of th.e founding of certain Socie- 
ties composed of citizen.sof different nationalities and their 
descendants, will not be unniteresting : 

1729 — St. Andre\\-'s Society (Scotch). i 

1733 — St. George's Society I'English'). 

1 737-— South Carolina Society (French Protestants). ■ 

1766 — German Friendl}' (German). 

1774 — Friendly Sons of St. Patrick (E.xtinct). ■ 

1 79 1 — Hebrev.- Orphan Society. 

1801 — Hibernian Society. 



'Jlic Ccninuiial of ' Incorporation. 



393 



We copy the following figures of population {\o\w tlic 
United States census. There is a concurrence of opinion 
as to the inaccuracy of tliat of i860, and tlie enumeration 
of wliite population in 1880 is clearly inaccurate, as it shows 
a less number than in 1870. 



POrULATTON. 

WHITES. 

1790 S.oSg 

1800 9,630 

iSio 11,56s 

1820 10,653 

1830 12,828 

i?40 13-030 

IS50 20,012 

IS60 23,321 

1S7O 22,74Q 

1880 22,699 



BLACKS. 


TOTAl.. 


8,270 


16,359 


10,843 


20.-173 


13,143 


24,711 


14,127 


24,780 


17,461 


30,289 


16,231 


29,261 


22,973 


42,985 


17.146 


■ 40,467 


26,207 ■ 


48,956 


27,285 


49.984 



EARLY CROPS AND COMMERCE. 




The peopling of 
America introduced 
at once for the nour- 
ishment and comfort 
of the old world, tlie 
potato, maize and tlie 
turkey; also tobacco, 
which must be men- 
tioned, even thougli 
>-x ' ,. % v:3 it may be regarded 

The run. of the Peuod by many as not in the 

beneficent group, and yet it has made its way, so to speak, 
around the world. In the description of England, prefixed 
to Holinshed's Clironicles, and dated 1586, one of these 
gifts is mentioned; "of the potato and such venerous roots 
as are brought to furnish u.p our banquets, &c., &c." Our 
colonists found tlie potato and maize, and no doubt supplied 
60 



394 Mdyor Court c}iays Annual I\cvici^\ 

llicir tables witli turkeys and other L^anu.- ; but, doubtless, 
tlie first effort after securing shelter from tlie eleuieuLs was 
to provide for re^nilar aud ample supplies of food, 'j'he pro- 
ductions o{ iMv.^iaiid and the other countries from which the 
settlers came in the first decade were not particularly suited 
to the clin-iate of Carolina, and their first planting operations 
"were irijudicious and unsuccessful." 

Highland grains, with which they were best acquainted, 
were not entirel}- successful in the low sandy soil common 
to the coast region. The swamps and low grounds were of 
forbidding aspect, thickly wooded and hard to clear, and 
even when cleared were not adapted to any crops with 
which the settlers were then familiar. Stock raisine was 
an early and very profitable employment, and the noble 
primeval forests presented an inviting field for industry; 
masts, spars and ship timber of superb material were easily 
obtained, and pipe sta\'es for the contiguous West India 
markets were in active demand and in plentiful supply. 

Turpentine, tar, rosin and pitch are frequently mentioned 
in the earl)- exports. A "Complete description of Carolina 
and the natural advantages thereof," published in London 
in 1682, thus enlightens us as to the export of tar: " Tarr, 
made of the Resinous Juice of the pine, they make great 
quantities yearly, transporting many tuns to Barbadoes, 
Jamaica and the Caribbee Islands; w^hen boyl'd to a thicker 
consistance it is Pitch." 

Governor Archdale's account of the Province (1707) men- 
tions the arrival in England "of 17 ships from Charles 
Town, laden with Rice, Skin's, Pitch and Tar." It appears 
by the Custom House entries, 1730-31, that there sailed 
within one year from Charles Town two hundred and seven 
ships which carried, among other goods, 10,754 barrels of 
pitch, 2,063 of tar, and 1,139 of turpentine — the first men- 
tion I can find of the latter article. In a pamphlet entitled 
"The Importance of the j^ritish Plantations in America to 
the Kingdom," printed in London, 173 1, I find, in reference 
to Carolina, that "the making of Pitch and Tar w^as often 
thought impracticable, though now we know where to be 



TJic Coitcuiiial of lucorporation, 3(^5 

supplied with these twb necessaries al a less ))rice than I lie 
Danes and Swedes made us pay before that art was tau^^ht us." 

Beaver, bear, deer, fox, racoons, wild-cats, and otlicr 
animals, whose skins and furs were valuable, received earl\- 
attention. Considering the times, the circumstances and 
the difficulties of transportation with the vast interior, it is 
surprising to know that as early as 1710, 70,000 deer skins 
were exported; in .1731 250,000, and in 1748 the seemingly- 
enormous Cjuantity of 600,000. The value of a deer skin 
then was thirty cents, and the value now about four times 
that amount ; about equal to the difference in the value of 
money then and now, so that in deer skins the market can 
be reported steady for two centuries of time. 

A gentleman long resident in South Carolina (173 1) states 
that "Charles Town traded with eight thousand Indians, and 
3-x-t nine hundred hogsheads of rum was the most the}' ever 
imported in one 3'car lor home consumption and trade with 
these eight thous^md Indians." Evidently the relation of 
the rum to the volume of trade was considered quite dis- 
proportionate. 

THE CULTURE OF RJCE. 

In a bill of lading (,1671) from London, per Ship Williav.i 
and Ralph, Wm. Jeffreys, Master, bound for Charles Town, 
Ashley River, there was among other articles in the cargo 
" a barrel of Rice." 

In the curious pamphlet of 1731, previously referred to, 
but without date, we find " Dr. Woodward's " name mention- 
ed as receiving a parcel of seed rice from " Madagascar," in 
Charles Town, wdiich was planted and harvested, but he 
was ignorant for some years how to clean it for use. It is 
likewise "reported that DuBois, Treasurer of the East 
India Company, did send to Charles Town at an early 
date a small bag of Seed Rice, some short time after Dr. 
Woodward's planting of Rice, from whence it is reasonable 
enough to suppose might come those two sorts called Red 
Rice — from the redness of the irmer husk — and White Rice, 
though they both clean and become white alike." 



39^ ^J^<^yor Courtciiay s Aiuinal Rcviciv. 

Twenty-one years after tlie first landing, tlicrc was an Act 
of Assembly (September 26th, \(x)\) conferring a reward on 
■Peter Jacob Guerard. inventor of a pendulum engine for 
*' husking rice," which was superior to uny viacJiinc pre- 
viously used in iJic Colony. This proves on high authorit\' 
that among the grain planting experiments rice had a ver)- 
early place, and it is more than probable that these, perhaps 
small plantings, led the way for a better knowledge of the 
plant, its more general cultivation, and the improvement of 
its preparation for market. It shows also that the ingenuit)' 
of our people had been at an early day at work to find a 
way- to clean the seed. The true date of this machine is 
probably 16S5, and the date of the earliest rice planting 
must have been previous, and perhaps nearl}' coe\-al with, 
the settlement, as Dr. Woodward, it will be remen"ibered, 
was the first Englishman to reside in Carolina, and was the 
immediate representative of Shaftesbury. 

Dr. Ramsa)' gives substantially this account of rice cul- 
ture in Carolina, which is clearly after its introduction : 

Governor Thomas Smith had been in Madagascar before 
he settled in Carolina, and had observed that rice was planted 
and grev/ in low moist ground. Having a small area of such 
land in the garden adjoining his residence on East Bay, at 
the corner of what is now Eongitude Eane, he was satisfied 
that rice would grow there if seed could be obtained. By 
a singular coiricidencc a vessel in distress from Madagascar 
put into Charles Town harbor in 1694, and the master hav- 
ing known Governor Smith in the iskmd from whence he 
came, inquired for him. In the interview that took place' 
Governor Smith expressed a wish to obtain some seed rice 
to plant as an experiment. A small quantity was secured, 
and was in due season planted in his garden, where the Com- 
mercial Cotton Press now stands, or very near tliat locality 
towards Church Street. It grew luxuriantly, and this little 
crop was distributed by Governor Smith aniong his planting 
friends, and from this thoughtful begiiming, the fnst great 
staple commodity of South Carolina took its rise, and soon 
thereafter became the chief support of the Colony, furnish- 



TJic Ccntoniial of Incorporation. y^y 

ini^ chea]) food for nian aiul beast, and an aiiiuially increas- 
ing- quantit}' for export. When it was introduced tlierc 
were few negroes in the I'rovince, the government unsettled, 
and the soil, cultivation, and other circumstances most 
favorable to its growth were unknown. The ravages of 
pirates on the coast for the twent\' years succeeding its first 
cultivation made all exporting so hazardous as to somewhat 
limit rice production ; but in 1724, after all the acKx-rse cir- 
cumstances of the period had been surmounted, the home 
consumption was amply supplied, and eighteen thousand 
barrels of rice were shipped abroad. In 1760 the surplus 
over consumption exported had risen to one hundred thous- 
and barrels, and in 1770 to one hundred and twent)- thous- 
and barrels, with a value of $1,530,000 — or about $13 per 
package, and, as near as can be ascertained, selling for about 
three cents per pound. 

Let us pause and consider the details of this certainly 
remarkable result. Rice was then grown on inland swamps, 
and also on high lands as in man\' Eastern countries. Ex- 
perience with succeeding crops demonstrated that the low 
grounds agreed better with this culture, and so the inland 
swamps were extensively cleared to increase the crop. In 
the process of time as these fields became too grassy and 
stubborn, the)^ were abandc^ned for new clearings; and so 
on, until at length the superior advantages of the tide lands 
and the more complete facilities for irrigation afforded by 
their location were discovered. 

Those of us who have visited a modern tide swamp rice 
plantation, with its improved drainage, thrashing im})!e- 
ments, pounding mill, and labor-saving contri\ances, will 
realize the magnitude of the work done in the Provincial 
and Colonial period ; when it is recalled that the then crops 
were raised with imperfect facilities of irrigation, that the 
flail in the hands of the laborer was the only means of sep- 
arating the grain from the sheaf, and the chaft^ taken off by 
grinding in a crude wooden mill ; that a rude miortar made 
of a pine stump, to contain a bushel or less of the grain, 
with a pestle of seast^ned lightwood in the hands of a laborer, 



\VK'' ' .• .'' 



yjS Mayor Courtcnay s Annual Rcvieiv. 

was the only contrivcincc in use tlii-oiio-li \o\vj^ yQAw^. to clean 
the ^rain for market. That so sh)\v was tliis crude process 
that the task for a male hiborer was six pecks a ckiy, and 
for a female laborer four pecks a day, with their half acre 
field-task. Consider also the putting up and transportation 
of this bulky crop; grown largely on interior swamj)s at a 
distance from this port and market. In ever}- rice neighbor- 
liood or large plantation there was a cooper shop. The 
pine staves and oak hoops were cut and split near by, made 
into barrels, the rice packed in tliem, hauled on wooden 
sleds by oxen to the nearest water-course, loaded in sloops 
and sent to Charles Town. When these then aN-ailablc 
means are compared with, the grand result of a large local 
consumption supplied, and over one hundred and twenty 
thousand barrels exported from a single crop, that in seek- 
ing European mai'kets for this new Carolina rice, it had to 
meet there in competition the rice of India, China, and the 
Asiatic Islands, Africa and Southern Europe, and did 
so successfully, the people \\\\o achieved this marvelous 
work cannot ver}^ well be ckissed as indolent, or wanting in 
force of character, in surmounting the great difficulties by 
which they were surrounded, or in intelligence to direct the 
labor of unskilled Africans. 

The rice culture on inland swamps was continued with 
steadily increasing results, through nearly three-cjuartcrs of 
a century of time ; from its small beginnings it had sp]-ead 
over, a great breadth of territory in lower South Carolina. 
Few planters failed of acquiring an independence, and many 
made fortunes, large for the time and circumstances. The 
aggregate of thought and work to make these swamps availa- 
ble and productive was arduous, and at some points pre- 
carious; subject as they were sometimes to an excess of 
water, and to a want of it at other times when most needed. 

I have made extended inquiries as to the date of the 
earliest successful experiment in reclaiming river swamp 
land for rice culture, and find that Mr. McKevv-n Johnstone 
the Elder, raised a crop on such land at the " Estherville" 
plantation on Winyah Bay as early as 1758, A most inter- 



^.nu U 



The icntoiiiial of Incorporation. 399 

cstinc;- and instructive chapter in the agricultural history of 
the State, can be written of the great change in the rice 
culture from the inland swamps to wluit was at hrst tluiught 
and afterwards [)roved to be the hazardous venture of river 
land under bank, and even the flattering results obtained 
from these rich alluvial soils accomplished it very gradually. 

Governor Wright, the last of the Royal Governors of 
Georgia, commissioned in 1760, was a rice planter, and' was 
prominent in encouraging its culture, and bringing into use 
and value the " tide swamp land," but the complete change 
was delayed by imperfectly constructed banks and trunks, 
i-n general use, through maiiy subsequent years, and it was 
not until the close of the century that tlie ver)' general 
abandonment of inland swamps occurred. There were a 
great many plantations for inland culture as late as 1820-25, 
when the Izard family gave up the cultivation of the " Elms " 
and " Izard Camp," two inland rice plantations near Otranto 
on the Northeastern Railroad, and it should be mentioned 
that some inland rice fields were in use as late as i860, as 
for instance Mr. Trenholm's " VVythewood " plantation in 
St. Tliomas Parish, and to-day there are still such fields cul- 
tivated, but the area has long since been very limited. 

]3urii g this period, 1758- 1800, the great breadth of inland 
rice swamps was abandoned, and the thought, experience 
and labor, were gradually transferred to the river swamps, 
to enter upon a nev*- and wider career of prosperity, with a 
complete system of irrigation, improved culture, and a 
wonderful advance in mechanical contrivances for economiz- 
ing and perfecting the preparation of this crop for market. 
As w^e sometimes journey through this section of the State 
it is with surprise and wonder we still see the evidences of 
the old culture, as we look upon the lands now lying waste. 
}^ut there is equal surprise and w^onder in contemplating 
what has been done since in the new fields on the rivers. 

INDIGO. 

In Samuel Wilson's account of Carolina (1682), he says: 
" Indigo thrives well here, and very good hath been made;" 



400 Jfdj'o?- Con?-fc>W(iys Aiuiual Rcviciv. 

but I can find no mention of it as an article of export, or of 
its extended L;ro\vth, in the Coloiiy, until many )'ears after 
this date. 

That laborious and painstaking writer, ]^r. Ramsay, in his 
history, says of this culture, " it proved more really beneficial 
to Caiolina than the mines of Peru and Mexico to old or 
new Spain." As the Colony was indebted to the intelli[^a:nt 
use of a chance opportunity availed of by Govt^nor Tho'mas 
Smith for tlie initiation of rice culture, which so rapidly 
supplied chca}) food for nian and beast, and added so laroely 
to the wealth of the people, so fifty years afterwards it came 
about that a }'oung; lady, by her intelligent observation and 
diligen.ce,- was the originator of Carolina indigo culture. 
The follov.'ing narrative reads like a romance, and illustrates 
hovv' much can be accom])l!shed b\^ a single person towards 
achieving a large result. 

In 1/39 I-it^utenant-Colonel George Lucas was Governor 
of Antigua, one of tlie T.eeward Isles, noted in history as 
having been discovered b\' Columbus in 1493. His family 
had resided man)' )-ears there, when in that year the health 
of Mrs. Lucas recjuiring a change of climate. " Colonel Lucas 
removed his family to Carolina, where he had a landed 
estate of some value, witli the intention of making it their 
home for the future; but the breaking out of the war with 
Spain soon after his arri\-al oL)liged him to retuin to Antigua, 
while his v\'ife remained with her children in the Province 
for the benefit of as much winter as the )'car in this latitude 
affords. 

"The feeble state of Mrs. Lucas'' health threvx' the udiole 
care of the family and the. superintendence of their affairs 
into the hands of the eldest daugh.tcr, then only eighteen 
years of age; her youth, how^ever, did not prevent her ap- 
pl)'ing herself at once in the endeavor to increase the re-' 
sources of the new countr)' to which she had come, and to 
introduce the culture of those plants for which the climate 
appeared to her adapted. Though by birth a West Indian, 
slie had been educated in England, and had brought with 
her to America the industry, the habits of observation, and 



r-.l 



The Crnfcjinial of Incorporation. ^lui 

the strong love oi nature, for which well educated Kn<;]ish 
women have been always remarkable; but in no couniiy 
would it have been common to find a woman at that early 
age, busied in plans for improving the conditions of tilings 
around her, fulfilling her arduous duties with cheerfulness 
and fidelity, and preserving with rare skill the due pro-por- 
tion among those duties. The judicious manager of her 
father's estates never degenerated into the mere manager. 
The love of literature and science continued to characterize 
her to the last. It was her pleasure to assist by every 
means in her power by collecting for him plants and 
anim.als, and by her ready and intelligent sympathy was 
pleasantly known to one o[ our earliest Botanists, Dr. 
Garden, the friend and correspondent of Linnaeus." 

Hindoostan is the native field for the growth of indigo, 
but transplanted to the West In,dian Islands it was found to 
naturalize readily, and proved a profitable crop in its new 
home. 

In 1741-42, Colonel Lucas, owning a plantation near the 
confluence of Wappoo Creek and Stono River, where his 
family were then residing, encouraged his daughter Eliza's 
fondness for planting, by sending her seeds and fruits tobe 
tested in this new English Colony. Among other contribu- 
tions of this sort was somie indigo seed as a subject of ex- 
periment. The record shows, that without particular in- 
formation as to the season for sowing or the m.ost desirable 
soil, she undertook the experiment of indigo culture. The 
first seed was planted in March and was destroyed by a 
frost; the next in April was cut dov^n by worms; a third 
and later planting succeeded. Upon Colonel Lucas hearing 
of its growth he sent a Mr. Cromwell from the Island of 
Monserrat, one of the most healthful and pleasant of the 
West India Islands, with a soil adapted to the growth of 
sugar, indigo, coffee and fruits, who was versed in indigo 
culture, and in the intricate process of its preparation for 
market, and gave him high wages to develop this new crop 
in Carolina. Under his direction the first indigo vats, built 
of brick, were erected on this plantation, and the first Caro- 
51 



■ll: )'■ 



402 Mayor CA>ur[cuay s Annual Review. !• 

lina incli\i;o made. It was of inferior c]uality, aiul tin's was 

attributable to the inclii^'o maker, Mr. Cromwell, who was so 

impressed with the piomise of this ex[)eriment as to <n've 

expression to regrets that he should have to do what he 

believed would certainly ruin a similar industry in his own 

land. Me attempted to make a mystery of the work of i 

preparation, but Miss Lucas by close observation got an in- '% 

sight into the complex process, which required fermentation ^ 

b\' submerging the plants in cisterns of water, and a tedious f 

and continuous attention to man}- details of preparation, \ 

and was subsequent!}' rewarded by improved results. J 

In 1/44 "^^^^ whole crop was saved for seed, and given ^' | 

away in small parcels to a great number of planters, and \ 

through this liberal action the growth of indigo because ': 

pleiniful in the Colony. \ 

Just about this lime the arrival of several Frenchmen, who | 

had some acquaintance with the details of indigo prepara- \ 

tion, it ha\'inr been brought to great perfection in France, i 

were instruniental in producing still more satisfactory re- | 

suits. To extend the culture, every new item of information | 

on this subject was publisiied in the " Gazette " for the | 

general information of the people. .| 

Indigo is described as " a light and beautiful crop, and the | 

process of changing it from the weed into the matured dry | 

lumps Vs'as a \-ery nice and critical one, requiring untiring :| 

attetition during night and day. A periodical change oi \ 

hands was required throughout the work of preparation, \ 

with the exception of the indigo maker, who could no more \ 

leave his post of responsibility than could the captain of a ) 

ship on a lee-shore." \ 

This culture was urged with so much industry and success ■ 

that as early as 1/47 ^ considerable quantity of it was sent 

to England. The offering of " Carolina indigo " on the Eng- • 

lish market attracted great attention. Great Britain was \ 

consuming annuallx' six hundred thousand pounds weight of ] 

French indigo, paying for it one hundred and fift}' thousand \ 

pounds sterling, and the statistics showed an annual increase \ 

of consumption. It was easy to see the gain in drawing \ 



The Centennial of Ineorporatioii. 403 l 

this indii^o supplx' from tlu?ir own Colony, and so in 174S 
I'arliament passed an Act allowino- a hount)- of six jmmicc 
per ])oiiiul on indigf) from the l^ritisli Colonies. This stirmi- 
lated the Carolina production, and cven^ planter applied ' 

liimself wirh vigor and spirit to the cultivation of the article, '■ 

and they vied witli each other in both the quantit\- and 
qualit)' produced. Some years elapsed before they realized 
the perfection of preparation, which had given French indigo ; 

the preference, but this was finally accomplished, and large- 
profits accrued as the reward for ;hcir labors. • 

Dr. Ramsay says that the indigo planters in Carolina 
doubled their capital every three or four years, which was 
certainly an \inexampled planting prosperit\'. The cultiva- : 

tion of the plant as well as the preparation of the cake for ; 

market, was brought to such a degree of perfection as not . 

onh' to suppl)' the rnotlier country, but also to undersell 
and supplant the French indigo, previously in control of the : 

markets of i^^urope. Ten years after tliat general distribu- 
tion of seed in 1744, the export of indigo from CliarlesTown 
amounted to two hundred and sixteen thousand nine hund- 
red and twent)^-four pounds, and shortly before the Revolu- 
tionar)' war the export had risen to one million one hundred 
and seven thousand six hundred and sixty pounds. An 
incident will show the value of the prepared indigo. When 
]\Ir. Peter Sinkler Avas captured b}' the British, and his 
propert)' burned at his plantation in St. Stephens, among 
the items of loss we find twenty thousand pounds of pre- 
pared indigo, valued at $30,000, or $1.50 per pound. 

The stocks of indigo which had been saved during the 
War of Independence found a market in Charleston, when 
its commerce was resumed, but there was no' longer the pro- 
tection of 6d. a pound in Great Britain, and various other 
causes operated to reduce the production. The figures of 
export show a steady decline, and its abandonment as a 
leading crop is foreshadowed by the statement that between 
1770 and I7Q4, patches of cotton were grown in Carolina, 
some of Vvdiich was of the black ^^^<\ variet)-, and despite 
the diftlculties of securing the lint, the necessities of the 



404 Mayor Courtcnays Annual Review. 

times developed domestic fabricators of the wool, until about 
the latter year, when the practice of using home spun cotton 
goods became common in many localities. The yarn was 
usually spun at home and sent to the nearest weaver. The 
Irish settlers in Williamsburg County had a manufacturing 
establishment at Murray's Ferry, which turned out large 
,amounts oi cotton goods, and had for several years a re- 
munerative trade in the surrounding country. The spread 
of this new crop will be referred to subsequently. Here and 
there in several counties adjacent to Charleston indigo was 
grown and prepared for use at home, and in this city Caro- 
lina .made indigo in little calces could always be purchased 
up to 1867. 



SILI 



V. 



Samuel Wilson, in his account of Carolina (1682), says: 
" There is in Carolina great plenty of mulberry trees, such as 
are by experience found to feed the silk worm very well, 
yea, as well as tlie white mulberry, but there is of that sort 
also, which are propagated with a great deal of care ; a stick 
new cut and thrust into the ground, seldom failing to grow, 
and so likewise the seed if there be sown." 

Governor Archdale speaks of silk in his description of 
Carolina: ".Since I wrote the former part I understand that 
silk is come into great improvement, some families making- 
forty or fifty pounds a year, and their plantation work not 
neglected ; little negro children being serviceable in feeding 
the silkworms; and 1 must give Sir Nathaniel Johnson the 
reputation of being the principal promoter hereof, and of a 
considerable vineyard also. I further understand that the 
inhabitants work silk up into druggets mixed with wool, 
which is an excellent wear for that country." 

For a century and a half these efforts to produce silk 
were continued not only in Carolina, but in all the Colonies, 
and just after the landin.g at James Town, the enthusiasm 
for silk worms caused the mulberry tree to be planted in 
England, and the king himself engaged in this attractive 
business. 



. J 



IJie Coiicmiial cf hicorporation. 



40; 



There seemed to be a sort of infatuation for silk culture 
ever}'uhere. Sir Nathaniel Johnson " called his Carolina })la!i- 
tation Silk Hope, and sent silk to England in 1699," but lift)' 
years after the export " had reached a climax of onl)' one 
hundred and eicrhteen pounds." Some public spirited 
Charleston ladies of high standing substituted the winding 
of silk from the cocoons, for the tamer recreations of needle- 
work, and tl'ie pla\dng of the harpsicord, and as mairy as 
three silk dresses liad an existence in Charleston, one of 
which I learn still survives. There were no real difficulties 
in the way of the production of silk in the Colonies, but tlie 
economic fact remained, that people could make twice as 
much mone)' at other employments, and this explains its 
extended failure everywhere in America. One hundred 
years after those three silk dresses were made in Charleston 
from native grown silk, 1 remember as a boy, seeing sev- 
eral acres of land located West of Rutledge and North of 
Spring Street in this cit}', planted with mulberry trees, and 
a large two story frame building thereon, filled with all tlie 
appliances for growing silk worms and winding silk ; 1 have 
myself wound the fine thread of silk from the cocoons, little 
thinking then that tlie economic result awaiting this large in- 
vestment had been alread}' ascertained in a preceding cen- 
tury — for the disappointing experience of the Swedes on the 
Delaware, the Swiss at ]\u'\'sburg, and the Saltzburgers of 
Georgia, was the fortune of tlie enterprising Charleston 
gentlemen, Messrs. Teasdale, Hopkins and others, udio had 
projected this scheme less than half a century ago. 

A similar narrative could be prepared in regard to attempts 
to cultivate the vine, but it is hardly necessary to do so 
here. 



ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD— 1725-1775. 

Having presented in brief narrative some account of the 
early voyages on our coast, the early settlers, their suffer- 
ings, losses, and hardships, the sources of population and 
early religious development, the early crops and commerce 



vr^j; .. ;■; '■!' 



40^ l^fi^yo?- Courloiay s Annual Review. 

of tlie Prr)vince, we find Charleston in this period one of 
the most, if not tlie most prosperous town of the Colonics. 
IMantecl under the auspices of the F.nidish cr)nstitulion, its 
citizens had been nursed in dan^^er, and made vif;"orous b)- 
years of strife and suffering, but wealth and ^i;rcat prosi)erit\- 
had been achieved in spite of trials, and in the lialf century 
between 1725-75 the population had largely increased. 

From a pampldet entitled " The importance of the l^ritish 
plantations in America to this Kingdom, London, 1731," — 
I)ages 62-63, — ^ quote the following account of Ch;irles 
Town and its vicinity : 

" I shall now speak of our plantations on tin's Continent ; 
and shall begin with South Carolina, which is capable of 
being made the most valuable Province in North America; 
it is now the largest, being seventy leagues front on the sea 
from Cape Fear, the Northernmost bounds, to the River 
May, where \v'as an English_ Fort, built by order of General 
Nicholson. The climate is so good, that for eight months 
in the year no place exceeds it ; the other four months, 
May, Jioic, July and August, are very hot and produce 
much thunder; \-ct no place is more healthful. The soil in 
general is sandy, out oi which is produced all manner of 
English grain, in great perfection, as well as rice, Indian 
corn, &c. Nor doth any place exceed it for fine fruits. 
Near the banks of rivers there is strong rich land which 
produces hemp in as great perfection as any in tlic world. 
Mulberry trees of all sorts grow in vast -quantities, and are 
of prodigious quick growth. So that it has already been 
shown b)' many people that no place is capable of produc- 
ing better silk, and with more ease. The chief of their ex- 
ports, at present, are rice, deer-skins, pitch, tarr, turpentine, 
beef, pork, tanned leather, cedar wood, deal boards, pipe 
staves, timber of all sorts, masts, yards, etc. And some few 
ships have been built there, and those as good as an}- that 
ever were built in Ajfieriea, It must be allovv'ed that no 
place is more capable or convenient for building of ships ; 
for the countre)' abounds with line timber, and has so many 
fine rivers as an}- part of the known world." 



The Ccnfciinial of Incorporalioii. 407 j 

I 

At pac^cs 64-65, wc find the accompanyiii<^r commercial 
review, which is most interesting;, as showing the progress 
made during this half century: 

"The number of white people — men, women and child- 
ren — in the year 1724, was about 14,000; the slaves (most 
of which are negroes) — men, women and children — included 
about 32,000, and, no doubt, they are now encreased, for 
there has been many negroes imported there since. In'tlie 
year 1723 the imports to this Province amounted to the ' 

value of one hundred and twenty thousand pounds sterling, 
first cost in goods and merchandize, and had not been less 
yearly, for four years before. This estimate was made from 
the country Collector's P)0oks, who received a Duty of two 
and a half per cent, on all Goods imported; so that if any 
1^^-aud was committed by false Report, the Imports were so 
much more. i 

The quantity of British Shipping employed by means of 
this Province is not less than 8,000 Tons. iMigland hath ' 
received annually from this Colony only in Skins, ]^\irs. 
Rice, Pitch, Tarr. Turpentine, Pipe Staves, &c., exclusive of 
all l^ounty, to the value ot 200,000/. Sterling. The P^-eight 
o{ such Shipping would not amount to above 24,000/., and 
there is I^rofit upon that, at least ten per cent. i. e. 2,400/. 
So that if I. were to state the account between South Caro- 
lina and Britain, it would stand thus — 

Imported fixnn Carolina to (Irt-at Hiitaip, uf their rruJuee annually. . /,'2(>u,(kx) 
In Cash, adniilLiny; sixty shiiis, each ship to bring but twenty pounds. 1,200 



Go(;ds sent to Carolina annually from this Kingdom 100,000 

Tlie real Expcnce of S.ooo Tons of Shipping for. such Voyage. 21,600 

121,600 

The whole gain to this Kingdom by Carolina will be annually. .... 79,600" 

These two items are also most interesting: 
" All manner o{ Provisions arc extremely cheap in South 
Carolina, insomuch that the shipping at CJiarlcstonni are sup- 
plied all the year round with Beef at less than Seven Shil- 



4oS Mayor Courtcnays Ainnial Rcviciv. 

ling-s Sterling per hundred Weight ; and it would seem in- 
credible should one relate the prodigious (juantities of I^^ish, 
and tlic cheap rate at which that market is supplied with 
them. In short the whole Country is capable of vast Im- 
provement : there seems to be nothing wanting but People 
to make \\ much the most considerable settlement his Ma- 
jesty hath on the Continent of Aincricay — Page 6S. 

"There are hat makers in South Carolina. I have' seen 
as good hats made there in all respects as those we buy in 
England at from lo to 25 Shillings." — Page So. 

It will now be interesting to show how, in the years just 
preceding the Revolutionary war, wealth had further ac- 
cumulated here, and how general was the prosperity. 

I\Ir. Quincy, in his journal written in 1773, gives his im- 
pressions on entering the harbor; 

"The nunaber of shipping far surpassed all I have seen in 
Boston." " I was told th.ere were then not so many as com- 
mon at this season, though about three hundred and fifty 
sail lay off the town, which struck me very agreeably, and 
the new Exchange which pointed the place of my landing 
made a most noble appearance." ■• ^'' ^' '^ Again: "This 
town makes a most beautiful appearance as you come up to 
it, and in man}' respects a magnificent one. I can only say, 
in general, that in grandeur, splendor of buildings, decora- 
tions, equipages, numbcjs, commerce, shipping, and indeed 
in almost everything, it far surpasses all I ever saw, or ever 
expect to see in America." 

From William Gerard de Brahm, Surveyor of the South- 
ern District of North America, I quote, of date 1773 : 

" The Cit)' of Charlestown is in every respect the. most 
eminent, and by far the richest City in the Southern district 
of North America; contains about 1500, and most of them 
bigg houses, arryed by stright, broad, and regular streets, 
the principal of them is seventy-two foot wide, call'd Broad 
Street, is decorated, besides many fine houses, with a State- 
house near in the center of said street, constructed to con- 
tain two rooms, one for the Governor and Council, th' 
other for the Representatives of tlie People, the Secretarys 



TJic Ceuteiunal of Incorporation. 



409 



office and a Coiirt-rooni ; opposite the State-liouse is the 
Armory-house, item St. xMichaels Church, whoose steeple is 
192 foot hi^h, and seen b}' vessels at sea before they make 
an>' land ; also with a new Exchange on the east end of said 
street upon the bay; ?!! four buildings have been raised 
since the year 1752, and no expence spared to make them 
solide, convenient, and elegant. 

" The Cit\^ is inhabitated by above 12,000 souls, more than 
half are Nc^groes and IMulatters; the City is divided in two 
parishes, has two churches, St. Michaels and St. Philip's, 
and six meeting houses vidt. and Independent, a Presby- 
terian, a PVench. a German, and two Baptist; there is also 
an assembly for Quakers, and an other for Jews; all which 
are composed of several nations, altho' differing in religious 
principles, and in the knowledge of salvation, yet are far 
from being incourai^ed, or even inclinincr to that disorder 
which is so common among men of contrary religious senti- 
ments in man\- other parts of the world, where that pernic- 
ious spirit of controversy has laid foundation to hatred, per- 
secution, and cruel inquisition, in lieu of ascertaining thereby 
how to live a godly life. A societ}^ of men (which in relig- 
ion, (government, and negotiation avoids what ever can dis- 
turbe peace and quietness) will always grow and prosper! 
so will this City and Province, whoose inhabitants was from 
its beginning renound for concord, compleasance, courteous- 
ness, and tenderness toward each other, and more so towaids 

foreigners, without regard or respect of nation or religion." 
^c ^ -^^ -;:- ^ -5f -;f 

" This Port is very extensive, contains within the bar to 
the west end of the cit)^ in both rivers, Cooper and Ashly, 
sixteen square miles, sunds all over (the bar's channel ex- 
cluded) from nineteen to sixty foot at low water." 

^k -:v -;;- ■ -.h ^k ^ * 

" The annual exjoort of Carolina rice amounts to above 
100,000 barills of which two containc 1 100 weight, so that 
the whole makes out abo\x 55 million weights ol neat rice, 
worth in Carolina ^^275,000 sterling, next to which is 
indigo, whose exportation con^prehends no less than 6oo,ocx3 



^ i!i 



4iO Mayor Court oiays Annual Rcvinv. 



weight, worth in Carolina ^150,000 stcrh'ng, and tlic whole 
annual exportation may be valuaded ,^637,000 stcrlin-." 

'X- -\{- ■\<c .y, .y, ,y, .y^ 

"The cattle in tliis iVovince are thus increased, that all 
pains would prove in vain to number them; yea, the Pro- 
vince is rather overstocked, and in order to make room for 
the yearly immense increase, great herds from 3 to 1500 
heads ha\'e been driven from this into the neighbouring 
I'rovince of Georgia, there spread between Savannah and 
Mogetchee streams ever since 1757, and kept in gauges 
under the auspice of cowpen keepers, which move (like unto 
the ancient Patriarchs, or the modern Bodewins in Arabia) 
from forest to forest, in a measure as the grass wears out, or 
the planters approacli them." 

Ihe recklessness of British authorit}', the selfishness of 
its officials, lack of wisdom in all, soon gave provocation 
and forced the crisis upon the country, which under different 
auspices might have continued to acknowledge the sovereign 
of l^ritain fift}- years longer; and so it happened that 
Charlestov.-n had reached that period in its histor\' wlien it 
was to pass tlirough tlie fiery furnace of revolution in its 
progress to a complete condition of civil liberty and self- 
government. 

The Stamp Act of 1765 was the signal for general opposi- 
tion, and here in Charlestown resistance to it v.as openly 
declared, without waiting for consultation with any other 
town or Colony. The action taken here spread through- 
out Carolina, and was not limited to resolutions. On the 
arrival of the staniped paper in the harbor, the temper of 
the people forbid its landing, and the stamps were stored 
at P'ort Johnson, a garrisoned post of -George III in the 
harbor. As the obnoxious stamps never came into use, it 
is interesting to know what they were like and what was to 
be the expense of their use. Herewith is a fac-similie oi 
the little scrap of paper that cost P^ngland her American 
Colonies, and a copy of the table of prices: 



Tlii Centennial of I}ieorporatio}i. 



411 




Skins- 





r. 


VRCII>fEN"T. 






iS 


in 


by 13 at Four 


l>cn 


:e. 


22 


by 


16 at Six pen 


JC, 




26 


by 


20 at Eight p 


ence 




23 


by 


23 at Ten pc 


ice. 




31 


by 


26 at Thirteen 


pen; 


•e. 



Stami- Ori'KK, Lincoln's Tun, 176 = 

A Tal'/c- 0/ t/if Prias of Parchmriit urn/ /\i/.-r 
the .wrvice of A))ienra. 



Paper. 

Horn at Seven pence. 

Foolscap at Nine pence. 

Do., with printed notices for / 
j indentures. \ 

: Folio Post at One Shilling. 

Demy — at Two Shillings. 
: Medium — at Three Shillings. 
; Royal — at Four Shillings. 
J Super Royal — at Si.x Shillings. 



Paper for Pnyifin^ 



News. 
Doul>le (-hown at 14s. 
Double Dea\y at igs. 



1.; 
I -^ 



Almanacks. 
Bo(jk — Foolscap at 6s. (Dd. 
{ Pocket — Folio Post at 20s. 
1 Sheet — I^emy at 13s. 



!-^. 



J y 



Lo.ssing says: ''Having resolved on rebellion, the people of 
Charlestown ^cvere r.ot afraid to eoniniit aets of legal treason.'' 

Three companies of volunteers proceeded from this cit}- 
to James Island, captured the fort, hauled down the British 
flag, run up "a blue flag displaying three silver crescents,'" 
and the stamps were reshipped to England ; thus was begun 
the American Revolution. 

In the midst of the excitement of the period there 
was a brief calm ; the news of the repeal of the Stamp 
Act reached Charles Town, via Barbadoes, on the third 
day of May, 1/66, and as the agreeable intelligence be- 
came known, joy pervaded the community ; salutes were 
fired, the town illuminated, and the day closed with mirth, 
and Mr. Pitt wa- honored by loyal toasts *' to our worth}- 
friends in England." The Cc)mmons House of Assembl}' 
ordered a marble statue of Lord Chatham, and after man\- 



412 Mayor Coiirfenay s Ainiual Rnnezv. 

vicissitudes illustrating the changes of public opinion, this 
relic of the Colonial times still stands in our midst, recalliuL'" 
" his services to his country in general and to America in 
particu.lar." 

Next came the duty on tea, which was resisted; the first 
consignments were stored and finally I'otted in the wnvv.- 
houses ; the second was thrown overboard in broad daylight, 
without disguise. This happened on the third da)' of Novem- 
ber, 1774; the Proprietors, by themselves and agents, in the 
presence of the Committee of Inspection, stove the chests, 
and from the vessel then riding in the stream of Cooper 
River, threw all their contents into the same, amidst the 
acclamations of the people who crowded the wharves on 
the occasion. 

Then came the Boston Port Bill, and the sympathetic re- 
sponse from Charles Tow^n was expressed substantial!)' in 
liberal gifts of money and provisions. It is as well to niake 
record here of these supplies, and no one can read tliis 
statement without being impressed with the earnestness ot 
the men of Carolina. 

South Carolina— 71 2}< casks and 370,463 lbs. rice, arid 
cash i,'i,403.i2.3->:j^. Of the rice, 580 casks and 259,814 lbs. 
were sold in New York, realizing i^ 1,304. 19.0 3/_j^, making a 
total of say .^^3,150. 

By way of comparison the contributions of a neighboring 
Colony are also stated : 

New York — 44 bushels v\'hieat and 6 of r)'e ; 394 bbls. and 
714 cwt., 3 qrs., 2 lbs., corn flour; 5 hhds. and 30 cwt. In- 
dian meal ; 24 tierces and 50 cwt., 2 qrs., 3 lbs., ship bread ; 
22 bbls., 34 cwt., 3 qrs., 9 lbs., rye flour; 10^/2 bbls. pork ; 28 
firkins and 1,669 lbs. butter; one pipe and 123 galls, brandy; 
3 tons nail rod iron ; i ton bar iron. 

After the first years the theatre of war was South of New- 
England, and the historv' of the tinies shows that New Eng- 
land was mostly exempt from the privations of the struggle. 

i\Ir. Sabine says tliat " during the most distressing periods 
of the contest, useless articles ot luxury were imported 
into Boston. Extravagance in li\ing in the year 1782 



TJic CoitoDiia! of IncorporatioJi. 413 

would seem to have exceeded anything of the kind previ- 
ously knovv'n in .Massachusetts ;" and " Sarnl. Adams was 
filled Vvith serious misgivings at the state of things which 
then prevailed." 

In the "Independent Clironicle" of I^oston, 17th June, 
1779, '* Coffee, Sugar, Windward Rum, Mollasses and bags of 
Cottofi Wool," are advertised for sale; all foreign articles it 
will be noted, indicating an extensive comniei'ce. 

On the 6th of Juh', 1774, one hundred and four delegates 
from all parts of the Fro\'ince, assembled in Cliarles Town, 
and voted a " non-importation " I'^esolution, which was con- 
firmed b\' all the Colonies, through' deleo-ates assembled in 
Philadelphia in September of that }'ear. 

This sacrifice of material interests was made and contin- 
ued to the bitter end. The extent of it may be seen in the 
statement that Philadelphia exports amounted to ^700,000 
a year, )'et scarce ;^50,ooo of this trade w'as with England- 
while Charles Town had almost her wdiole trade with Eng- 
land, and it was absolutely ruined b}^ this measure of resis- 
tance to illegal taxation. 

On Sunda\', 14th August, 1774, Rev. John Pullman 
preached a sermon in St. IMichael's Church, which it was 
thought reflected on the popular proceedings. At the con- 
clusion of the services, the congregation by vote dismissed 
him, saying: ''Now shall we see who are the Enemies of 
the Countr}-.*' 

The effect of the news from Eexington (19th April, 1775,) 
was stimulating in the last degree; "a fierce spirit swelling 
for freedom was burning in every heart, all allegiance was 
considered as repealed— all ties sundered, as men reflected 
on the bloody plains of Lexington." 

On September 15th, 1775, Fort Johnson was a second 
time taken possession of, regularly garrisoned, and Colonel 
iVIoultrie devised for it a flag — a blue field with a single 
silver crescent in the upper corner; and this s)-mbol was 
worn on the caps of the first and second regiments. 

The next da\- Go\-ernor Cam|)bell fied to the shelter of 
the " Tauur^ carr)'ing with h.im the great seal of the 



A^A 



Mayor Court may s A inuial Review 



Province, and so ended tlie long line of I'roprielcir)- and 
Koyal Governors, who had resided in Charlestown one lum- 
dred and five >-ears. For convenient reference I record 
here tlieir names and dates of service. 

Ihidcr the Proprietary Goverjiuuitt. 



1670— William Sayle. 
1671 — jceph West. 
1671 — John Veaman.--. 
1674 — Josepli West. 
16S2 — Josepli Moiloh. 
1684 — Joseph West. 
i6S4~Richard Kirk. 
1 6 S4 — ]< ob e 1" t Q u .1 r r y . 
16S5— Joseph Morton. 
16S6— James Colleton. 
l6go— Seth Sothell. 
1692 — Philip Ludwell. 



1693— Thoma.s Smith. 
1694— Josepli Blake. 
i695~John Arthdale. 
1696 — Joseph Blake. 
T700 — James Moore. 
170.3 — Nathaniel Johnson. 
1709 — E d w a id T y n e . 
1710 — Robert Gibbs. 
1712- — Charles Craven. 
1 7 16 — Robert Daniel. 
171 9 — Ivobert J oh nson . 
1 719 — James Moore. 



Under the temporary Republieaii GoverJiinent. 
17 19 — Arthur Middleton. 

Under the Royal Goverfunent. 



I 721 — Francis Nicholson. 
1725 — Arthur Middleton. 
1730 — Robert Johnson. 
1735 — Thomas Rrou^htor.. 
1737 — Williara Uiill 
1743 — James Glen. 
1756— William H. Littleton. 



1760 — William ]5ull. 
1762 — Thomas Boone. 
1763— William Bull. 
1766— Charles G. Montague. 
1769 — William Bull. 
1775 — William Campbell. 



The first hostile shots fired in this harbor occurred on the 
iith November, 1775, when the " Tamer'' and '' Cherokee,'^ 
sloops-of-war, and the " Drfeneer exchanged shots with 
effect — Fort Johnson taking part in the affair. The war of 
independence in .South Carolina dated from that day, and 
tlie action was quite spirited. 

On the 16th November a new Council of Safety was elect- 
ed—Henry Laurens was chosen President ; and with the 
immediate prospect of a war with Britain, there was not a 



US 



,/ 



J 



/^■'''< 



>pie re-entered the t 
stcd. Abcnit nine 

the tide of ebb alml 
fcrv'icej the Comin 
[idej his troops on L 

Fold, pafi:ib](:; :^ilo 
ij to be.fe'/en feet « 
e ileer ia the uttack 
cl Ind the whole of 
pt. Scott, was almcill 
ir'^fliot in pieces : t 



KTcpcrhnent - j 

Adive - ~ I 

j! 

SoIeb:^y ' ,~ ' 

was qu::rtcrcd af th 

Captain M'»:ii3 lo 
in. his righc zviXiy bu 
■ nc';, but none of thc^ 
^pt,ed of die J irecHonj 
jT O'/e or' much conie 
^•.uiocii, ihat it is {e:v 
ATI M\jt: the iquaJron 
nfucrt^ G!lcrc-i du:i- f 



..-.. r» 






r.hcr io ch^ K 



iOC.) 

:nl 
Ics 

I St, 

re. 



dc- 
as 
vMl- 
Lvy 
ed, 
per 
the 

)m. 

-er- 

rit- 

nly 

of 

cte 

of 
an 



R. 

■nts 
:en- 
thc 
ack 
s in 
The 
nen 




Vr/'^w;n,>r^/r,Ar'^^y-I^r/,-r^^^aiy?y. ^y/u^^^//iJ /»»J/j^., ^Ur^/id iU^S-.A,) £ J{C^ur/:/Ar:y^;„,r., ^A'^//^Y'A''^yJ^:.,:u>!'y7y^> 



28- Tohi.'j J-'nynfau: 

•J.O AiUhnny HitnL 

28 Charh Hop, 

8 li^S' 



L!ST of Ills IvLn^'lly's Cquadron commaoJed by Commodore Sii- Peter Packer, Km. &c. on die Expedition againfl Fort Suliuan in South Carol'n^ 

I Comiiioiloi-c Sir PtUr Parker, Knt. * S)'reii - 

B""»' - - - 5" } C.ipi. 7».'« MornJ. ■S' Sphjnx 

nk\pnier ScoU. * Friendlhip arm'd vclld - 28 Omrlcs Hohi.- 

" ...... . ., , ^J^_ 

sXeid. 
St. Lawrence fchooncr ■■ Licuc. Jokn Grams, 

SJu-Jc!kw!ns A:<:}uul ^f th^jttjc/i qfFoKT SuT-iyA-^ u extr::^^^^ r'hiLmf.Gm.r«lC,Atvymutor/,^Lc.rJsoft/,^/l,l,mrii/ty. 

'■■J-Hi:Cciiitr.3iiJcrsoiiths Auicricanftalioii Jeeminsitcxiicdienttomaksan altcmptoiiClvjrlcs-'I'own ^. l^i • ^': ,•: ;%r; • i .::. I ,': <,.^: :.' r .'.:,':.: i;a Ijeiiii;, 

1 ii,SouthCardi.i2,lh5fi«tfailcJrromCaiiei''caro.ntlisiftofJuiK,ar.donlhi:.<.lhincliofC(lolFCIuiks V v, , ■ -.l-^aocj, 
Townliar. Thcsliaoi;nd.:dciK-F.;ir,ar.ill:.i.!.lciyiitiuoysi.rc|>ir:-.toiyloi;;cir.tei,ilcdcntianccof[h=harbo-jr. ^' : ,. ... ;i ol .Ihcl^ 
Tl^c ;tl, ill tlic fdoju-s snJ nioH Ol'thc traiirpons got over :hc R.ir into Flvc-Fjihom ilolo. Thctjih General 'I b.. ■ ■ . . , 11.. 1 ..,»,-..:.■....,-, I :■-:.. I..V, .:-..,...>... > ,....:,..:.-■.. 

C//«„l.„:<ledo..L;;ng-ln;ild.vith.,bi3Utfourocnvehu.v'. 1 ■. '::v -Tc ,-h,l,rr::r 1 ;utovcyh= liar with ^ s,,^'||'.';|i"7" ""v | P I'lr mV'" tr":' '""''u'rr t- 

Th'c" ^"1* f "" 1 " '^r* ^ i' 'il-.' ': lin- nt^c'- ' ■ I • orjventcd it! Mkius *^ that alTiftaiice to 'tie Eccliji ih'jiittack nude u|)onthcfbrtrcfs, thattlicGencLil intended. In the courfe of 

n.ft ^-, j' , _. >:'\;. . . ...^ : ■"li,.' tj , . , ■ V ,. ,. : . .v ;'rr3n"eincnt was f* the attack, the Uriltol had the wllolc of lier niizen and half her main niaft fhot aw^y, and v.'.'.s twice on lire; 

firi'vil that il, . ; .■ . ; made to wcig!i ; ^« fide5, and their col';'!!*; {hot in pieces ; the Spbynx had her bowfprit fhot a.vay, and the v.hole fleet rcccivctl 

2,i .I'sinll the fort. -§• confiJcrable damajie. 

It'iee.lMnftionw & Niimto of Men killo'd and uoun.M. 

E:iftol,, CoirmnJ.^re'^ Slip - ■ .'-^ 



Thelhu.ndei L;o„.o,tuv.,-..i ui ,..- 1 .■.....:.:..■-.... i 

hear N.W. by N.,-.nd Colonel yu»;.-ilhi-cv.'fevcrjlCi' ■ 

good dircaion. The Sphynx, (Vtabn, and Syien v. : 

or other vcfiels from annoyiin; the iTiips engaged, t ^:; 

ftom ihtm, to cut o!i' their retreat, ifpofTiW:. T hi. 1 ■■■:: 

ofthe pilot, who tan the three fri-.ucs aground. The S;,hynx ;:n.J Syren got off in r, few honrs, but the •? 

ACt.^on remained fall till the next morning, when the Capuin and Officers thought proper ta feuttle and fet W 

her on lire. -_ ., . * 



i-.tK-cn-aoementinaveiy * Tic, E 

■liltvarJ, to%-;=ventfire.n-.ip, :| 1 V f 

f the rebels fhiiuld bo driven |. 

aiied, o.ving to.thc ignoraTice f 



./. Aeil 



r.iko polfeiflon, aiiont fix o'clock a con- '3' 
AM FADEN, SucccCbr to the U'.e M , 'l' 



; KIKC. the Conurof Ji Marlm's.laie, CUm^-Oc, 



TJlc Coiiouiial of lucorporalion. 415 

piece o\ i.^c)ld or silver in the treasury, and there was £a 26,500 
of pa|n:r currency out. In Marcli, 1776, they/V.?/ government 
o\ any of tlie American Colonies was formed in Charles 
Town, and "the die of Revolution was thus solemnly cast, 
and the usual baptism of free States, that of blood and fire, 
was shortly to be tried." 

Carrington, in liis " l>attles of the Revolution," s<iys : 

" South Carolina tlius boldly led the way to general liule- 
pendence hy asserting her own, under John Rutledge as 
President, u ith Idenry Laurens as Vice-President, and Wil- 
liam Henr\- Dra3'ton as Chief Justice. An Arm)' and Na\'y 
were created ; Priv\' Council and Assembly were elected, 
ami the issue of six hundred thousand dollars of paper 
money was authorized, as well as the issue of coin ; and the 
fnst Republic o{ the New World began its life. "•■ - "^^ 
Massac^iusetts had began the year with substantial freedom. 
South Carolina put all the machinery of a nation into oper- 
ation with the opening Sj)ring." 

Early in Ma\' accounts were received announcing a Brit- 
ish, fleet off the coast, under Sir l^eter Park'er, an.d it is only 
necessary to mention that the memorable engagement of 
Fort Sullivan on 28th June, followed — with the com[)iete 
repulse of the Britisli fleet. 

I append a map of the localities, showing the position of 
fort and fleet, and an account of this engagement from an 
English source, which is not readily attainable elsewhere, 
and will prove interesting. 



THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

The pen of the historian has recorded the principal events 
in the great drama of war, of which this city was the cen- 
tre, from the day when ^loultrie's guns, antedating the 
Declaration of hndcpendence, sent answering signal back 
to Lexington and Concord, down to tliose closing days in 
1782, when the British garrison retired to their ships. The 
public spirit, the endurance and the sacrifice of the men 



J'l 



41 6 Mayor Court criay s Annua! Rc7'icw. 

and women of Charleston were not excelled, if equalled, by 
any other comnnmity, tested in that stru^-gle. A vohnnc 
might be written oi these thin_c^-s. but this occasion does not 
permit. After the dun;.^con .nu] the prison-ship had done 
their w^orst, and the "insolence of office" had been heroical- 
ly borne, the day of deliverance finally came, and for many 
reasons tlie portra\^al of this closing scene should have ];lace 
in this day's record — that joyous occasion, when, after thirty- 
one months of captivit}' and of disgraceful cruelties, the 
people of Charles Town, surviving all, witnessed 011 the 1 3th 
and 14th December, 1782. the slow embarkation from Gads- 
den's Wharf of over 9,000 civilians and slaves, and also the 
British soldier\\ aboard three hundred sail of ships, stretch- 
ing in a far reaching semi-circle around the great circuit of 
our spacious harbor. The most significant feature of that 
occasion is the charcicter and destination of the people mov- 
ing under " the meteor flag of P^ngland " — 3,794 whites and 
5,333 slaves. (Exeter Hall had not been erc^cted and occu- 
pied in 1782.) These figures of the exodus as here given 
are preserved among tlie manuscripts of the .Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

Return of People Ruibarked from Sout/i Carolina, ijtli and 
ipli Deee/nber, 1782. 

'r O , W H XI P LA t ¥. "NI E N" . Wt > M t . N . 

Jamaica 600 300 

B^ast Floikla d^^o 306 

East Florida 166 57 

England 137 74 

Halifax 163 133 

New York 100 40 

St. Lucia 20 ... 

i,Si6 910 i,o6S 5,333 9,127 

The narrative of the re-occupation of Charlcstown is told 
by eye witnesses. 

General Moultrie states that at 3 o'clock the same after- 
noon (14th) General Greene, Governor Matthcv/s, himself 



fllLDKr-.V. 


r. LACKS. 


'1 07 AL. 


37S 


2..()I3 


3.S9I 


337 


i,^'53 


2,926 


119 


558 


900 


63 


56 


330 


121 


53 


470 


50 


50 


240 


.... 


350 


370 



The Ci'iilcuuial of Incorporation. 417 

aiul others, with a few citizens and a <^niarcl of dragoons, rode 
into Charlestown, and lialted in Hroad Street near the 
spot where we arc now assend^hxl. 

**Tliere we aUglUed," he continues, "and the cavahy chs- 
charged to quarters; afterwards everyone went where they 
pleased ; some in viewing the town, others in visiting their 
friends." 

" I cannot forget," adds the General, " tiuit happy day 
when we marched into Charlestown with the Arneiican 
troops; it was a proud day to me, and T felt myself much 
elated at seeing the balconies, the doors and windows 
crowded with the patriotic fair, the aged citizens, and 
others, congratulating us on our return liome, saying ' God 
bless you, gentlemen ! You are welcome home, gentlemen ! ' 
]k:»th citizens and soldiers siied mutual tears of joy." 

So, also, Colonel Peter Horry, of Marion's Brigade, who 
accompanied the iidvance corps into the city, describes 
somewhat fervently the scenes of the occasion and the sen- 
sations he felt : 

"On the memorable 14th of December, 1782," he writes, 
"we entered and took possession of our capital, after it had 
been two years seven months and two days m the hands of 
the enemy. The style of our entry was quite novel and 
romantic. On condition of not being molested while em- 
barking, tlie 13ritish had offered to leave the town unhurt. 
Accordingly, at the filing of a signal gun in the morning, 
as agreed on, they quitted their advance works near the 
town gate, while the Americans, moving on close in the 
rear, followed them all along through the city down to the 
water's edge, where they embarked on board their three 
hundred ships, which, moored out in the bay in the shape 
of an immense half-moon, presented a most magnificent ap- 
pearance. The morning was as lovely as pure wintry air 
and cloudless sunbeams could render it, but rendered far 
lovelier still by our procession, if I ma}- so call it, which was 
well calculated to awaken the most pleasurable feelings. In 
hunt were the humble reiv-ains of that proud army, which, 
one and thirty months ago, captured our city, and thence, 



4^^^ Mayor Court cnays A)iuiial Review. 

in the drunkonncss of victory, had hurled menaces and cru- 
elties disgraceful to tlie British name. And close in the 
rear, was our band of patriots, bendini; forward witli mart.ial 
music and n\ing colors, to play the last joyful act in the 
drama of their Country's deliverance, to proclaim liberty to 
the captive, to recall the s:^.iile on the clieel: of sorrow, and 
to make the heart of the widow leap for joy. Oh ! 'it was a 
day of jubilee indeed ; a day of rejoicing never to be forgot- 
ten. Smiles and tears were on every face." 



POST REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

Having thus presented the closing scene in the Revolu- 
tionary war history of our cit}', we are brought to the 
threshold of a new era, when she was to put on municipal 
robes and enter upon a new career. 

" A miglit}' hand from nit c^v]lau^tle^^s Urn 
Tours foi'lh tlic never-cnrlinL; Hood of years 
AnionLT the Nations * ">= * * * 

* * * * On their foremost cdi^c 

And there alone is life." 

As we stand here, looking back over the track of the 
wonderful century closing, for us, to-day, wliat an illimita- 
ble field of tliought and reflection opens before us. What 
great events, wonderful inventions, and progress in the 
useful arts we may enumerate, and the successful applica- 
tion since of invention and science to them ; of the tri- 
umphs of the spinning-jenny, the spinning-frame and the 
power-loom — hundred-handed, like Briareus and his giant 
brothers of old ; the use of w^ater for power instead of 
hand ; the steam engine, the cotton gin, steam navigation, 
rice mills, the telegraph, by land and sea; night turned 
into day by th.e hurtless lightning, and of the Michigan 
Telegraph Ro\% to whom " God lent so divine a vision, that 
he has seen and measured, and has harnessed to our service 



J h^'.f 



TJic Crutoiiiinl of hicorporatioji. 41c) 

the subtlest forces of nature, and \vc look on in wondei-, as 
at Edison's command dumb maltcr spcalrs tin: word that 
died a\va\^ weeks ago upon the empt>' air, and falls upon 
the ear again, luith a Ih'iiig voiced 

This, tlien, is the Century, upon whose wondei-ful stream 
of }jrogress and performance our city was commissioned to 
act her part. Let us scan the record of the lumdred years 
since, and tell at least some portion of the story of Charles- 
ton's first Cerjtury of municipal life. 

THE FIRST TNTENDANT. 

'The Act of the General Assembly \\'hich incorporated 
Charleston August 13th, 1783, was from the pen of Ivichard 
liutson, whose name stands jirst on the roll of Intendants, 
and the memorial tablet you this day unveil C(^uld record 
no worthier name in our City's history. The mention of 
it calls up the lawyer, soldier, legislator, chancellor, who, 
the better to aid his country in her arduous struggle for 
liljerty, passed from tlie possession of large wealth to indi- 
gence and po\ert}\ General C. C. Pinckney said of him, 
that he knew of no single citizen to wlioni Carolina was 
more indebted for active zeal and perpetual sacrifices in 
her behalf, bearing even a severe captivity in a prison-ship 
at St. Augustine with uncojiiplaining patience and fidelity 
to the end. It slioudd make us feel prouder of our cit}-, 
that this true citizen in war should have had full recogni- 
tion when peace was pj-oclaimed, and should have been 
awarded the first place in the City government at the first 
election. In this new station, as our annals tell us, he had 
to dealAvith many turbulent spirits, intent to disturb the 
peace of society, the natural sequence of war. Mobs ap- 
peared, some mischief was done and a good deal contem- 
plated, but by his zeal, firmness afid activit}' he finally put 
down all irregularities and preserved the public honor and 
the public peace. 

South Carolina, too, was not unmindful of Richard Mut- 
son, liaving called him, with Jolm Rutledge and John ?^ia- 
thews, to the Bench in i/Si, as one of the tliree first Chan- 



//■Jl'i 



COMrvIERClAL HISTORY. 

An association of merchants, under tlie name of the 
Charleston Chamber of Commerce, existed here in the 
Colonial times. In Wells' Register and Almanac for 1775, 
the charges on protested Bills of Exchange are printed, as 
the action of the Chamber. It will be a satisfaction to all 
of our guild to know this, and to learn that within six 
months after the incorporation of Charleston the Chamber 
was again brought into existence. 

Quoting from the original Minute Book, still pi'eserved 
as a valued memento of a hundred years ago by this useful 
and venerable Society, it appears that at meetings held 4th 
and 6th February, 1784, eighteen rules for the government 
of the Chamber were ado[)ted, and a preamble, which re- 
cites that " tlie advantages arising from commerce to every 
State are so universally acknowledged that it has been an 



420 Mayor Court oiay s Annual Rcvieio. > 

cellors. We enjoy the freedom he gave his all to secure; 
we do well to carve his name first q>\\ the snow-white cen- I 

tennial marble, that his name and his example niay l)e per- | 

petualed to coming generations. | 

The war of the Revolution had prostrated Charleston, \ 

commercially and financially, and the glowing narrative of ( 

her wealth and commercial importance in 1773 ^^'^^^ given \ 

place to ]ioverty and hardships ten years later. The h^ede- \ 

ral Union, the State and the city were in the shadow of I 

bankruplc)', disorganization was general, and the people 
were brought face to face with a gloomy condition of 
affairs. The readjustment of commercial and social bal- : 

ances, after such a strain of the body politic, v.as a slow 
and trying process, and it took years to reach a stable con- 
dition. The first sign of revival was when our harbor was \ 
whitened with the sails of commerce, 'Uhat enlarger of the 
human mind, binding the ends of the earth together in 
golden chains," which brouglit bustle and movement on 
the water front, and renewed activity to our local industries. 



./ 




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TJie Centoiuinl of Licorporatioji. 421 

object of constant and utmost attention ; licnce any at- 
tempt to extend commerce, encourage industry, and adjust 
disputes relative to trade and navi<^ation, must deserve the 
approbation of every well-Vv'isher of his country. Willi these 
views, mercantile societies have been formed in tradin^^ 
cities, and proved equally beneficial and useful. In order 
to effect in this city an institution of the like nature, a con- 
siderable number of merchants met," &c. 

What will be regarded as of great ititerest is the preser- 
vation, through the vicissitudes of a century, of the auto- 
graph signatures of the first seventy members, which are re- 
produced herewith. The perusal of these names will recall 
many noted citizens, who, w^ith their descendants since, have 
been prominently identified w^ith the commercial fortunes 
of our city. 

This brief mention of the Chamber of Commerce, soon to 
commemorate its centeriuial, suggests a consideration of the 
tonnage of the port in that first business year after inde- 
pendence had been fully achieved. The principal articles 
of export were indigo, rice, tobacco, naval stores, timber and 
skins. Tweh'e ships, one bark and two brigs arrived during 
that year from the coast of Africa laden with slaves, each 
vessel averaging two hundred persons, total about three 
thousand slaves ; moatly tonnage from Old and New England. 

List of Vessels Sailing from iJie Pori of Charleston for the 

year lyS^f. 

81 ships — total tonnage say 28,000 tons: 60 sailed for 
European ports, 9 sailed for West India, 7 sailed for Phila- 
delphia, 5 to Savannah for orders. 

139 brigs — total tonnage say 21,000 tons: 53 sailed for 
European ports, 42 sailed for West India, 15 sailed for 
Philadelphia, ii sailed for Wilmington, 5 .sailed for Boston, 
5 sailed for New York, 5 sailed for Savannah, 3 sailed for 
Rhode Island. 

226 schooners — total tonnage say 23,000 tons: 39 W'est 
India ports, 2y Northern ports, 160 to the neighboring ports 
of Wilmington, Savannah and St. Augustine. 



'['}■' 



4-2 Mayor Courtcnay s Ainuial Rn'icw. 

l6o sloops — total tonnao-c say 10,000 tons: 3 ror(M"'^ni 
ports — London 2, Antwerp i ; 35 Northern port^, 47 West 
India ports, 75 to \\'ilmin<^ton, Savannali and St. Aui^ustine. 

Acrgregate tonnage 82,000. 

A total of 606 \'essels, with an average tonnage of on])- 
135 to each. Only one bark-rigged vessel arrixed in 1784, 
and that was a slaver. 

In 1882 there were 1,076 clearings, with an average ton- 
nage of 625 each, equal to 672,500 tons. This corn[)arativc 
exhibit of sliip arrivals shows at a glance the growth of 
commerce at this port for the hundred )-ears. It is not 
possible to furnish, a particular accoutit ()f the value of the 
exports and imports as a whole, the coastwise cargoes not 
being entered at the Custoni House in value, but the state- 
meiit of tonnage will suffice for illustration of the increase 
of commerce at this port. 

UPLAND COTTON. 

In consi(ieriiVg tlie \vonderful growth of cotton in the 
Southern States u'ithin the last centur)-, v/e call up an at- 
tractive topic, l^efore alluding to its marvellous develop- 
ment in its relation to Charleston, it will be interesting to 
note its place and pi'ogress in the world. 

Herodotus, foui' hundred )'ears before Christ, tells us that 
the wild trees of India "bear fleeces as their fruit, surpass- 
ing those of sheep in beauty and. excellence, and th.e Indians 
use cloths made from these trees." Nearchus, the Admiral 
of Alexander the Great, rc^ports a machine, equivalent to a 
roller gin, in use among the Hindoos, which separated the 
lint from the seed, and describes trees in India bearing as it 
were bunches of wool, out of which tlie natives make gar- 
ments, wearing a shirt reaching to the knee, a sheet folded 
around the shoulder, and a turban folded around the head. 
The Greeks and Romans earl)- used cotton goods to a 
limited extent as articles of exquiste luxur}' before the}' 
were actjuain.ted with silk. " Sixty-three \'ears before Christ, 
cotton awnings v.'ere used in the theatre at the Appollina- 
rian games, and Caesar covered the \\hole Roman Forum 



TJic Centennial of Tueorporation. 



423 



and tlie YlA S.XCKA from his own hcnisc even to the asccnl 
of lite Capitoline liill, \\])ich appeared n)orc \voiuU:rful than 
the ^dadiritoi-icd exln'bition itself." 

The culture of cotton commenced first in tlie I'.ast, and 
has been handed chjwn foi' thousands of years, for I find 
that cotton was cultivated in o-ardens from remote antiquit)' 
in China, yet this ingenious people never turned it to any 
account until the end of the thirteenth centur\ , when it was 
first manufactured. In Central Africa cotton h.as also been a 
staple giowth time out of memoiy ; it is also of indioenous 
American growth. On the first landing of the Spaniards in 
Mexico they found it in considerable perfection, and the 
Mexicans seemed to be dependent upon this product, the 
wool of rabbits, featl/ers, and a fibrous plant called maguei, 
for their clotliing materials, having nritlier wool, heinp or 
silk, and their f];ix was not used for these pui'poses. The 
able Chwigero sa\'s : "Out of cotton the\' fabricated nets of 
exceeding tenuity and as delicate and pure as those of Hol- 
land, and their cloths were interwoven into beautiful figures 
w ith the S(jft w^ool of rabbits ; rjiantles. bed curtains and 
cai'[;ets the\' finished elegantly witli mingled cotton and 
feathers." When Cortez entered the City of Mexico in 1519, 
Montezuma lionored him " with gifts of finest cotton fab- 
rics," showing not only that this plant was cultivated in 
that countr\-, but that they had knowledge of weaving 
nearly thiee centuries before the mechanical inventions of 
Margreaves, Arlvwright, Compton, Cartwright, Whitney and 
Watt multiplied for us the production and uses of cotton. 
Cortez sent to Charles V, of Spain, " cotton mantles, some all 
white, others inixed with white and black or red, green, 
yellow^ and blue, waistcoats, handkerchiefs, counterpanes, 
tapestries and carpets of cotton." Columbus found it wild 
in riispaniola, and on tlie continent of South America, where 
it had already grown into an article of use for clothing and 
other purposes, tlie Brazilians making beds of it. Magellan 
and Drake make the surprising statement that cotton was 
one o\ the articles of dress among the American savages on 
their finding of the country. 



424 Mayor Court enays Annual Rcviciv. 

Schoolcraft, in liis '• History of tlic Indian 'i^ibcs," i^ivcs 
tills exceedingly intcrestini^r statement: 

"Spinning was practiced to a considerable extent aniong 
the Caribs, and the aborigines of all the West India Islands', 
even where little or no clothing was used. On landing on 
Gnaguhana, Columbus found the inhabitants perfectly nak- 
ed ; and yet the women, he observes, had abundance of cot- 
ton yarn, and would exchange balls of it w^eighing twenty- 
five pounds, for the merest trifles. Of this they made their 
beds, which were suspended between two posts, and named 
hardacs, a name adopted by and in universal use among sea- 
men. In the same yccir (1492), he found the women of 
Cuba had a slight covering of netted cotton ; and in their 
houses large quantities of yarn, both wrouglit (woven or 
netted) and unwrought. In St. Domingo a chief gave to 
each of the Spaniards a dress of cotton. In his third voy- 
age, the inhabitants of tlie Gulf of Paria were observed w^'th 
bands or fillets of cotton about their heads, and colored clot lis 
of the same about their loins. 

''On another part of the coast, these cloths were beauti- 
fully wrought with various colors, so as to look like silk. In 
Yucatan similar embroidered garments were seen. These 
things were frequently offered for barter, but it does not ap- 
pear that any of the discoverers thought it worth his while 
to record the processes of their fabrication. It was the 
plates of gold worn b)' the men that stimulated incpury, not 
the simple occupations of the women ; and hence not a syl- 
lable seems to have been put on record by the conquerors 
respecting native spinning and weaving. 

** It is really surprising how the numerous quantities of 
thread consumed in ancient Mexico, were ever made b}' so 
slow and awkward a process. The men were well clothed, 
and the women appeared to have been as comfortably dress- 
ed as country people with us are. Then there were ham- 
mocks, bedding, and constant demands for the warriors to 
be provided. A few items from the tax tables, given in the 
paintings, will show how heavy were the demands which 
spinsters had to meet In addition to those of their own fam- 



Tlic CtrilciUilal of Incur j'uycil ion. 425 

ilics. Cotton in bales, in )'arn, and in blanl-.^-ls or mantles, 
caps and other parts ol wanior's dresses, were re^^ularly (-(jn- 
tributed. I3y single towns, four hundred bales of cotton 
wool was a coninion tcix. A single town twenty-four hun- 
dred bundles of mantles (ponchos or blankets)," &c. 

It nui)- be thought out of place to introduce thi.^ informa- 
tion about cotton \\^ the far off past, but it will pro\'e new 
and interesting information t(0 n'lost of my readers. 

A still more curious fact is, that objects of stone and cla}', 
resembling s|)indle whorls, have been found in the Indian 
mcmnds of the West, supposed to have been built before 
the Christian era. 

The early discoverers of the Mes-cha-cebe, or Mississippi, 
and its tributary streams, claim to have seen cotton growing 
wild and in great pleiit)'. l!"! 1726 cotton v/as a staple pro- 
duct of Hispaniola, and in 1753 Jamaica exported 2,000 ba.gs. 
In 1740-4S tlie average annual export from Jiarbadoes for 
the eight years was 600 bags. 

'In the 1 781-S9 period, just previous to the advent of 
American cotton, England imported 150,000,000 pounds, or 
an average of 16,000,000 or 17,000,000 pounds per annum, 
and the sources of these supplies arc seen in this exhibit for 
one of these years : 

From British \Ve.st Indies 5,800,000 lbs. 

French and Spanish Colonies 5,500,000 " 

Dutch Colonics 1,600,000 " 

Portuguese Colonies 2,000,000 *' 

Smyrna or Turkey 5,a)0,ooo " 

19,900,000 " 

To protect and encourage the English carrying trade from 
those countries, there was a stipulation in Jay's Treaty (1792) 
against the importation of American cotton into England, 
but this was stricken out by the United States Senate. 
This is mentioned to show how little importance was at- 
tached by Mr. Jay to American cotton at that date. 

In contrast with the present condition of cotton let us 
look at the plant in our own country in the seventeenth 
54 



426 



Mayor Conriaiay s Annual Review. 



and ci^^lUcLMUli centuries. Cotton was first cultivated in 
America in 1621, and '"their plentiful coniinj.^ up was a sub- 
ject of interest in A.nierica and I'Ji^laiul." In Cariijll's lli.s- 
torical Collections mention is made of its in-owtli in i66r), 
and the [)lant was found to ^now well on the Ashley in the 
first years of the settlement there (1670-71). lii I7/1<S, 
amoni^ the exports from Charles Town wc)-e " 7 ba^;s of 
cotton wool," valued at about $i6aba^s in 1770 three bar^s 
more were sent to EngUnid. in the year 1784 John Teasdale, 
a merchant of Charleston, shipped from this city to |. 6v: J. 
Teasdale ^^ Co., Liverpool, eight bags of cotton. When 
the vessel arrived out tlie laughable incident occurred of 
the cotton being seized on the ground that it could not 
have been grown in America. Upon satisfactory j)roof, 
which had to be furnished, it was released. Idds cotton 
shi|)ment v/as the first ever made from the United .States to 
a European port. 

To show the obscurit}' of this plant, l\lr. T. Coxe, of 
Philadelphia, writing in Rees' h2nc)-clopedia, says: "Not a 
single bale of cotton was exported from this C(mntry of 
native growth before J7S7," and in Smithers' History of 
Liverpool the eight l)ales above referred to are claimed to 
have been received from the Spanish i\Liin, or the West 
Lidies, and reshippcd at Charleston. 
-The export of cotton to Europe was: 



In 17S5 (Charleston) 14 I'.nL^ 

I7^6 6 " 

17S7 109 " 



In 17SS 380 F.ags 

17S9 8-12 " 

1790 Si " 



It is evident that there was a failure of the American 
crop in the last year. I have no means of knowing wdiat 
effect was produced on the Liverpool ILxchan-gc, but it may 
be su|)posed that cotton speculation started then. How 
much uas t.ak'cn by " speculators," how much for " manu- 
factures," or how iriuch for " expi>rt," has never been re- 
corded. Of th.e fourteen bags sent to Europe in 1785, ten 
ba^'-s were shi[>[)ed by John Teasdale, who, it was said, had 
bought the year before the first bag of American cotton 
ever cvrown in South Carolina. 



llic CLitloniial of f iicorporalioji. 



4V 



The prices of cotton at United States ])oits in \ ycjo iSoi 
were as follows : 



1790. 
1791. 
179:?. 
1793- 
1794- 
1795- 



14K I 179^' 3^>;< 



26 
29 

33 
36>< 



1797- 
179S. 
1799- 
iSoo. 



IbOT .4.^ 



In I S 14, on account of the war, it iiad declined to 15 
cents; I Si 5, 21 cents; 1816, 29}% cents; 1817, 26j/< cents; 
i8t8, 34 cents; and again declined to 15 cents 1824, and in 
1825 rose to 21 cents. For the ten ensuing years the price 
averaged about 10 cents. 

We have now to point out the marvellous development 
of cotton culture. This plant, always suited to our soil and 
climate, but limited b}' tlie difficulty of separating the seed 
from the fibre to uses purely domestic, and a culture so 
.small as hardly to be estimated, rose at once after Whitney's 
invention of the cotton gin to the highest com.mercial im- 
portance. The immense areas of uncultivated land in the 
South seemed pro\'ided for the accommodation of tin's great 
crop. Its introduction energized the Southern people and 
opened a wide field for exertion ; indigence might now hope 
for competency, and competency aspire to wealth ; new 
labor v/as introduced froni abroad or transferred from sur- 
rounding States, and under the impulse thus given to in- 
dustry, wealth and refinement sj^read through tlie land, and 
that progress which is ordinarily the slow result of )-cars 
was realized immediately. 

The great factor in this wonderful growth was that mar- 
vellous invention to which is justl}' attributable the found- 
ing of what has come to be called the Empire of Cotton. 
It has rarch', if ever, occurred that the invention of a single 
machine has given emplo)'ment to so many millions o{ 
people, and has added so much to the substantial wealth 
and resources oi the- world. Those of Ark w right for spin- 
ning cotton, and Fulton for propelling vessels by steam can 



428 Mayor Courlaiays Aunual Review. 

alone in these respects be compared with it ; here is the 
simple St or)' : 

Mr. Eli Whitney, a native of Massachusetts, a gentleman 
of liberal culture and great mechanical talent, was gradu- 
ated froni Yale College in 1792, and went to Georgia to 
teach in the famil}- of Mrs. Miller, a sister of General Greene. 
In her liouse he met many planters, all of whom regretted 
that so valuable a product which Georgia could produce so 
easily should be useless because of the difficulty of separating 
the cotton from the seed. He there noticed the difficult 
operation of picking the seed from the lint by hand. 
He studied the subject, and the result was the saw gin ; 
his whole work was perfected in ^Irs. Miller's house. I have 
before me a copy of the " Letters Patent," dated 14th 
March, 1794, to Eli Whitney, attached to v/hich is the dc- 
.scriplion of the n.iachine and a complete set of illustrations. 
vSoon after the patent was granted the machines were put 
upon the market, eagerly sought for, and their use initiated 
that -great development which, is so fully illustrated in the 
statistics which accompan}- this narrative.'"'" 

To the honor of South Carolina let the record be per- 
petuated ; the General Assembly paid tb.e great in.ventor 
§50,000 for the free use of the gin in South Carolina. 
North Carolina and Tennessee made some compensatiori 
for similar rights, but the State where the benefits from 
this machine v;ere clearly the greatest, not only withheld 
remuneration, but opposed it in the Federal Courts. Jt 
was the good fortune of a South Carolinian, Judge VVilHam 
Johnson, of the Supreme Bench, after thirteen years of 
costly litigation to the plaintitT, to preside on Circuit, and 
decide in Mr. \\4iitne)''s favor. Tn his charge to the jur)', 
he did full justice to the original inventor, as well as to the 

*A patent for a cotton gin was issued under date of I2th May, 1796, to tlug- 
den Hoinies, which u as operated ijy \^ ater-pfn\er on Mill Creek, Fairfield 
County, S. C, in the niiU hou>e of Mr. Kineaid, and is rcixMted to have 
worked wed. I'di Whitney's patent wa.-> cr-iHested in llie Uniteil States Court, 
in the C)eori;!a Distiiet, for lldrLeen years, dr.i iia' svhieli [>rotracted ])eri(xl I can 
find no tiaie vd" the IlDhne^ patent, winlc the tinal judicial decision ^\ a?) in favor 
of Wliitiiev, wh,o-<e niaehities wcic tlien univer^aily in Use. 



TJic Coitoniial of Incorporation. 



429 



o-reat importance and utility of tlic invention itself. To 
South Carolinians such an association with this wonderful 
instrument is properly a subject of pride and satisfaction. 

The hand-loom was in use until 181 3. The secret of the 
power-loom was so well kept in En^dand, that the crude 
efforts to reproduce it in this country from the recollections 
of operatives from England, were not successful until 1822; 
and the first statistics of cotton manufacture were not-re- 
ported before 1840, and now the American mill product 
aggregates §200,000,000 a year. 

The following statistical exhibit will show the marvellous 
work accomplished through the instrumentality of Whit- 
ney's cotton gin, the spinning-jenny and the power-loom ! 

There were exported in 1791 of all kinds- of cotton, 
189,316 pounds, equal to 473 bags of 400 pounds, for all the 
ports. Whitney's gin came into use in the year 1794, and 
in 1795, 5,276,306 pounds, equal to 13,191 bales of 400 
pounds, were exported. In 1838, 595,952,297 pounds, equal 
to 1,4.89,880 bales of 400 pounds eacli. u'-ere exported, vvdiile 
in a recent year, 3,150,000,000 pounds, equal to 7,875,000 
bales of 400 pounds each, were grown in a single crop, of 
which 274,500,000 pounds, equal to 685,000 bales of 400 
pounds each, were shipped from this port alone, and the 
wants of the world now require 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 bales 
of American cotton. To-day there are 1,619,000 acres of 
land in South Carolina devoted to vq^land cotton culture, 
with a product of more than half a million bales of 500 
pounds weight. 

The introduction of cotton into Europe, and its manu- 
facture, are events which have had amazing results, exert- 
ing, it is difficult to say, how large an influence on society 
and governments. The wealth and power of Great Britain, 
acknowledged and felt by all the world; have a nearer con- 
nection with the cotton plant and cotton manufacture than 
with, any other plant or industry wliatcver. McCulloch 
says: "The influence of thic stupendous discoveries of 
liargreaves, Arkwright, Compton, Cartv.'right and others, 
have overcome all difficulties; neither the cheapness of 



43*^ Mayor Coiirtoiays Auuual Rcviciv. 

labor in Ilindoostan, nor excel icncc to which the natives 
had attained, have enabled them to stand the coni[).titi'ni 
of l^aigland's purchase of their cotton, and after c;irr)'iiu;' it 
5,OCJO miles to be n^.tnufactnrcd. transporting;- the <;oods 
l^ack, and sellino then) to the i^i'owers ; a j.n-anal triumj)li (jf 
ircclianical genius, and accomplislied in a ver)- feu )-ears. 



LONG STAl'I.E COTTON. 

Betv/een the Ashiley and the Savannah Rivers the coast 
o( Carolina is lined with wliat are known as tlie sea 
islands ; the larp;est and most numerous are around St. 
Helena Sound an.d Inroad River. In area tltese islands 
represent 5c:)0 square miles, cxc!usi\'e of salt marsh ; but of 
tids area there were onk' 23,887 acres, equal to about 37VJ 
square miles, in cotton cultivation in 1S79. Mere is grown 
those fine gaades of cotton which ha\^e made the Charles- 
ton market famous in the world. Less than one iiundred 
years ago one bag of sea island cotton was the export. 
This was thrown on St. Simon's Island, Geor<jia, in 1788. 
from seed brought froni a West India island. Mr. Kinse\' 
Burden, of South Car(3lina. obtained some of this seed and 
planted u'ithout result, and it was not until 1790 that Mr. 
William Elliott was successful with a small ci'op grown on 
the Northwest part of Hilton Head Island, said to be the 
.spot where Ribault landed the first Colonists from France 
in 1562. This cotton sold for twenty-one cents per pound. 
Subsequently, in 1805, Mr. Burden began selecting seed, 
and through this process, noting results )'ear b}- year and 
keeping his secret, he was enabled to improve the staple, 
and in 1825 he sold a crop of 60 bags at §1.16 per pound, 
and continuing his careful attention to seed selection and 
cultivation, he sold in 1828 two bags at §2 per pound. 
From that date the secret became generally known that 
the fineness of tlie cottcai was due to skillful selection o{ 
seed, and carefrd cu!ti\-ation, and to such perfection has the 
staple been brought by thib means that entire crops have 



7 Jic Ccutouiial of Incorporation. 4^1 

been sold, not by samples, but by tlic brand on llic bac^, as 
tlu.' fmcst wines are sold. To prevent fiauds in marks, 
man\' planters placed cards, u'ith tlieir nan)(.;s and the nanie 
and locality o\ the plantation, and the brand printed on 
them, in the h.vg wliile beini;- packed ; and some planters in 
packing their finest ;.p'ade cottons also cov<^red the inside of 
the coarse bag-'inL,^ in which it was packed with close-tex- 
tured cotton goods to protect the contents from dust in 
transit. Idierc- Wcis great pride ii] those days among the 
sea island i)lanters as to the market results of their crops, 
as it indicated the degree of perfection in their culture, 

Tlie war of 1860-5 brought utter ruin to these splendid 
planting operations during its continuance. The seed car- 
ried to the in.terior deteriorated in quality \w a different 
soil an.d climate, and so scarce was choice seed from this 
cause in 1865-6, tluit Mr. Jos. T. Dill at one tin:ie had, in 
an ordinary letter envelope, the seed from v/hich all the 
presen.t fine long sta[)le cottons have been since derived. 
Idiis seed had been saved b)' the late Capt. George C. lie}'- 
ward, and giwn to Mr. Dill, with the assurance of its gieat 
value. From this small beginning, and under the old per- 
fecting pi'ocess of seed selecti<jn and caieful culture, the 
sea island cottons are once again produced up to the best 
grades of earlier years, although from many causes the 
demand for these extra fine grades is so limited as not to 
warrant more than the preparation of a small percentage 
of the whole crop. The proportion of lint to seed cotton 
has since 1S65 been increased ; formerly, one pound of lint 
cotton to five pounds of seed cotton was regarded satisfac- 
tory. Thanks to Mr. Clark, of James Island, a fine variety 
of long staple cotton has been produced in late years, which 
yields one pound of lint to three and a half pounds of seed 
cotton. Despite the sweeping disaster of the u^ar, the sea 
islands have since been developed to a considerable extent. 

h^^r Convenient reference, 1 gi\'e the sea island cotton 
cro|> figures at Charleston for the 1842-S3 period, furnished 
by Mr. Jos. T. Dill, of this c'ity : 



432 



Jllayor Coitrtciiay s Amiuul Review. 



1842 20,461 

1S43 24,291 

1844 19.1 3^J 

i^'^^S 28,472 

1846 30,201 

1847 21,105 

1848 21,925 

1849-50 28,833 

1S50-51 28,362 

1S51-52.. 29,990 

1852-53 32,814 

1853-54 • 39.^86 

1S54-55 40,841 

1855-56 45.512 

1S56-57 45. 3M 

1S57-5S 40,566 

1S5S-59 47.592 

1 S59-60 4f>,4 1 3 

I S6o-6r War 

1861-62 War 

1&62-63 War 



1863-64 Wai 

1S64-65 Wnr 

1S65-66 I9,<>'5 

1866-67 33.326 

1S67 68 20,927 

1S6S-69 17,956 

1S69-70 ■ 27,018 

1870-71 .,21.348 

1S71-72 15.922 

1S72-73 26,289 

1873-74 19-912 

1874-75 17.027 

1S75-76 , 14.9'/' 

1876-77 , 17.S23 

1877-73 22,388 

1S78-79 19,900 

1879-80 27.077 

TSS0-81. . . 3^.815 

18S1-S2 36,960 

1882-83 3<^'.i43 



The following- statement is compiled from De]k)\v's Re- 
view ; and for a portion of the period the prices are given, 
all of which will be useful for reference: 

Exports of Sea Island Cotio)i from 180S to iSp. 



Year. Quaxtitv — Lbs. 

1805 8,787,659 

1S06 - . .6,096,082 

1807 8,926,011 

1808 949,051— Emb'rgo 

1S09 8,664,213 

1810 8,604,078 

181 1 .8,029,576 

i8i2 .4,367,806— War. 



War. 



Year. Quantity— Lbs 

1813.. 4,134,849^ 

1814 2, 520,388 i 

1S15 7,449.951 

1S16 .^9,900,326 

1817' ■ 8,I01,SSo 

1S18 3,080,838^1 From 

1S19 3,442,186 j-So.C 11 

1820 6,020,101 j °" -^■■ 



Year. Qi;antity-Lds 

1821 : ii,344.o^'6 

1822 11,250,635 

1823 12,136,688 

1824 9,525.722 

1S25 9.655.27S 

1826 5.972,852 

1827 ..15,140.798 



Prick. 
12><@30d. 

10 @2SJ. 

11 (1624(1. 



II 



i.^/'2; 



15 @42d. 
10 (?X'3od. 

9;4te20d. 



AVKKAGK, 

2n^d. 

I9d. 

17/2'i- 
ig;.;d. 

28>2tl- 

2od. 

I43^d. 



The CoLtciinial of Incorporation. 43:^ 

Vkak. QuAxiirv- Li;s. Pkick. Avitaof:. 

I'^^S ll,2S,S,_ii,j 10 %'21<\. i6(l. 

' ^~') • 1 -,S33-307 (J Q(}2\<\. 1 5.1. 

1S30 , 8,147,165 wyiQiyio^. i6d. 

i^'^Si 8,311.762 9;2^/U8(l. iS.'/d. 

1S32 8,743,373 9><(./.iSd. i3';J4'(l. 

1833 11,1.12,987 Io;-<@)22d. l^'.'/^d. 

1834 ■- . . 8,085,935 !3;X@26d. lO^^/d. 

1S35 7.752,73<^ l-^ @33'1. 24;<d. 

1^3^) 8,554419 14 @36d. 25d.* 

1S37 5,286,340 12 @4od. 26.1. 

1838 7,286,340 

iS39-"-- 5,i^'7.404 

I S40 . . . ' 8,7 70,669 

1 84 1 6,400,000—20,000 baos03oo lb-;, each 

TODACCO AS A CKOP. 

The wonderful spread of cotton culture extinguished the 
production of tobacco, wliich was found not to be as profit- 
able as the new plant. In 1791 there was received at this 
l)ort about eight thousand liogsheads, weighing about a ton 
eacli. The inspection of tobacco was regulated b)' the 
State, and the Citadel buildings now occupy the site of tlie 
Tobacco Inspection, where it was received, examined and 
stoi'cd. It is liot possible to state with accuracy the total 
product of tobacco in tliis State, for th.e receipts here do 
not show it. Much of the crop of the upper part of the 
State found its way to Nortli Carolina and Virgitiia markets. 
The plant is still cultivated \V\ both States as a leading crop. 

More than half a century has elapsed since this discon- 
tinuance of tobacco planting in South Carolina. Meantime 
the spread of cotton culture on the rich lands of the South- 
west has influenced the cultivation in the older States by 
the competition in prices, but there ha.s been a stead}' 
growth of tobacco planting in North Carolina, and thriving 
towns have sjirung up in a few years where none existed 
before, from the profits of growiiig tobacco. The whole of 
middle and upper Carolina offer lands suitable for this 
plant, and the most valuable varieties reach a fine growth 
on our sea islands. Many planting experiments made on 



434 JMayor Coiirimays Annital Review. 

tlie sea islands, both previous to and since the war, were 
eminently succcssfid, but these experimental crops failed in 
the curinij. Surely scientific research and exjxji icncc mioht 
overcojne this disability, and when it is recalletl that only 
seven and a half per cent, of sea island acreage is i;^rown 
with sea island cottons, and that there is no profitable 
market for more, it is wortli considering if tobacco cannot 
be introduced successfully on these islands — the garden spot 
of Sou til Carolina. 

Indigo shared a like fate ; cut off from the foreign markets, 
during the war of the Revolution its production was of 
course more or less neglected, and when the ports were 
opened tliere was no protection, for it as heretofore in the 
markets of Great l^ritain. The stocks accumulated in the 
^77^^--'^l> period, and on hand at the close of the war, figure 
in the exports of th.e succeeding years, and then indigo 
gradually disapijcared, and cotton occuiried its place in 
South Carolina. 

l.UCAS' RICE MILLS. 

The various contrivances for cleaning rice from the crude 
wooden mortar and lightwood pestle of the seventeenth 
century, as well as the later inventions of Guerard and others, 
all passed awa)', when Jonathan Lucas introduced here his 
improved rice mill run by water-power. 

To this citizen we are indebted for the admirable ma- 
chinery by which rice is cleaned and prepared for market — 
machinery which in its most improved state has been copied 
and introduced in the North and in Europe, serving ma- 
terially to increase the consumption of the grain by sup- 
plying it in the most desirable condition to home and 
foreign markets. 

lie was a thoroughly educated millwright, was born in 
1/54 at Cumberland, England. Shortly after the war of the 
Revolution he sailed from England for a more Southern 
port, but thrcHigh stress of weather the vessel was driven on 
this coast and stranded near the mouth of Santee River. It 



The Coitoiiiial of hicorporation. ^y^ 

j 
was tlicre llial he noticctl the hilx^iious ])r(:)ces.s then in use, 
fr>r ck'anini;- the rice from its hull, and j)i-e[)arini^ it for j 

market. His was the thouc;ht and his the skill whieh ac- i 

eom]:)lished the wonderful eeonomie inn^rovements u]:»on the • 

old " laborious i)rocesses " b}' whieh the^n'eat forces of nature ; 

were soon to be harnessed to new machiiies, and the eulti- •' 

vation and preparation of this cereal to receive an impetus ■* 

which subsequently resulted in cn'catly increased rice crops.- 

\w the }-ear 1787 the first water mill was erected by Mr. i 

Lucas, to w horn the credit of the invention is understood to 
be due. This was built for IMr. liowman on a reserv^e at his ^ 

Peach Island plantation on Santee Iviver. Jonathan Lucas, 
Jr., inherited his father's mechanical talent and skill, and as- 
sociated with hill! constructed on Cooper River in 1801 the 
first toll mill t"or clcaninc,;- rice. The fiist brushin^j screen ! 

ever used v/as put into this mill in 1803. Me }'ieldcd at 
length to the inx'itations of the l)ritish govej'nment, and I 

passed the remainder of liis days in England. The next : 

wMter mill built b)' Mr. Lucas, .Sr., on tlie Santee, was on the '' 

reserve at Washo Plantation for Mi's. Middleton, afterwai'ds 
Mrs. Gen. Thos. Pinckne)-. About the same tiiiie or soon ■ 

after a water mill was erected on a reserve o{ \Vin\'a\v J3ay ; 

for Gen. Peter Horr)'. Alsofoj- Col. William Alston on 
the reserve at his P^airfield Plantation on the \\\acc;imaw 
River. In the year 1791-92 Mr. P^ucas built on Santee '• 

the first tide mill for Mj-. Andrew Jolmston, on Ids planta- 
tion called Millbrook. La a year or two after, tlie same in- \ 
defatigable and ingenious mechanic erected on Cooper I 
River an improved tide mill, which was furnished with rol- i 
ling screens, elevators, packers, etc., at the plantation of \ 
Plon. Plenry Laurens, called i\Iepkin. Under the. plan of 
these original mills those erected at a later day have been ' 
chiefly improvements in construction, ncVi in plan. Sub- , 
stantial improvements are saitl to have been inti-oduced in 
rice milling b}' IJavid Kidd, a machinist from Scotland, of 
very high ch<iracter for ingcnuit}' and practical ability. A 
considerable advance having been established in the process 
of rice milling, by the l^ucas mill and the application of 



' . ::ii\li: 



.Ui'\}0 



43^ I^fciyor Coiiricnay s Annual Review. 

water-power, these were erected on many plantations, and 
in 1795, I\lr. Lucas erected on Sheni Oeek, at Iladrell's 
Point, in Cliarleston harbor, a conibined rice and saw mill 
driveri by water-power, and this was tlie fir.^L.mill erected 
in the immediate vicinity of tliis city. 

In the earliest years of tlie present centur)- Mr. Lucas 
built ill tlic city a tide rice mill on Ashley "iviv-er, Noi'th of 
the present site of West Point Mill, and the water-power 1 

was supplied by the extensive pond enclosed by banks, the I 

North bou.ndar)' of which is the present Sprinc^ Street. \ 

This property was purchased from the Daniel Cannon es- \ 

tate ; I ha\'e not been able to ascertain if the extensive em- .' 

bankment Vvhich encloses this pond was l\Ir. Lucas' plan and j 

work or not, but his intelligence and enterprise were equal \ 

to so large a project. This mill attracted a considerable : 

toll business, and initiated that movement which kirgely i 

brought to this city the important and lucrative rice n~iilling ■ 

business, \\'hich for three-cpiarters of a century it has so suc- 
cessfull)' maiinained. Next followed a steam rice mill in •; 

1817 also by Ah'. Lucas, at the foot of Mill Street, the ruins ' 

of wdiich may still be seen. It was here that steam-power : 

was first used in this country for rice milling purposes. ■ 

After these mills came a steam rice mill owned b)- Lucas 
and Norton, built upon Cooper River, on what was known ■ 

as Gadsden's Wharf. This mill was burnt and another was 
erected on its site. Another steam rice mill was built by 
Mr. A. W. Chisolm about 1830 on Ashley River, at the foot : 

of Tradd Street, where formerly stood Dunkin's saw mill. \ 

This mill was also burnt in the early part of 1859, ^'^'^^ ^^^^ ' 

present Cliisolm's rice mill rebuilt tlie same year and is still ' 

operated. • \ 

About 1840, Jonathan Lucas, the gr.mdson, l)uilt a steani 
rice mill upon the Ashley, where now stands West Point 
Mill. This mill was burnt and the present West ]\)int i\Iill 
Compaiiy built on this site in i860 1861, and is still oper.ited. 

In 1844 Governor Thomas Bennett Inn'lt a ste.im rice mill 
upon Coo|)er River, at the foot of Wcntwoith Street--this 
mill is still operated. A mill was also built upon Gadsden's 



Iiua 



TJic Crnlcjinial of Incorporation. 437 

Wharf, by Mr. Dcvcaux. The site of this mill was pur- 
cliasecj by Robb & McLaren who, a])out i <^4'^j, erecttd 
thereon an improved steam rice mill, and conducted there a 
lari^^e and profitable business. 

In 1S22 Jonathan Lucas, Jr., accepted offers in Great 
1>ritain and made his future liome tliere. Idie subsequent 
erection by him and others of rice mills in Europe liad tli^- 
effect in time of drawing rough rice supplies riot only from 
Lastern countries but from Charleston; under the influence 
of import duties on clean rice, tliat of Great Britain beinir 
equal to S4-00 per tierce of clean rice, mills were kept run- 
ning in London, Liverpool, Copenhagen, Bremen, Amster- 
dam, Lisbon and Bordeaux, and Carolina rough rice ^\'as 
shipped lience in cargoes to tliose distant mills. This 
movement reached its maximum in 1850, when 581,832 
bushels, equal to 26,500 tierces of clean rice, were cleared at 
this port. Ten years after tlie rougli rice expoil had fallen 
to 132,908 bushels, ec^ual to 5,600 tierces of clean rice. 

Li the last few }^earsa new erxterj)rise, the Charleston Rice 
Milling Compar^y under the management of Mr. Russell, has 
been operating a new rice mill at the foot of Hasel Street 
with satisfactory results. 

The rice mills of Charleston have achieved a reputation 
in the preparation of this grain that accords them superiority 
in this complex brancli of business, and to the first Lucas 
mill built on the Ashley may be traced this large and valua- 
ble city business. 

Tlie largest crop of Carolina rice was in the 1850- 1S60 
decade, when 160,000 to 163,000 tierces, equal to 3,564,000 
bushels rough rice, .were marketed, and the largest combined 
crop of Carolina and Georgia rice was, in 1849, •"^bited at 
198,000 tierces, equal to 4,356,000 bushels of rough rice. 
The late war brought ruin to this great industr)^ and the 
rice crops since have averaged about 45,000 tierces, equal to 
1,000,000 bushels of rough rice. Thousands of acres of once 
valuable rice lands embracing some of the most remunera- 
tive plantations in the State have been waste land since. 



43^ ^'^iiyor Court cnays Annual Rcviciv. 

COMMRRCIAL CHANGES. 

It will be intcrcslin<T to slcelcli \'ory brief])' tlie vicissitiidi's 
and cl!anc;e^ of commerce duriiio- \\\q past luDidred x'ears. 

From 1790 to 1807 Charleston enio)'ed a laroe and \\\o\\- 
ing comrnercinl prosperity. As a consequence of the neutral 
position held b\' the United States, a large sliare of the 
carrying trade of Western Europe was thrown into fhe 
850,000 tons of American vessels then afloat ; this poi t 
becaniC the depot for large quantities of Euroi)can mer- 
chandise destined for the W'est Indies, and the Indk)- pro- 
ducts, sugar, coffee, &c., moving East from those ports; a 
large amount of tonnage was rec[uircd, and our cit)' from 
its convenient location was tlie entrepot for this business 
botli wa\-s. As a matter of curiosity, tlie f.ic-simile of a bill 
of lading of this period is reproduced here, with its quaint 
phraseology as compared with tliose now in use; it was 
copied from the original in the possession of Mr. iJavid 
Jennings. 

Many of the large and substantial warcliouses constructed 
on our water-front were built to accommodate this lucrative 
commerce. Just as her future was most promising, and the 
golden era of her commerce was flushed with success, came 
tiic Non-Intercourse Acts and the Embargo, followed by 
the war of 1812-15. Looking back to that period, \\'e 
n"iay well exclaim with Randolph, of Ro<in<3ke ; " llie Em- 
bargo is the ] Iliad of all our v.oes." Into the stream of 
those mighty European events, which were world-wide in 
their scope, and the ruinous political policy of that period, 
the conimercial fortunes of Charleston were strongl)' drawn. 
Ruin came to many of our merchants, and the sudden 
change brought povert)- to thousands in cit)' and State. 
The only nation reall)^ benefitted b)' the embargo was 
France, and when peace came in 1815 our merchants found 
all changed ; old things had passed awa)% and a new future, 
which received its direction from the then extending culture 
of cotton, v.^as to be crea.ted. While Charlt^ston was help- 
lessly suffering from the commercial inaction of the embargo 













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TJie Crntciniidl of Incorporation. 439 

and the war, New RiuHand was dcvclopinc( its inaiuifaclurcs, 
and a large portion of its commercial caj)ital tiiriied aside 
by ]'resident JcfK-rson's embai'i^o policy did not, when ]')eace 
came, revert to its old pursuits. There is much siL^riificance 
in the simjjle statement, that ship-ownin<^ free trade New 
hLngland of icSO/ emerL^^ed frc^m the war of 1812-1 !^ vi'^or- 
ously protectionist; their progress had been chanL^a-d, not 
arrested, and their industries in alliance with those of Penn- 
sylvania liave ever since been cared for at the expense of 
the hu'L^er interests of the ]:)eople of the whole Union. 

One hundred )ears ago, James Watt was perfecting his 
stean) engine and initiating its use for navigation purposes. 
Me had iiivented the condenser, encloscfl the cjdinder, and 
adopted the use of oil .nid ta]lo^v in mo\nng a piston by 
steam again.-t a \-acuum. Me held a patent for his expan- 
■sion engine, foi^six modes for regulating riiOti(.)n, for a double 
action engine, double C}'iinders, stear.i wheels, (S:c. In 1784 
he obtained ijaten.ts for })arallel motion, locomotive engine, 
hand gerU" and \'alve. These, and subsequent improvements 
by Robert I'Tdton in the application of steam for the pui'- 
poses of ocean navigation, hrive brought with it an era of 
ra[)id impro\'ement in nav:d arcldtecture and all other 
matters relating to nautical affairs which were never dreamed 
of even fifty }-ears ago, fulfilling the prophecy of Napoleon, 
who in 1804 said of Fulton's plans: "A great truth, a plu'si- 
cal pn.lpable truth is before my eyes, which ma}- change the 
face of the world." 

Before steam lent its giant powers to navigation, locomo- 
tion over the deep was attended with a degree of danger 
and uncertainty, which seemed so necessary and inevitable, 
that as a common proverb it became the type and repre- 
sentative of ever}'thing whicli was precarious and perilous. 
To the introduction of steam navigation we may trace many 
of the great changes which arc now felt in the commerce of 
our city. Through this agency tlie enterprise and capital of 
the larger commercial cities have been successful in divert- 
ing the natural flow of ommerce from its accustomed chan- 
nels to their own ports. As an illustration, the steamship 



.}.' ^:.'!! 



440 Mayor Courtoiciy s Ainiiiai Rcviciv. 

Robert ]uilton, yoo tons, was built in 1819 for the New York- 
Mavana business, but so strong; at that time was New Orleans 
afid Charleston in the West India trade that the vo)'a<^res 
were made from New York to Charleston, thenec to 1 lavana 
and New Orleans, requiring nine days for runninc; time. 
Subsequently direct lines from New York to 1 lavana were 
gradually absorbing tliis business, and to meet tliis altered 
situation Charleston merchants organized a steajiiship enter- 
prise, under the management of Messrs. Mordeeai 6^ Co., 
direct from this port to Havana, and man)- will rcmeml)er 
the Isalh'i i\nd her successful career up to tlie late war between 
the States. Since then, this entire business hcis been tr.ms- 
ferred to Northern ])orts, through the opportunity presented 
by tlie war, and the instrumentality of s[)lendid steam lines, 
originating in and leading to New \'ork. 

Up to i860. Charleston had a large capital invested in 
sliips for the European and East India trade. Since then 
a great revolution in ship-building and marine engines has 
been wrought. 1^}^ the operation of our laws regulating 
shi[)ping, Great Hritain, as against us, has a practical mo- 
nopoly of iion ship-building, and supplies the world with 
tonnage. No one can examine the occcin steamship arri- 
vals at New Yorjv without seeing a marked absence of the 
American flag. The results arrived at in iron steamships 
are large caj)acity, economic consumption of fuel, and 
speed. Iron and steel now enter almost entirely into the 
construction of hulls, and on the same over-all measure- 
ment the gain in freight room is 20 per cent, over wood, 
and the gain in tlie strengtli and durability of iron and 
steel ships is more tlian an equivalent for the increased first 
cost over wooden ships. An illustration of the revolution 
in machinery may be made by stating that the Inman 
steamship Cily of /hi/ssc/s was placed on tlie line in 1869, 
as a model of nautical excellence. Seven years after her 
launch, while her hull and sailing appointments were in 
undiminislied efficiency, her n:iachinery was removed, and 
she was furnished with new engines. Tliis costly renova- 
tion was rnadc, with the result, that by the new compound 



7 lie Cciitciuiial cf Iiicorporatioii. 44 1 

engine, orcater power was obtained witli a consumption of 
65 tons of coal per day, than with 1 10 tons with the old 
engine, while the gain in cargo capacity previously occupied 
by coal, was equal to 800 tons; there was also an increase 
in speed. This marks the .great revolution in ocean trans- 
portation, and accounts for some features of the carrying 
trade, which we shall now notice. 

We have had steamships loading at this port tlie past 
year at old sailing packet rates of freight, and even so 
coarse and bulky an article as phosphate rock is constantly 
loading- here for European ports, in steamshi[)s that arrive 
in ballast for these voyages. The important elements of 
time and certainty enter into this calculation, and the 
modern marine engine, in economizing time and ensuring 
certainty, is making a great inroad into the customary busi- 
ness of sailing vessels. 

As the trade of the West India Islands has, under steam- 
ship influences, been diverted from Southern to Northern 
ports, notabl) Nev\^York, so the enormous stream of pas- 
senger and freight tonnage concentrated at New York from 
European ports, has already exerted an influence, and will 
continue to affect the niovements of cotton and other pro- 
duce at Southern ports. 

Within the past year, agents of Eastward bound ocean 
steamships at New York have invited shipments of phos- 
phate rock b}' steam from Chai-leston, at profitable freight 
figures for the coastwise steamships, to ballast their own 
steamships Eastward bound at the mere cost of handling 
this freio-ht, while cotton has moved from New York to 
Liverpool at a price so nominal as hardly to pay for the 
handling. These are important facts ; England substituting 
steam for sail on an extensive scale, and Germany, Norway, 
Sweden and Denmark sending us annually a large amount 
of sail tonnage. It seems to be a contest between the North 
of Europe, with economic ships, low wages and cheap sup- 
plies, and Englisli machiner}' and iron and steel hulls; the 
United States is not no\v a contestant on the ocean. ■ 

It is to such causes that we must look for explanation of 
56 



442 



Mayor Coiirtcnay s Ajiiiual Review. 



the absence from our port of the old Charleston ships in 
the foreign trade. Added to the permanent facilities above 
referred to is the fleet of iron scrcw-sliips "seeking),'' witli 
cheap motive power and large capacity, which can live on 
phosphate rock freight at 20 to 25 shillings per ton, and 
make money on cotton and naval stores freights at the old 
sailing packet rates. 

WhJle Charleston is wanting nov/ in the large ship inter- 
ests once centered here, there has been a marked develop- 
ment of other industries and business in our city. It is 
estimated that five m.illion dollars of phosphate mining and 
manufacturing interests are owned here. Wholesale and 
retail dealers now number nearly a thousand persons, whose 
resources are stated at $20,000,000. Numerous mechanical 
and manufacturing establishments have products of eight 
or nine million dollars a year. While the aggregate value 
of produce received, and local manufactures with the 
wholesale and retail trade is stated at $75)000,000 annually. 
There is a marked change also in the State, once almost 
exclusively agricultural, there are now over 180,000 spin- 
dles, and likel}^ to consume in the near future 90,000 to 
100,000 bales of cotton annually, disbursing nearly a million 
dollars in wages, &c., and producing ^w^xy year 8,000,000' 
pounds of yarn, and 44,000,000 yards of goods. Charles- 
ton has her share in this great change by her splendid cotton 
iiill in Hampstead, recently completed, and turning out 
the most desirable styles of goods. 

^^x^T^,^ The changes in 

land transporta- 
tion are as mark- 
ed as that by sea. 
While Stephen- 
son was perfect- 
ing his locomo- 
- J«^ tive and applying 
it to railway pur- 

Car.'lln:- Wagoi; of the Olden Time. pOSCS, tllC WagOU 

was the best means of land transit to Charleston for cotton 




i - 



^. 



The Ccntoiina! of })icorj>oralioii. 44^ j 

and other produce. King Sti-ccl, Soutli (y{ Line Street, wris | 

a. succession of wagon-yards and stores, and the old " lUdl's j 

Head Tavern," where farmers and wagoners were entertain- 
ed, was still quite an institution as late as forty years ago, [ 

and even later. The wagon yards soon became too small j 

for the railroad receipts, and this annually increasing busi- 
ness was transferred to the wharves, and many of the exten- 
sive wareliouscs now seen there were erected to accommo-- 

t 
date tlic erowins" cotton trade. ! 



PROGRESS OF RAILROADS. 

The history of railroads may properly be said to have 
commenced with tlic second quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury.'"-' 

Passing over the earliest efforts of George Stephenson on 
the Stockton and Darlington Railroad of England, the first 
stage of locomotive construction is represented by 

" llic Rocket^' four and a half tons loaded, built b}' George 
Stephenson, which took tlie prize of ^^500 offered by the Liv- 
erpool and Manchester Railroad, October, 1829. The speci- 
fication by the company was : " If locomotives of six tons — 
must be able to draw twenty tons, at ten miles per hour." 
The actual performance v/as seventeen tons on a le\'el, at 
twelve and a half miles per hour. 

''Stourbridge Lion,'' seven tons, from Stourbridge, England, 
for the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company of the United 
States. Capacity sixty to eighty tons, at five miles per 
hour. This engine proved too heavy for the road (being 
two tons on each wheel), and was put on side track and 
never used ; it arrived in ^lay, 1829, and was the first loco- 
motive to turn a wheel in the United States, on 8th Au- 
gust, 1829. 

" The Best FriendT four and a half tons, was the first loco- 



*For this interesting information about railroad proi;re>s T am imlcbted to 
Colonel C, S. Gadsden, of the Charleston and Savannah Railway Company. 



444 Iilayor Court ciiafs Annual Review. 

motive built in the United States, under a contract between 
the South Caroh'na Ivailroad Company and Mr, \\. ].. Miller, 
of Charleston, S. C. Arrived in Charleston 23d October, 
1830. 

The resolution of tlie South Carolina Railroad ]3oard of 
Directors, winch declared that "in future not over twenty- 
five passengers to any car; speed shall not exceed one car 
and passengers at fifteen miles per hour, two cars and pas'- 
scngers at twelve miles per hour, three cars and passengers 
at ten miles per hour," indicates the first idea of passenger 
transportation b)' railroads. 

The specification in this case ums that " The Best Friend " 
should perform cit the rate of ten miles per hour, and carr)- 
three times her weight. 

SECOND PERIOD LOCOMOTIVES— 18G0. 

Locomotives of this period weighed from tvrcnty to twen- 
ty-five tons. Capacity: In freight service sixteen to eighteen 
box carSj weighing eight tons empty and sixteen tons load- 
ed ; aggregate weight of train two hundred and fifty-six to 
two hundred and eighty-eiglit tons exclusive of locomotive. 
Speed of passenger trains twent)'-two to twent}'-three miles 
per liour for express and mail trains.- 



Locomotives of this period for same class of roads thirty- 
five to forty tons for both passenger and freight traffic. 

The " Mogul " and " Consolidated " are types of the loco- 
motives employed. Capacity in freight service, thirty-five 
to forty-five twenty ton cars; aggregate load, one thousand 
and fifty to thirteen hundred and fifty tons, exclusive of 
locomotive. Speed of passenger train thirty-five to fifty 
miles per hour. 

There was on exhibition at the " Exposition of Railway 
Appliances'* in Chicago, in May, 1S83, a locomotive of the 
Southern Pacific ]\aiiroad, of the following dimensions: En- 



I .>:lu^yr\ 



TJie CcNftvuiial of Incorporation. 445 ' 

gine and tender iS6,ooo pounds — ninety-three tons. Ca- 
pacit}^ twenty-two twenty ton cars (six liundred and sixty » 

tons weight of train), up one hundred and five feet grade I 

and around an eight degree curve. • 

i 

FREIGHT CARS. : 

The first freight cars were nnounted on four wlieels at- " ; 

tached rigidly to frame of car, which latter carried from 
two to four tons. : 

The freight cars of i860 weighed eight tons empty, and 
sixteen tons loaded, and were mounted on two trucks of 
four wheels each, attached to car body b)' the king-bolt, 
which enabled trucks to accommodate thennselves to the : 

curves of the track. I 

The freight cars of the third period weigh ten tons ; 

empty and thirty tons loaded, with great improvements in 
both body and trucks, to afford better accommodations 
to the varied classes of freight, and to move with fjrcater 
celerity with safety. \ 

PASSENGER COACHES. ; 

The first coaches were made to resemble t\vo or three 

mail coaches of the Turnpike coupled together, mounted ; 

on four \vhcels, attaclied rigidly to frame of car, without : 
any springs, and having no pretension to comfort in the 

interior arrangements, being crude and primitive, and seat- ; 

ing from tw^ent}^ to twenty-five passengers. \ 

The coaches of the second period, were from forty to ! 

forty-five feet long, flat-roofed, with entrance at each end \ 

and long aisle down centre of car, seats upholstered with ' 

I^russels carpet on spiral springs, or hair, for cushions. There \ 

was little or no demand for the cabinet-maker's, or other \ 
decorative art. 

These bodies were of plain exterior, small windows, witli ' 
stoves in centre of car; were mounted on two four-wheel 
trucks to the coach, furnished with swinging bolsters, and 



44^ Mayor Coiirtcnays Annual Review. 

elliptical springs. The platforms, bumpers, methods of 
coupling, hand-brak-cs and bell-lines showed a decided ad- 
vance over primitive ideas. These coaches seated thirly- 
fivc to forty passengers, and cost from §2,500 to $3,000. 

The coaches of the present day, or third period, present 
the appearance inside of handsome drawing-rooms; the 
elevated roofs giving better ventilation ; the heaters afford- 
ing warmth in winter by forcing hot water through a system 
of pipes ; the elaborate ornamentation and luxuriousness 
of upholstery, with the comfortable drinking and toilet 
arrangements, show a wonderful advance in the attempt to 
minister to the comforts of travel. These coaclies, highU' 
decorated and painted v/ith great s^cil], are mounted on 
six-wheel trucks, which, in themselves, are marvels of 
strength and elastic motion. The Janney platform and 
coupler enable tlie conductor to so attach the cars in the 
train as to incur the minimum of lateral motion, with the 
highest degree of security in case of collision. These cars 
seat fift}^ to sixty passengers, and cost §5,000 to §5,500. 
The Pullman sleeping car, besides the many comforts 
offered to the traveler b)^ day. is converted into a sleeping 
palace by night ; these cars carry forty persons at the most, 
and cost §15,000 to §20,000. 

TRACKS. 

The earliest railroads were built with a strap iron rail 
spiked to a longitudinal stringer, which in turn w^as notched 
down on cross-sleepers three feet apart. These rails were 
punched for the spikes, v/ith no contrivance to confine the 
joints, and accidents frecjuently occurred by these straps 
forming " snake-heads,", and forcing themselves through 
the bottom of the cars. 

By 1S60 these .strap rails had been succeeded by the 
" chub," and " U," and then the " T " rail was in general 
favor; all these of iron. 

The "chair" w^as invented to confine the two ends of 
connecting rails and was spiked securely to the cross-tie. 



The Ccntouiia] of Incorporaiio)i, 447 • 

The stringers had generally been discarded in favor of the 
cross-ties, phiced transversely under the rails and upon tlie 
bed of earth as graded by the engineer. Spik-es -^^^ by 
53/^ inches were adopted as the best fastening, being diiven 
into the cross-ties o\\ each side of the base of tlie T rail. 
Little or no attention was as }^et paid to introducing "bal- 
last " of any kind ; the natural earth being used very gene- 
rally for surfacing. 

The track of 1883 is formed of steel rail, from fifty to 
seventy pounds vv'eight to the yard, a modification of the 
old T rail pattern, spiked to cross-ties two feet apart from 
centre to centre, with four spikes to the tie, and secured at 
the joints by " fish," or angle plates, bolted through the end 
of the rails, forming thus, practically, a continuous rail. 

This superstructure rests on ballast of stone, gravel or 
sand of owi^ foot to eighteen inches thick, overlying the 
natural soil. 

Great attention is paid to "drainage," and high speed, 
with great degree of safety and coirtfort, has been attained. 

The appliances for transferring trains from one track to 
another are of various " safety " types, known as the " W'har- 
ton," " Tracey " and *' English," &c., switches. 

Finding the single track inadequate to their traffic, the 
Trunk lines have added another, or double track, for move- 
ment in each direction, and the wealthier and stronger 
roads have as many as four tracks of the heaviest steel rail, 
separating passenger and freight trains as well as moving 
trains in opposite directions on different tracks. 

STEEL RAILS. 

The discovery of the "Bessemer Process" of converting 
iron into steel in bulk, has been a potent agent in stimula- 
ting railroad progress. 

The enormous tonnage of the Trunk lines had in 1870 
reached a point where iron was pnictically valueless for 
ti'ack; renewals were necessary on mountain sections every 
few months, so severe was tlie usage to which the rails were 
subjected. 



01' !.')« 



44^ Mayor Court c nay s Annua/ Kn'irw. 

This great discovery enabled Trunk lines to siil)stitute 
steel for iron, rails witli a durability over the inferior artiele 
out of all proportion to tlie increased cost. 

In 1866 the comparative values were $153.75 i^ei' ton for 
iron and $174.7$ for steel; these prices have, with sli^dit 
fluctuations, constantly declined, and at present steel rails 
can be bought at $34 per ton, free on board, at American 
works, while iron is no longer quoted. 

The reduction of the duty on steel, together with the 
marked improvement in methods of production, have con- 
tributed to this great decline in price. 

BRIDGES. 

The advance in the science of bridge construction is in- 
deed marvelous. The very heavy and expensive stone 
structures of tlie early period on the continent were never 
introduced into this country. There was not capital enough 
to warrant this great expenditure, nor was population dense 
enough to promise return oh so large a first cost. 

The cheaper wooden st'-uctures of the first period under 
consideration were succeeded by the Howe and other st)'les 
which were everywhere in use about i860; the spans \\'cv<: 
rarely ever one hundred and fifty feet. 

Gradually these wooden bridges have been replaced b\^ 
structures, in part or in whole, of iron ; steel has not been 
generally adopted in bridge construction. The bridges of 
the present day are triumphs of engineering skill. 

From the light, airy and graceful iron bridges of one hun- 
dred and fifty feet span, which arc marvels in themselves of 
the judicious and scientific disposition of material to meet 
the demands of the load, attention is directed to the won- 
derful triumphs of science in the '* Brooklyn Suspension " 
and the "Niagara Cantilever" bridges of fifteen hundred 
feet spans. The possibilities in this direction seem limited 
only by the means at the command of the man of science. 

THE RUNNING OF TRAINS. 

Alongside of the physical triumphs in railroad construe- 



The Centennial of Incorporation. 



449 



tion, we find marked advance in the methods of manage- 
ment, and the a{)ph'ances for promoting the speed)' and 
safe transit of traffic. In tlie earliest days of railroad ser- 
vice, trains were run without time-tables, the rule bein^^ to 
keep a sharp lookout for the opposing train of which no 
advices could be had. The effort on the part of both engi- 
neers was to pass the *' half-w^ay " stake, which was located 
between each pair of stations, knowing that the unsuccess- 
ful party must back his train to the last turn-out passed. 

The second period of railroad life showed advances in 
train service. There was a time-table, with regular passing 
points, and a code of rules for the guidance of train men, 
but though the telegraph wire was an agent \\\ the service, 
it was used rather to convey intelligence than, as now, to 
deliver orders. The bell-cord was the means of communi- 
cation betvveen conductor and engineer, and recognized 
signals by this agency, and at night by lamps, &c., parts of 
the s)'stem of train service. 

At present the time-table is still in force for trains on 
regular schedule on time, and a code of rules for gui- 
dance under all possible combinations of circumstances ; 
while at the same time the dispatcher in the telegraph 
office keeps record day and night of the position of trains, 
checking the speed of one, and again hastening the pas- 
sage of another over the line to appointed meeting points, 
thus economizing tlie valuable time of both passenger and 
freight traffic. 

The automatic air-brake is at the service of engineer, 
conductor and passenger alike, to stop immediatel}' the 
train, should danger be seen at any point. Added to these 
methods, the important Trunk lines of the country have 
introduced the " block system," which divides into blocks 
or sections of two or more miles the entire length of road, 
securing the absolute safety from collision of a train in any 
block b}' preventing an}' other train from entering such 
block till the first shall liave passed out. 

There are also elaborate systems of signals, interlock- 
ing signal and switch, automatic electric block system, and 
5 7 



450 Mayor Court cnay s Aiuiual Review. 

various uses of eloctricit}' in combinalion with safety appli- 
ances as yet not tliorouglily tested or adopted. 

5rrANDARD TIME. 

The rapid growth of railroads in the United States, and 
their spread over an area of fifty-five degrees of longitude 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, showed the neces- 
sity of some general standard of time. 

As the control of these extended railroad h*nes was held 
in many different centres of population, situated at various 
intervals throughout tliis territor}-, each of which took its 
time from the sun. it was found in the year 1883 ^^^^^-^ there 
were actually upu-ards of fifty different standards of road- 
way time, causing endless embarrassment in their relations 
to the public and each other v/herever these radiating rail- 
roads crossed or connected. 

After many suggestions from \^arious sources, the scheme 
originated and perfected by Mr. \V. F. Allen, of New York, 
was ultimately adopted by a majority of the roads in 
Canada and the United States. 

IMr. Allen's plan was substantially this : Taking the obser- 
vatory of Greenwich as a base, he divided the territory of 
Canada and the United States into five grand divisions of 
time. 

Central AIkridian. 

The Inter-co]onial 60° West from Greenwich. 

The Ivastcru . . . 75° West from Greenwicli. 

The Central go° West from Greenwich. 

The Mountain .' 105° West from Greenwich. 

The Pacific I2 0° West from Green.wich 

The central meridians of these several divisions or zones 
are taken at fifteen degrees, or just one hour's interval apart 
across the whole North American continent, and correspond 
ver)^ nearly with the sun time respectively ; while at no point 
in the belt of territory controlled by any one standard should 
the standard time differ more than thirty minutes from the 
sun timie at such point. 

A glance at the map issued in connection with this plan 
of Mr. Allen v/ill show that this latter is accomplished by 



i';> 



The Ccutoiuial of Iiicorporafio)}. ,y^\ I 

liaviiii^ the standard time meridians central in the zones, 
controlled by each, \. e. the belt extends seven and a half 
decrees on each side of its pccidiar meridian, '\\\v time of 
the ineridian of the Inter-colonial zone is just fonr hours 
later than Greenwich, and the time of the Pacific meridian 
is four hours behind the Inter-colonial. Noon at Green- 
wich would be 8 xV. M. at the Inter-colonial and 4 A. M. at 
the Pacific meridian. 

The general adoi)tion of this scheme of standard time by 
the government of tlie United States, the principal cities of 
this country, and b\^ very nearly all the railroad, telegraph 
and express companies, has afforded great relief to the pub- 
lic in its intercourse with these several institutions, and been 
an appreciable step in th.e march of civilization. 

THE MODERN RAILWAY AND MARINE ENGINE. 1 

While the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad was being 
constructed in 1S29, under Stephenson's direction, and Bal- 
timore was reaching out to the Ohio Ri\'er, Charleston 
was projecting a railroad to the head of navigation on 
the Savannah River, which, wdien coinplcted, was then the 
longest railroad in the world. 

This was followed by other earnest efforts, lieaded by the 
late Robert Y. Hayne, to cross the mountains and establish 
railroad communication "with the vast interior of the con- 
tinent ;" but failure attended these efforts. The dominant 
thought of that time and since, has been to ha\'e Charleston 
a nice quiet place to live in, and not to allow it to expand 
into an influer.tial and wealtliy metropolis, and so, in sur- 
ve}dng the past, we can only deplore a short-sightedness 
which leaves us to contemplate Baltimore, with her great 
trunk railroads to the West, in all her commercial and in- 
dustrial grandeur of power and influence, and Charleston 
left far behiiKl in the great career which was as open to us 
as to GUI' now opulent and influential sister city. Ever}- 
acre of land in South Carolina might to-day have been 
(juadrupled in value, and a higher civilization been reached 
by all our people, if we had lived up to our great privilege 



452 Mayor Court oiays Annual Review. 

and opportunity in railroatl tran.s})ortation dining the past 
half century. Robert V. Ilaync uttered a <.n-eat truth fift)' 
years ago, when he said : " .Yext to tlic CJiristiau Rt'lioioii, I 
knoiu of'tiothing to be compared ivitJi the influence of a free, 
social and connjiercial intercourse in softening- asperities, re- 
inoving prejudices, extoidiiio; kuovcledge a}id promoting Iiunian 
Jiappificss f' and his words are as true to-day as tlien, and 
should liave intelligent response even now, late as it is. - 

The true future of our city rests ow the modern railway 
and its equipment, and on the modern marine engine. We 
may hug delusive phantoms of hope, but only to these giant 
levers we must OURSKLVES ultimately resort to acliieve suc- 
cess. That " vast interior of the continent," is a great and 
growing hive of industry and wealtli ; our port would be a 
necessity to that great \\'est if we controlled direct railroad 
communication with it; but we have it not. Others 
have crossed the mountains and are already there, and we 
too must assert ourselves and enter that field if we are to 
change our fortunes. We can build railways now, cheaper 
than ever before ; at S34 per ton for steel rails we can reach 
the great West on the mijiimuni of outlays, and very mode- 
rate traffic rates will support handsomely this relatively sm.all 
capital; those alread}' there, have gone there, earlier it is 
true, but relatively at enormous cost. At the present ratio 
of growth, the West will need the port of Charleston in the 
near future; there should soon be a common interest and a 
common purpose, in having the shortest railway connection 
over the minimum of grades, between the Ohio River and 
Charleston ; when we can travel the length of our State, 
from Charleston to the Northern border, in six hours or 
less by an air-line, and crossing the mountains, bring the 
West as near to us as this multiple of time for the balance 
of the distance will ensure, there will be nQw faces in our 
marts and on our water front, and a great career will open 
for us of Cliarleston. And in close association with rapid 
rail transit to the West, let us not omit to look over the 
seas to the South, and harness the marine engine to our 
service. The late M. F. Maury said: "Behold the valley of 



llic Coitouiial of hicorporaticm. 



45; 



the Amazon and tlie great river basins of South America; 
tJicrc is a wilderness of treasures; all the elements of the 
most valuable commerce are there, and of easy develop- 
ment. "■'■ '^' •■ Soils of the richest loam are there ; the 
cliniates of India, of the Moluccas and the Spice Islands are 
all there, and there too are the boundless agricultural and 
mineral capacities of the East and of the West, all clustered 
together. The Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico are 
twin basins; the great equatorial current, having its ^^vv^iw/.? 
in the Indian Ocean, and doubling the Cape of Good Hope, 
sweeps by the moutli of the Aniazon, and after traversing 
both the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, it meets 
with the Gulf Stream, and places the commercial outlet of 
tliat ri\'er almost as much in the Florida l^ass as is the 
mouth of the Mississippi itself. These twin basins are des- 
tined by nature to be the greatest commercial receptacles 
in the world. No age, nor clime, nor quarter of tlie globe 
afford any parallel or an}' conditions of the least resemblance 
to these which we find in this sea and gulf. W'hat otlier 
arm of the ocean is between two continents with opposite 
seasons ? " 

Consult the map, and see how advantageous is Charles- 
ton's location for the world of commerce that can be directed 
through her portals, with the surplus products of the North- 
west Southward bound, and tlie products of the Southern 
countries we have referred to in return cargoes. If our 
commerce once spread its v;ings over such an interchange, 
it would be like the touch of the magician's wand here. 

THE POST OFFICE. 

In close connection with commerce is the transportation 
of the mails and the administration of the Post Ofhce Depart- 
ment, in which the most remarkable changes have occurred 
in the past liundred years. 

From a complex system of rates and distances initiated 
by the Continental Congress, we have reached the simplicity 
of almost penny postages and unlimited distances \\~\ 1883; 
the first legislation for the Post Oflice Department is con- 



Hi 'J^ 



454 Mayor Court cnays Annua I Krcino. 

taincd in an Ordinance of Continental Conoress of date 
October i8th, 1782. 

Cents. 
Charge^ in pennyweights and i^rains of silver, each pennyweight s-cpths 

of a cloilar ,;. 

For any distance not exceeding 60 mile.-,, i p'wt S gr's 7 .^ \ 

For over 60 miles and under 100 miles, 2 p'wt ii 1 1 

For over loo miles, and under 200 miles, 2 [>'wt 16 g'rs 14.8 

And 16 gr's advance on every foo miles. 

Single letters to Europe, 4 p'wt 20 2 

Doubled for double letters 44 1 

Trebled for treble letters .* 66.6 

One ounce, 4 rates, and so in same proportion for increased weights. : 

By the Act of 1792 the followincr posta^^e rates by land 
were established. It will be noticed that the distance was 
a factor in the rate of postage : % 

Cents. 

For every single letter not exceeding 30 miles .6 , 

For every single letter over 30 miles, and not exceeding 60 miles 8 J 

For every single letter over 60 miles, and not exceeding 100 mites 10 ] 

For every single letter over 100 miles, and not exceeding [50 miles 12 1-^ 

For every single letter over 150 miles, and not exceeding 200 miles 15 J 

For every single letter over 200 miles, and not exceeding 250 miles 17 i 

For every single letter over 250 miles, and not exceeding 350 miles 20 \ 

For every single letter over 350 miles, and not exceeding 450 niiles 22 1 

For every single letter over 450 miles 25 \ 

¥ox every double letter, double the said rates. :; 

For every tiij-)!e letter, trijde the said rates. _ k 
For every package weighing one ounce avoirdupois, to pay at the rate of four 

single letters for each ounce, and in that proportion for any greater weight. ; 



There have been frequent successive reductions of rates 
and extensions of distances, until at this date an ordinary 
letter can be sent across the continent for two cents. As 
likely to prove interesting I give the revenue of the Charles- 
ton Post Office at intervals for eighty )'ears past. It will 
be noticed that the high rates and tlie multiples for dis- 
tances in 1803 brought $13,010.79 for gross revenue, while 
on the basis of three cents for all distances* the figures o^ 
1882 are $76,227.32. 



Ill < .'/I 



:,.,M 



TJic Centennial of Lieorporation. 455 

Statement of the Reeeipts of the J'ost Office of Charleston, S. C, 
for the ealoidar years noted. 

Veak. . Nm Kevenuk. Gross Rrchipt"^.. 

1733 Incomplete 

1793 : 

1803 ? 9,582.03 $13,010.79 

1813 ' 13.S45.7? 17.252.21 

1S23 ■ 22.305.61 26,829.71' 

1833 30,250.24 35.39^.35 ■ 

1843 45.395-10 53-393-94 

1S53 . . . ^ 29,712.97 40,261.23 

1S73 •• 43.157-03 56.0S3.93 

18S2 62,449.51 76,227.32 



THE HEALTH OF CHARLESTON. 

The reports, more or less currently published, indicatin^l^ 
the ratio of mortality in Charleston as being extremely 
high, and" such statements being prejudicial to the good 
name of the city, has induced the preparation of the ac- 
companying table, which covers a period of fifty years, and 
embraces Northern cities in comparison with our own white 
population. 

COMPARATIVE MORTALITY. 
Ratio per 1,000 WnrrE-s in the City of Charleston, S. C. 

Cities. ^ 1830. \ 1840. ! 1850. | 18C0. I 1870. ' 1880. : ■^-^^" RatiO SiX 

; ; ' I ■ I ; gale. Decades. 

Philadelphia ' 20. go 17.78 19.63 19. 18 22.72 20.91 121.12 20. iS 

Charleston 25.65 iS.94 18. 68 17.70 23.69 22.01126.67 21. 11 

Boston... 20.00 22.19 24.59 24 68 24.30 23.53139.29 23.21 

Baltimore 22.82 20.04 24.91 22.91 27.09 27.16144.94 24.15 

New York ; 25.66 25.16 30.70 28.19' 28.84 26.47165.02= 27.50 



It is a source of great regret that since 1865 the colored 
race in the South has shown so high a rate of mortality in 
Southern cities. Prior to that date the)' were carefully 
reared arid were the recipients during life of watchful medi- 
cal attention ; and, furthermore, had wholsome food and 



45^ Mayor Court cnays Annual Ri 



vieiv. 



comff)itable homes. Under these conditions the ratio 
among the colored people was in 1830, 24.85, in 1840, 27.60, 
in 1850, 20.9S, or an average of about 2.:}. 47. In 1870 it had 
risen to 41.01, and in r88o to 41.08. Comparing Charles- 
ton's mortuary statistics of colored population with otlier 
Southern cities we have this exhibit for 1880: 



Nashville, Tennessee. 



35-23 



Norfolk, Virginia 37 06 

Charleston, South Carolina 41 .oS 

New Orleans, Louisiana 4-1-49 

Savannah, Georgia 45-47 

In this connection it is [iroper to mention that Charleston 
has ever since 1865 maintained an extensive hospital and 
dispensary service for tlic sick poor. The extent of this ser- 
vice is best understood b}^ this statement, that in tiie period 
of 1871-80, covering ten years, there were i 14,592 cases of 
disease treated at the public expense in hospitals and by 
the dispensary physicians. Of this large aggregate, averag- 
ing 11,459 cases per annum, the proportions are, whites 
27,826, or 2,782 per annum ; colored 86,766, or '^fi'jG per 
annum. With a view of reaching more effectively the sick- 
poor a larger outlay of money has been made in this 
department for 1883, than in previous years, including 
a larger distribution of medicines. The public attention 
is directed to this important matter, and whatever can 
be done will be done in the future, as in the past, to 
mitigate the condition shown by the above statistics. 
The great difficulty, however, in the case is the careless- 
ness and improvidence of living, among many of the 
colored people. Under the new dispensary system or- 
ganized in January last, which went into operation h^cbruary 
1st, the statistics of the Registrar's ofiice show that for four 
months 5,659 patients were treated, of which 864 were white 
and 4,795 colored, and 18,961 visits attended to. Upon this 
ratio for the balance of the year the aggregate of medical 
attention to the sick poor will be very much larger than 
ever before, pointing to more activity in the Health Depart- 



TJic Centennial of Incor/wrafion. 457 

mcnt, and we shall hope therefore for a lower mortuary rate 
per 1,000 as the result of these labors among this class of 
"population. 



FEDERAL OFFICIALS IN CHARLESTON. 

Interwoven with the commerce of this port are the several 
departments of the Federal government. It is under the 
authority of the Union that Charleston is a port, and that 
it has authorized relations with the commerce of the world. 
The Federal Courts, Custom House, Post Office and Treas- 
ury are necessary to the city's life, and so, it must be inter- 
esting to know who has represented the Federal govern- 
m.ent in these various positions during the past hundred 
years. 1 have, therefore, taken some pains to secure a cor- 
rect roll o\ Judges, Attorneys. Collectors of the I^ort, Post- 
masters and Treasurers, by whom appointed, and the dates 
of their public service, which is presented herewith : 

Jndges of the U nit td , States Disir lei Court for the District 
of SoutJi Carolina. 

17S9 — 26lh September Thojnas Pinckney President Vv'ashington. 

17S9— -iSth November William Drayton President Washington. 

1790 — 14th June ... .Tliomas Bee Prc-ident Washington. 

1801 — 3d March Jacob Read President Adams. 

1S12 — 17th March Thomas Parker President Madison. 

1812— 7th May John Drayton President Madison. 

1S23 — 17th February Tliomas Lee President Monroe. 

1839 — 30th October R. B. Gilchrist President Van Buren. 

1S56 — I2th May . A. Gordon Magrath President Pierce. 

1866 — J2th March George S. Bryan President Johnson. 

Attorneys of the United States for the District of South 

Carolina. 

1789 — 26111 September John ]. Pringlc President Washington. 

1792 — 2ist November Thomas Parker President Washington. 

1821 — 7th February John Gadsden. . . President Monroe. 

08 



45S Mayor Courtcuays A'nnual Review. \ 

1S25 — lOt'a January John GaJstlcn rrosidcnl Monroe. 

iSi'g— 2d March Joliii Gadsden I'rcsidenl J. Q. Adams. 

]S3l — -^Sth ]■ cbruaiY Edward Frost President Jackson. .: 

183J — 25tl\ July Robert ]J. Gilchrist President Jackson. •;: 

iS35—2Sih I)eccin!)er Robert B. Gilchrist President Jackson. l' 

1839 — 6th November Edward McCrarly I'residcnt Van I'.uren. ^. 

1844—7111 May Edward McCrady President Tyler. *: 

iS4S~i6th May Edward McCrady President Polk. '■ 

1S50 — 26t]i October William Whaley President I'ilniore. 

1850 — 13th November J. E. Petigru President Filmore. ■; 

1S53— 17th March Thomas Evans President I'ierce. ;"- 

1857 — 2ist April James Conner President Buchanan. " 

1866 — 23d May. John Phillips President Johnson, 

1867 — 2Sth March D. T. Corbin President Johnson. 'i 

1571 — 24th ^E^rch D. T. Corbin President Grant. % 

1875 — 25t]i March D. T. Corbin PresideiU Grant.. | 

1877— 26th Septeml)er Eucius C. Northrop President PLiyes. .%_ 

18S1— loth May Samuel W. Melton President Garfield. | 

I 

Collectors of Cusfonis for the District of Charleston, S. C. I 

17QI — 2ist March George Abbott Hall President Washington. I 



179T — 7th November. ...... Esaac Holmes President Washir.gton 

1797 — 4th July James Siraons. ... President Adams. '| 

1S06 — 2ist January Simeon Theus .President Jefferson. f 

1S19 — 22d February \Villiam Johnson President Monroe. \ 

1S19 — 23d August James R. Pringle. . President Monroe. • | 

1840 — 2ist July Henry E. Pinckney. ..... .President Van Buren. | 

1&41 — 9th August William J. (Grayson President Tyler. | 

1853— 19th .\Larch William F. Colcock. . . President Pierce. | 

1S65 — 2d June Albert G. Mackey Pre.-,ident Johnson. 1 

1S69 — 26th [uue * ... .George W. Clark President Cirant. \ 

1873 — 30t;h June Henry G. Worthington. . . .]*resident Grant. \ 

1877 — 15!^'^ December Cyrus H. Baldwin President Elayes. ,| 

18S2 — 15th F'ebruary Thomas B. Johnston President Arthur. | 

I 

Post }}iasters appointed at Charleston, S. C, since lySj. :| 

17S3 Thomas Hall* President — . | 

1794 — 1st January Thonras W. Bacot President Washington. I 

1S34 — 19th December. .... .Alfred Huger President Jackson. \ 

1S67 — 5th April , . .Stanley G. Trott President Johnson. | 

1873 — iSth March Benjamin A. Boseman President Grarrt. ■% 

iSSi— 6th May William N. Taft President Garfield. \ 

* The records of the uepartnicnt show that Thomas Hall %vas in possession of the office as > 

F'ostma^-tcr luiy ist, ij'^^, hut d(-t liut give the date of his appointment. It is also shown that i 

he was reappointed Fchrnary loth, 1790. Prior to the year 1836, aU Po.stniasters were ap- \ 

pointed by the Postnij>lcr-General. J 



llic Centennial of Licorporation. 450 

Assis/eiJit l\-cas.i(rcrs at Cliarlcston, S>. C. 

The office of AssistniU 'i^'casarcr of the UnileiJ Slates at 
Charleston, S. C, was created by the Act of Congress, ap- 
proved August 6t]i, 1846: ■" 

1S46— 2Srh Au_t^u>t William Laval rrc>i(lciii I'ulk. 

1 S49 — 2lst June William M. Marlin President Taylor, 

1S53 — 18th April I'cnjamin C. Pressley President I'ierce. ..^ 

i366— 25th July Alexander McDowell President lohtison, 

i366 — 20tli October. Joshua D. (iiddini^s President lohnson. 

1874— I3tli April Cyrus M. Baldwin President (".rant. 

Mr. Baldwin was the incumbent up to the time when the 
office was aboh'shed • by the Act of Congress, approved 
August T5th, 1876. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF CHARLES TOWN. 

VVitli the transcripts of the Shaftesbury papers, are several 
plats giving authentic information of locah'ties at and near 
"Old Town" and "New Town"; this has been carefully 
transfered to the new map of the cit}- published herewith, 
and the reader will hnd much interesting information, not 
before accessible to the general public. With this map to 
refer to, it is easy to follow the narrative, and that which 
will first attract attention is the description sent by " the 
Council to the Lords Proprietors under date of 22 March, 
167-^-," about eleven months after the arrival of the Colony: 

"We have with much adoe, our people being weake by 
reason of scarcety of provisions, pallasadoed about 9 acres 
of land, being a point, whereon we first set downe for our 
better security and mounted seaven great Gun ns, all the 
other carriages having been lost with the sliip Port Royal/, 
and when the people have dorie planting shall proceed to 
finish all, being very forward in our pr'paration '" "" '^ '- 
for the land being interwoven with great Creekes and 

*'rhe United States Treasury Department has' no record of the oflieers of 
the United States Bank at Charleston, S. C. 



460 



Mayor Courtoiay s Animal Review. 



Marshes and sometimes a neck of land rurinin<^^ ijctwccii 
two Rivers, &c. When \vc arrived liere \vc: ihoiioht it most 
conducing to our safct}' to build a town, where we are now- 
settled, it being a point with a very convenient hmding. and 
safe!)' fortified, being ahnost surrounded with a large marsh 
and Creek, and after the first joint planting, u[)on our 
arrival, w'ch necessity had soc put upon us ; That the people 
might have sufficient land to plant, and keepe a small sto(!k, 
and that we might kecpe as neare together as we could for 
the better secui-it}'- of this place, we were forced to grant 
them towne lotts containing eleavcn poles or thereabouts 
p'r head and Tenn acres p"r head to plant as aforesaid ; which 
tenn acie lott'^ were and are laid out to them and about the 
Towne from the South, Westwards to ye North, by w'ch we 
humbly conceive we shall pr'vent an)' sudden surpriz, all this 
we were forced to exercise at first for our better defence 
and speedy concourse to the Tov/ne, not knowing what use 
we might make thereof befoie our people did arrive. And 
now more people are come we find that if they be not suf- 
fered to choose their own con\'cniencys, it may prove a 
great retarding of a speedy peopling of this country; for 
non cnfinibiis arbiista juvant ; some delighting to be near the 
sea and others froni it." 

A visitor to-day might find "Old Town "by this descrip- 
tion ; it was a very small area, wdiere the dwelling houses 
were located, and selected for security by the natural ad. 
vantages, and from this protected locality they went forth to 
their planting lands adjacent. The oldest list, embracing 
sixty-two lots and ow^ners, I hereto append, but presume, 
from some of the names, that the record w^as of a little later 
period than the first Colony: 



Lot I to Edward Mathewes. 

Lot 2 to Ensign John Boone. 

Lot 3 to Lieut. Henry Hughes. 

Lot 4 to C'liri^to{)her Portman. 

Lots 5 .'ind 6 to Cnpt. Florence O'Sul- 

livan. 
Lot 7 lu John William^ou. 



} Lot S to Ralph Marshall. 

j Lot 9 to Capt. Joseph Bayley. 

Lot 10 to Maj. Tlionias Ciray. 

Lot II to John Foster. 

Lot 12 to Capt. (ivies ILill. 

L(.it 13 to Rieliard Batin. 

Lot 14 to James Jours. 



.v.r 



_^- -.>A 



The CoiUiiiiial of Ijicorporaiion. 



461 



l.ol 15 to Henry Wood. 

JvOts t6 and 17 to \Vm. lvC)ni>;. (Sold 

to Capt. Geo. Th(.)inr>-sOii.) 
Lot 18 to Ensign Hugh C'aiicret. 
Lot 19 to Kicliaid Deyas. 
Lots 20 and 40 to George Beadon. 
Lot 21 to Philip Couierton. 
Lot 22 to Sir John Yeanians. 
Lots 23 and 32 to William Owen. 
I>ots 24 and 25 to Capl. Stei)hen Bull, 
l.ots 26 and 27 to Cajit. Florence 

O'Sullivan. 
Lot 28 to Friscilla Burke. . 
Lot 2g to John Coming. 
Lot 30 to Capt. Henry Braine. 
Lot 31 to S^amuel West. 
I>ot 33 to Thomas Turpin. 
Lot 34 to Timoiliy Briggi. 
Lot 35 to Johi^ Culpepper. 
Lot 36 to John Pinkard. 
Lots 37 and 54 to Maurice Mathewes. 



Lot 38 to Michael Smith. 

Lot 39 (not dtdivoreil). 

Lot 4T to 'Idiomas Smith. 

Lot 42 to Richard Cole. 

I-ot 43 to John Marewik. 

Lot 44 to Joseph Dalton. 

Lot 45 to Jo.sC[)h Pendarvis. 

Lot 46 to Charles Miller. 

l-.ot 47 to Capt. John Robinson. 

Lot 48 (not delivered). 

Lot 49 (not delivered). 

Lot.H 50, 51, 52 and 53 to Lords Pro- 
prietors. 

Lot 55 to Thomas Thompson. 

Lot 56 to Ensign Henry J'rettye. 

Lot 57 to James Smith. 

Lot 58 to Thomas Lrgram, 

Lots 59 and 60 to Capt. Naihianiel 
Sayle. 

Lot 61 to Thomas [Lut, for his wife. 

Lot 62 to 'i'he Lords Proprietors^ 



The planting- lands were South, West and North of ''Old 
Town," occupying the river from Wappoo to the bend op- 
posite the Atlantic Phosphate Works, and extending West- 
ward some distance ; a reference to the map will show liow 
well these several farms were located, and the first thought 
was evidently to occupy this section of the river front, which 
would leave only the West side to be defended. On the 
map will be found the owners names, the.amount of land in 
each farm, and the several locations, all correctly transferred 
from the original plats, received last year from the London 
Record Office. It will be noticed how few names liave sur- 
vived the two centuries of time. 

The views of the Proprietors as to the social and indus- 
trial state of the Colony are shown in the instructions 
issued to Governor Sayle and his associates; the arrange- 
ments for lands were as follov/s : " A hundred and fifty ( i 50) 
acres of land were to be granted to ^yzxy freeman who 
went out at his own cost, with a.n addition of one hundred 
and fifty for ever\' man servant and one hundred for ever)^ 
woman servant whom he might transport. A hundred acres 



4'^^2 Mayor Cour/rnays Amiual Review. 

were to be granted to all servants at the expiration of their 
term o'i service. These quantities were to he diminished in 
the next year to one hundred acres and seventy acres re- ' 
spectively, and after that date to seventy and sixt)'. 

"The poorer class of settlers were to be supjjHed with 
food, clothes and tools as a loan out of the common store. 
Ever}- freeholder was to have, in addition to his country ' 

estate, a town lot of one-twentieth the extent of his whole \ 

domain. ^ 

The natural advantages of Oyster Point h<id not escaped \ 

even the first Governor, for Secretar)- Dalton tells us, that 
''there is a place between Ashley River and Wando River, 
about 600 acres, left vacant for a tou'n and fort, by the 
direction of the old Governor Coll. Sayle, for that it com- 
mands both tlie rivers ; it is, as it were, a key to open and 

shut this settlement into safety or dano'er." I 

I 
It is ver}' apparent that there was an early intention to | 

change the location of Charles Town from the West bank | 

of the Ashlc)' to the present site of this cit}% and there is | 

a reasonable inference, from the perusal of the early records, - | 

tl\at there were land owners and houses at Oyster Point I 

soon after the landing at Albemarle Point, and before the I 

new tow^n was ordered surve^'ed and laid out officially. I 

In the Council journal of date 21st February, 167I-, ten J 

months after the first landing, this entry is found : 1 

" Mr. Henry Mughes came this day before the Grand 

Councill and voluntarily surrendered up the one halfe of : 

his land nere a place upon the Ashley River knowne by the i 

name of the Oyster Poynt, to be employed in and towards 1 

enlarging of a Towne and conimon o{ pasture there intended | 

to be erected. | 

"Mr. John Coming, and Affera his wife, came likewise \ 

before the. Grand Councill and freely gave up one halfe of ' 

their land nere the said place for the use aforesaid." \ 

There was by this, a clear ownership of land on this side | 

of the river, a few inontlis after the Svayle Colony landed, \ 

and its acceptance by the Council from the owners for the J 

laying out of a town, is a matter of public record. \ 



TJie Centennial of Incorporation. 463 

On tlic 23d April, 167^, is tliis ciili)', which is very inter- 
esting : 

" Upon tlie consideration this da)' liad of tlie better set- 
tling of thi.-5 Pro\'ince according to the Lords Proprietors' 
directions, it is advised and resolved by the Grand Councill 
that warrants be forthwith issued out to the Surveyor Gene- 
lall for the laying out of three colonies or squares of twelve 
thousand acres Uhat is to say), one coUony or square of 
twelve thousand acres about Charles Towne, another about 
James Towne, and a third upon a place knowne at present 
by the name of the Oyster Poynt." 

It is known that the James Town settlers early aban- 
doned their location and joined the other settlers, and it is 
possible this inay accoun.t for the growth of " Oyster Po3'nt." 
for in the Council journal of date iSth June, 1672, I find 
the following order, wh.ich presupposes son^ie numbers in 
the then resident population on this side of the river: 

" That all the inhabitants on the other part of the river 
called the 0\"ster Poynt doe repaire to the plantation there, 
Miow in the possession of Carterett Cooper, and being soe 
embodyed doe march forward to the plantation now in the 
possession of .Mr. Thomas Norris or Mr. William Morrill 
which may be thought most safe and usefull foi' that designe 
under the command of Mr. Robert Downe, there to re- 
maine and exercise such orders and rules as tlie Grand Coun- 
cill shall thlnke fitt to be prosecuted for the better safety 
of that part of this settlement. 

" And that all the inhabitants in and about New Towne 
doe repaire to New Towne afoi'esaid and there remaine 
under the command of Mr. Richard Conant, according to 
such rules and instructions as the said Richard Conant all- 
ready hath and from time to time shall receive from the 
Grand Councill for the better preservation of the safety of 
the said Towne." 

The original boundaries of " New Towne " were from 
(Jyster Point on ihe South up to a line now represented by 
riasell and Beaufain Streets on the North, and between 
Ashley ;ind Cooper Rivers; as 6rst laid out there was a 



4^4 ]\fayor Co'urtcnay s Annual Rcvic^v. 

fortified section, bounded by wliat is now Mcjetinf^^ Street 
on the West ; a line from East Bay Street, a little North 
of the present St. Philip's Church, formed its Xorthern 
boundary, and Water Street was its Southern extremity. 
The plan of this town was known as the "Grand Model." 

At this distance of tiiiie, it is curious to read Dr. Ram- 
say's description of the topography of the present city a 
centur}' ago, South of the line of what is now Hasell and 
Beaufain Streets. If an}' one is curious as to tlie disposi- 
tion of the ballast froiii arriving ships the past two centu- 
ries, he can possibly have it all accounted for after examining 
tlie new map, reading tlie accompanying narrative of Dr. 
Ramsay, and finding that the bold creeks and borders of 
marsh, the ponds and mud-fiats of that period are ahnost 
entirel}' obliterated, and are now occupied by some of the 
most attractive residences and |)laces of business in our 
city. A plan of Charles Town from a survey of Edward 
Crisp, It^sq., in I 704, publislied at page 242, City Year Book, 
1880, may further assist the reader in determining localities. 

*' The site of Charles Town in its natural state, was a 
slip of land stretching Southeastwardly between two rivers, 
and projecting into the harbor formed by their junction, 
and divided into a number of peninsulas b)- creeks and 
marshes indenting it on three sides, so as to leave but little 
unbroken highland in the middle. 

The first buildings extended along ELast Bay Street, and 
had a marsh on their whole front. A considerable creek, 
named Vanderhorst Creek, occupieci the foundation of 
Water Street, and passing beyond Meeting Street, sent out 
a branch Northward nearly to the Presbyterian Church. 
Another creek stretched Northwestwardly nearly parallel to 
East Bay Street, from the neighborhood of MacLeod's lots, 
through Longitude Lane and to the North of it. 

The same kind of low ground ran up Queen Street, then 
called Dock Street, be)ond the French Church, and through 
l^eresford Alle}% (Chalmets Street,) till it approached Meet- 
ing Street. The North end of Union Street (State Street) 
w-as planted with rice about the middle of the eighteenth 






D';; ■. .u K^-.if 



TJic Cenicniual of Tiicorporatio}i. 465 

century. Another very lar^i;-e creek occupied the site of 
the present Central ?,Iarket and extended VVestwardly be- 
yond Meeting Street, which diverr^ed Southwardly almost 
to the Independent Church, and Northwardly spreadini^ 
extensively and then dividing into two branches running 
to the Northwest and to the Northeast, so as to cover a 
large ^ portion of ground. Besides the marsh and these 
creeks whicli nearly environed three sides of the improved 
part of Cliarlestown, there was another creek a little 
to the Southward of what is now Water Street, which 
stretched Westwardly over to Church Street, and another 
which ran Northwardly up Meeting Street, and then ex- 
tended across 'Westward!}' nearly to King Street. A creek 
ran from the West near vvhere Peter Smith's house now 
stands, and nearly parallel to South l^ay, till it approached 
the last mentioned creek, and was divided from it by King 
Street and a sH[) of land on each, side; six other creeks ran 
Eastwardly from Ashley River, three of wliicl) stretched 
across the peninsula so as to approximate to Kii^g Street. 
There were also ponds and low grounds in different parts 
of the town. One of these extended on the East side of 
King Street, almost the whole distance between Broad and 
Tradd Streets. This v/as granted to the French Church in 
1701, but being useless in its then state was leased out by 
them for fifty years. In the course of the period the tenants 
improved and built upon it. There W3s also a large body 
of low ground at the intersection of Hasell and Meeting 
Streets. The elder inhabitants often, mention a large pond 
where the Court House now stands. It is believ^ed that 
this was artificial. It is probable that the intrenchments 
attached to the Western fortifications of Charles Town, 
which extended up and down Meeting Street from the 
vicinity of the Independent Church to the vicinity of the 
Presbyterian Church, vvere dug so deep as to cause a constant 
large collection of water at tliat middle part of tlie lines. It 
Vv'as the site of Johnson's covered half-moon, and of a draw- 
biidge, over which was the chief communication between 
the town and the country. No prudent engineer would 
59 



466 ^ Mayor Court c nay s Annual Review. 

erect sucli works as these in n pond, though when \.\\v.y were 
erected in the moist soil of Charles Town they would be very 
likely to produce one. Sucli, with some small alterations, 
was the situation of Charles Town for the first seventy 
years after its settlement." 

Along the Eastern line of the marsh referred to as in 
front of East Bay Street in the early years, there liad been 
built in 1762 a sort of sea wall, as shown in the view of the 
city published in the Year Book 18S2, at page 341. This 
extended from about Market Street to Water Street, and 
had projecting atigles for mounting guns for defence ; from 
this base the present docks and piers have been projected, 
previous to v/hich vessels anchored in the harbor and dis- 
charged and loaded in lighters. 

\n 1696-7, wdiat is nov.' Queen Street is described as "a 
little street that leads fi'om Cooper to Ashley lUver," and 
East l^ay as " a street running parallel v.dth Cooper River 
from Asliley River to the French Church." The early town 
was not wanting in coast defences. Towards Cooper River 
were Blake's bastion, Granville bastion, a half-moon, and 
Craven bastion ; on the .South Creek (about Water Street) 
were the Palisades and Ashley bastion ; on the North a 
line, and facing Ashley River were Colleton bastion, John- 
son's covered half-moon with a draw-bridge in the line, and 
another to the half-moon, with Carterett bastion next to it. 

In 1769 B)Ound;iry Street was laid out from Anson to 
King Street, and in 1770 as far West as the open pond at 
Smith Street, Upon the lands now known as Marion 
Square, the town-gate of the Revolutionary war was erected, 
covered by a tabby or shell-horn work, a remnant of which 
is still standing, and has been recently surrounded with an 
iron railing. As late as 1792 the remains of the military 
works erected during the Revolutionary war were visible 
around the circuit of the city. Boundary, now Calhoun 
Street, was nominally the Northern limit of the city, but the 
habitable portion fell short of it. Old records mention the 
existence at that date of clay houses on Boundary Street, 
which had the merit of cheapness, but the " specifications" 



The Coitcniiial of Incorporation. 467 

for sucli constructions liave not been preserved. There was 
no furtlicr cliani^c in boundaries until the annexation of tlie 
territory North of Calhoun Street in it^.iQ, wliicli enibraces 
tlie present city h"mits. 

WARDS OF THE CI rY—iyas-iSSs. 

The Act of incorporation divided the then city South of 
what is now Calhoun Street into thirteen Wards, eacli of 
which was represented by a Warden, and from among the 
thirteen so elected tlie Intendant \^•as chosen to serve the 
term of one year. 

Starting from Wilkins' Fort, at the Soutli end of Church 
Street, a point about W'est of the Holmes' house on East 
Battery, Wards 1, 2, 3 and 4 composed that section of the 
city lying to the East of the present Church and Anson 
Streets ; Wards 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 lay bctv/een Church and 
Anson Street on the East and King Street on the West ; 
Wards 10, li, 12 and 13 composed all that then was of the 
city lying W^est of King Street. 

The following are the particular boundaries, as described 
in the Act of incorporation : 

Ward I — I^rom Wilkins' Fort, East side of Church 
Street to the South side of Tradd Street, Easterly to the 
Bay. 

Ward 2 — North side of Tradd Street, to the South side 
of Queen Street Easterly. 

Ward 3 — From the North side of Queen Street to the 
South of Ellery Street Easterly (about Hayne Street). 

W'ard 4 — North side of Ellery Street up to Meeting 
Street, and along the same to the West end of Quince 
Street, and along Quince Street through Anson Street to 
Boundary. Street Easterly. 

Ward 5 — South end of King Street to the South side of 
Tradd Street Easterly to Church Street. 

W'ard 6 — From the North, side of Tradd Street along 
King Street, to the South side of 13road to Church Street 
Easterly. 



4^8 Mayor Court oiay s Amrual Review. 

Ward 7— North side of Ikoad Street aloii^^ King Street, 
to the South side of Queen .Street, Easterly to Church 
Street. 

Ward 8 — North side of Queen Street along King Street, 

South of Hasell Street, Easterly to join the Ward No. 3. | 

Ward 9— From Hasell Street along King Street to Jkjun- | 

dary .Street, and to join Ward No. 4 Easterly. I 

Ward 10 — South end of Legare Street, including the I 

West end of Tradd Street, Easterly to King Street. \ 

Ward ir~North side of Tradd Street to the W^\st end 1 

of Broad, Easterly to King Street, 1 

Ward 12 — North side of Broad Street to the West end -] 

of Ellery Street, Easterly to King Street. | 

Ward 13 — North side of Ellery Street, West to Boundary, | 

Easterly to Kin.g Street. • | 

At tlie first election tlie following citizens were chosen I 

Wardens: Ward I, James Nelson ; Ward 2, Thomas Bee ; I 

W^ard 3, A. Alexander; Ward 4, B. Beckman ; Ward 5, I 

Joshua Ward ; Ward 6, Thos. lleyvvard ; Ward 7, John | 

Matthews; Ward 8, George Flagg ; Ward 9, Thomas Rad- | 

cliffe, Jr. ; Ward 10, ; Ward 11, Richard Hutson ; | 

Ward 12, J. L. Gervais; Ward 13, . Hon. Richard I 

Hutson was selected as the first Intendant. . | 

This division seems to have remained unchanged u) til, 1 

under an Act of the Legislature passed December i9Lh, | 

1809, requiring the Intendant and W^ardens of Charleston | 

on or before the first day of August, once in every seven I 

years, to divide the city into four Wards, an Ordinance I 

was ratified July 23d, ,1810, defining the following W\ards : | 

Ward I — Bounded by Cooper River, South Bay and Ash- | 
ley River, West*by the centre of Meeting Street, North by 
the centre of Queen Street. 

Ward 2 — Bounded East by the centre of Meeting Street, 
South and West by Ashley River, North by the centre of 

Queen Street. | 

Ward 3 — Bounded East by Coope/ River, South by the 
centre of Queen Street, West by the centre of Meeting- 
Street, North b\' Boundarv Street. 






1. i! 



TJic CciitciDiinl of Incorporation. 469 

Ward 4 — Bounded East by tiic centre of Mectin<^ Street, 
South by the centre' of Queen Street, West by Asliley 
River, North by Cumming's Creek, boundary, Vander- 
horst and Hudson Streets. 

In this division of the city each Ward had representation 
in the City Council on the basis of its population, and the 
Intendant was elected as such by ballot with the Wardens. 

At the first election in 1810 the following ticket was 
cliosen : Intendant, Dr. Thomas McCalla. Wardens: Ward 

1, George Gibbes, John Dupont, W^illiarn Wiglitnian ; Ward 

2, Peter Smith, Dr. P. Moser ; Ward 3, Lewis Roux, Wil- 
liam Hall, John Strohecker; Ward 4, Thomas Bennett, 
Stcplien Thomas, Peter P^reneau, Stephen Bulkley. 

There had been no change in Ward rep)rescntation up to 
1836, when the title of Intendant was changed to i\Iayor, 
and that of Warden to Alderman, and the following ticket 
elected : 

Mayor, Robert Y. Hayne. Aldermen : Ward i, Dr. T. 
Y. Simons, James Hamilton, John S. Cogdcll ; Ward 2, 
M. C. Mordecai, PI. W. Peronneau ; Ward 3, George Plenry, 
B. J. Howland, G. H. Ingraham ; Ward 4, H. W. Conner, 
S« P. Ripley, Jno. C. Kerr, R. W. Seymour. 

By an y\ct of the Legislature, ratified December 19th, 
1849, " ^^ extend the limits of the City of Charleston," it 
became the duty of the Commissioners of Cross Roads to 
divide into four Wards, as they might deem most advisable, 
all that part o\ St. Philip's Parish lying between the present 
limits of the city (then Calhoun or Boundary Street), and a 
line to be drawn due West from Cooper River to Asldey 
River by the junction of Meeting and King Streets. Under 
this Act the following four Wards were added to the four 
last given, making in all eight Wards : 

Ward 5 — Bounded East by Cooper River, South by the 
centre of Calhoun Street, West by the centre of Kin.g 
Street, North by the centre of Wolfe and Amherst Streets. 

Ward 6 — Bounded East by the centre of King Street, 
South by the centre of Calhoun Street, West by Ashley 
River, North by the centre of Cannon. Street. 



470 Mayor Court cnay s Ainuial Rtvictu. 

Ward 7^ IjO uncled East by Cooper River, Soutli by llic 
centre of Wolfe and Amherst Streets, West b)- tlie centre 
of Kino- Street, North by the Northern boundary of the 
City of Charleston, 

W'ard S-— I^ounded East by the centre of Kin_^ Stieet, 
South by the centre o^ Cannon Street. West b)' Asliley 
River, North by the Northern boundary of the City of 
Charleston. 

The first election at which the voters of the four new- 
Wards participated Vv^as in 1850, when the following citizens 
were elected on a general ticket : 

Mayor — John Schnierle. Alden-nen — Ward i, Jas. Cha[)- 
man, Alex. Gordon, John Drnniinond ; Warn 2, I'. J. Por- 
cher, W. A. Hayne ; Ward 3, W. M. Gilliland, W. AI. Mar- 
tin, Wm. Kirkwood ; W^ard c\. Dr. John I'cllinger, ]>. E. 
Scott, Henry Cobia, T. G. Simons, Jr.; Ward 5, John H. 
Honour; Ward 6, F. C. l^ium ; Ward 7, J. M. Eason ; 
.Ward 8, O. Reedc'r. 

It is curious to notice, that there were thirteen Wards a 
hundred years ago, and one Warden elected from each 
Ward, and at the coming election in December the division 
of the cit}' is into twelve Wards, each electing one Alder- 
man, and a second elected on a general ticket by the vote 
of the whole city, making the number in the City Council 
twent}'-four, and the Mayor. 

I^y the Act of 2!st December, 1882, the boundaries of 
the twelve Wards were fixed as follows : 

Ward I — All that portion of said cit)' l)'ing South of 
Broad Street and East of King Street. 

Ward 2 — Ail that portion l}nng South of Inroad Street 
and West of King Street. 

Ward 3— All that portion lying North of Broad Street, 
South of Hasell Street and West of King Street. 

Ward 4— All tliat portion lying North of Broad Street, 
South o{ Went worth Street and West of King Street. 

Ward 5 — All that portion lying North of Hasell Street, 
South of Calhoun Street and East of King Street. 



TJlc Centennial of Incorporation. 471 1 

Ward 6— All that portion lyini^r North of Wcntworth 
Street, South of Callioiin Street and West of Iviii^ Street. , 

Ward 7— All that portion, lyiiii^- North (jf Calhoun Street,. ; 

South of Mary Street and Kast of Kin^;' Street. ; 

Ward 8- -Ail that portion lyin^ North, of Calhoun Street, ' 

South of RadelilTe and P)ee Streets and West of Kin^ 
Street. ' : 

Ward 9 — All that portion lying North of Mary Street to ; 

the cit)^ boundar)-. East of Nassau Street up to its inter- ' 

section with Amherst Street, East of Hanover Street. 

Ward 10 — All that portion \y\\'\'g North of Mary Street, 
West of Nassau Street up to its intersection with Amherst 
Street, and from Amherst Street West of Hanover Street 
to the city boundary, and East of King Street. 

Ward I [—All that portion lying West of King Street, 
East of Rutledge Avenue and North of Radeliffe Street 
to the city boundary. 

Ward 12 — All that portion lying North of Bee Street to 
the city boundary, and W'est of Rutledge Avenue. 

To present the numerous interesting matters properly 
noticeable^in describing the topography of tlu- city is clearly 
beyond the time and space permitted to nie, but the new ; 

map accompan)'ing tliis will be fou.nd most interesting. It ■ 

is a pleasure to mention that our laborious townsman. 
General DeSaussure, has collected a considerable amount ; 

of information on this subject, and I trust it will be printed ; 

in a permanent record at no distant day. ; 



4/2 Mayor Courtcnay s Annual Rcviciu. 

THE ii.\i;i;nj!-iTS roiiTS, lights and Jirmi'S. 

Few cities have a more safe or spacious harbor llian 
Charleston ; the area of the tidaLl basin, as computed from 
the Coast Survey Chart and Mills' Atlas of South Carolina, 
is about fifteen square miles; only a few miles Eastward!)- 
from the cit)', the ocean is in full vievv', and vessels have 
been known to sail into the inner harbor and anchor oppo- 
site their piers without other assistance than their own sails. 
So far as anch.orage capacity is concerned a thousand sail 
could be accommodated. Tlve shore line on either side as 
you enter, attracts attention on account of the historic 
events which ha\X' occurred at different points, and a brief 
reference to the forts properly belongs to this occasion, and 
Vv'hile it is not possible to go into details, enough can be said 
to show how valuable and interesting a complete histoiy of 
each would prove ; on the series of plats herewith presented 
the locations of the original and subsequent forts are shown, 
v/hich i trust will tend to invite further attention to this 
subject. 

FORT JOHNSON. 

1704. The first fortification ever erected for the defence 
of this harbor was at tlie Northeast point of James Island, 
in 1704, to meet the exigency of a threatened invasion by 
a French fleet under M. DeFebourne, and was named in 
honor of Sir Nathaniel Johnson, Governor of the Carolinas 
under the Proprietary government. It was but a small 
Vv'ork, and with the ordnance then in use, could not have 
been a sure defence against vessels intent on entering the 
harbor, as the distance to be covered by the small cannon 
of the period was over two miles to the Southwest point of 
Sullivan's Lsland ; and for th;^ class of vessels then in use, a 
depth of water was available out of reach of such guns. 

•1750. A second fort, built o{ tapia, was probably an en- 
larged and improved permanent work, on the site of the 
first ; this was the fort of the Revolutionary period ; it was 



Sc 



,l.t 



aJ"' 



)!'' 



PLAN 



A^ 



/^ r-» yr 



OFeet. 



El 



V. I'H.jIO L'.'^'-O ^0 



TJic Centennial of Incorporation. 47-^ 

close in advance of aiul to the Norlhcast of tlu; I'ost Kevc»- 
lutioti.'uy work : in plan triangular, witli salicrUs bastioncd 
and priest-ca})ped, the goige closed, the i;ate protecU-d bv 
an earth-work, a defensible sea wall of tapia extended the 
fortification to the West and Southwest. 

17(;5. In this year a noted event occurred here which has 
passed into history, and has made Fort Johnson a favored 
locality. A sloop-of-war had arrived in Chcnles Town har- 
bor with a supply of stamped paper; casting anchor under 
cover of this l^ritish military post the stamped [)apcr was 
landed and stored here; there was great excitement in 
Charles Town, which resulted in a public meeting (;f th.e 
citizens, at which a cosnmittee, consisting oS. Daniel Cannon, 
Wm. Wiltiamston, Ed. W'^eyman and others, were apfjoinled 
to devise means to defeat the use of stamped [)aper in tliis 
Colon}'. Three companies of volunteers were org<inized of 
about fift)' men each, under Captains Marion, kmckne\- and 
Elliott, fully armed, and on the night of the second day after 
the meeting the}' embarked in boats at Eamboll's bridge, at 
the West end (jf South l^ay Street, effecting a landing on 
James Island, after midnight, between Styles' plantation 
and the fort ; the battalioi> marched promptly, crossed the 
bridge leading to the fort without opposition, cind took |)os- 
session of it — the garr'son was placed under guard, cind the 
stamped paper was secured. Preparations were then made 
to defend the fort against an}' attack which might be m;ide 
upon it by the sloop-of-war, when the commanding oflicer 
at day-break should find out what had taken place. Every 
cannon was loaded and manned, and a Hag displayed show- 
ing a blue field and three white crescents — this was the first 
form of the present State flag: At day-light a boat was 
sent from the sloop-of-war to ascertain the meaning of so 
unusual a display. The naval officer was taken into the fort 
and shown the complete and sufficient pre[)arations made to 
defend it, and was told that it was the fixed determination 
of the volunteers to burn the stamped paper, unless the 
officer in command would pledge his honor to receive it on 
board and forthwitli depart from the harbor; notice w.is 
60 



! >\ ij 



474 JMayor Coiirtcuays A/uiual Rcviczu. 

also given, that if tlic sloop fired upon the foit, the gdiri- 

son would repel force with force. The officer then returned ■ 

to the sloop-of-war, and two hours after, concluded to re- \ 

ceive the stamped paper aboard. After it was all delivered, I 

the sloop weighed anchor and proceeded to sea the same after- ' 

noon. It is as well to note; that Charleston paraded armed 

men by authority of a Town meeting, captured a l]ritish 

fort while under the authority of the crovvu, and displa}'ed 

a blue flag with three white crescents, ten years before that 

occasion in a sister Colony when 

"The eml:)att]ed farmers stood ■ 

And filed the shot lieard round the world. ' 

Concord v.-as fortunate in having a poet — Fort Johnson 
has ever been v«.-anting in this respect. 

17 75. The spirit of liberty was now abroad, and of course 
the Royal Governor, Lord Wm. Campbell, had become qm'te 
odious to the people of Charles Town. Irritish troops being 
expected, Fort Johnson was a'second time seized, this time 
by order of the Council of Safety — who ordered Lieut. -Col. 
Motte, with three companies of Moidtrie's regiment, to oc- 
cupy it. No resistance was made ; the armament consist- 
ed of twenty-one guns — 26 and 18-pounds; the flag used by 
this garrison was a blue field with one vvhite crescent— tlds 
was the second phase of the State's battle-flag. \x\ Novem- 
ber of that }"ear, three shots were fired from Fort Johnson 
at the British sloop.-^ Tamer and Cherokee, then lying at an- 
chor near Sullivan's Island, \x\ response to the heavy firing 
of those ships on the operations then going forward, of ob- 
structing Hog Island Channel. 

177G. On the 28th June Fort Johnson was under the 
command of Col, Christopher Gadsden, mounting twenty 
guns 26 and 18-pounds, but did not have the opportunity of 
engaging the enemy, as the garrison at Fort Sullivan alone, 
under Col. \Vm. Moultrie, met Sir Peter Parker's fleet. At 
this date there was a supporting battery, mounting twelve 
heavy guns, five hundred and forty-eight yards West of Fort 
Johnson. 

1780. Sir lienry Clinton's Siege Map of tliis date desig- 



U;,. '\,<^-n 







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iai* ie si-0.11 1 1 arb o ii I^ 

4- October- 1SO<? 



AM p H 4/ r«! - ciTwO , Cf» 



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Ci-^ '"nat.<i«1oi 1 i.'Oio ** -X . , -^°^" these >,ousosbe.io-n^ to x>it State, ^ 

r|"^^^^"i^^,^4^ .<ll'4 '4 ^ >-^ , . . , ^ . . '. ; , -= '^^ \--/- SyiTV:^ .,ood ..-he-^es.. Wt..:rj.ec.ecl -.-, ^He E,evola.U o 



^V^'( y^^as NO-A"^ -to Pont Mel-h.^.;; °n CW;'est " 




C hai'lesion I i arbour- 






llic CoUcniiial of hicorporatioi. 475 

nates Fort Johnson as "destroyed," whelhcr by military 
order or b)' storms is not known. According to a survey 
made in June, 1775. by Benjamin Lord, Deputy Surveyor, 
at the request of the Commissioners of Fortitications, this 
military reservation v/as reported as cighity-nine and a lialf 
acres, exclusive of the fort. The entire area, including tlic 
fort, battery at the gate, barracks, &c., are accurately shown 
in the accompanying Plat A. The original plan, judging 
from the area laid out, evidently had in view an extensive 
entrenched camp, to be the basis of defence for any land 
attack on Charlestoji from the Soutli and West, as well as 
the control of the harbor. 

1787. In tliis year a plan v.-as submitted by Col. Senf, the 
Engineer of the State of vSouth. Carolina, for an enclosed 
battery of eight guns, near the location of the old fort, as 
shown in Plat A. 

1 703. This tlie tlrird work was built by Governor \Vm. 
Moultrie of South Carolina, this year, and occupied ground 
in rear of the works previously in use. In 1794 a battery 
was built by the United States, West of the main work. 

17J)(k Repairs were found necessary to preserve Fort 
Johnson, and were made by the United States government 
this year. 

1800. A breach was made in the sea wall, East of the 
fort, by the violence of the great gale of this year, and so 
serious v/as tlic inroad of the seas as shown in Plat marked 
B, that the fort was temporarily abandoned. 

1807. In April o[ this year Lieut. -Col. John Williams 
reported as follows : " Nothing has been said as to the pres- 
ent state of Fort Johnson, as the subscriber does not [)er- 
ceive that an\' part of the ruins can be brought into use, 
unless it be by forming a mass in front to prevent the fur- 
ther depredations of the sea." 

1S12. In view of the threatened war with England, Ci^w. 
J. G. Swift reported to Qcd. Pinckney that the survey of 
Vc)\\ Johrison would be hastened, and that two batteries 
would be ready for service in a short time. 

isl."). Lieut. James Gadsden, L^nitcd States Engineer, in 



4/0 Aliij'or Courtcuays Annual Review. 

this year reported to Gen. Swift that " h'ort Johnson is h"ttlc 
better than a battery in ruins, the gale of 1813 having nearly 
destroN'ed it," and he recommended the abandonment of the 
site and the construction of a wqw work, to mount twelve 
guns, a short distance in rear of it. 

IslH. a survey made this year, with plan of the work b)- 
Capt. W'. 1. Poussin of the 'J'opographical Engineers, show- 
ed the work to be in ruins, and in 1821 it is again referred 
to by the United States Engineers, as follows: " The North- 
east })oint of James Island, projecting into the harbor about 
midway between Sullivan's Island and the city, is the site 
of the few remaiiis of old Fort Johnson ;" in 1827 scarcely 
a vestige remained, and subsequently it does not appear in 
the list of works, which it was deemed advisable to preserve 
as accessiop.s to thc^ proposed system of defence ; but later 
two pej-nianent buildings- for ofdcers and men, and a ?\Iar- 
tello Tower, to the Soutlnvest, were built, and remained 
standing until after hostilities began in 1861, in the war be- 
tween the States. 

1801. To aid in the reduction of Fort Sumter, a mortar 
batter)' was located at this point, and at four o'clock on the 
morning of April 12th, 1S61, a shell from a mortar was ex- 
ploded over Fort Suinte^', and this was the sign.il for the 
bombardment of that post. Capt. James vv^as in command 
of the mortar battery on that occasion. Subsequent chang- 
es, and improvements, of this locality, in the 1861-65 period, 
made bCrt Johnson, with its outposts. Battery Simpkins on 
the Southeast, Battery Glover on the West, at One Hund- 
red Pines, and Battery Wampler, near the old Martello 
Tower,, an extensive entrenched camp of considerable 
strength and capacity. The fort proper mounted twent}' 
</uns and mortars, of which ei^ht were of the lieaviest cali- 
bre — eight and ten inch columbiads, and six and seven incli 
rifles. Battery Simpkins and its adjacent works mounted 
besides three heavy guns and three mortars. In 1865 the 
United States government made a survey of this localit}', 
and tlie ina[,) prepared is presented herewith marked C. 

lS()-i. On the 3d day of July an attacking force of two 



TJic Centennial of Incorporalion. /\yy 

rc^^imcnts of infantry and sixty artillerists, comin^^ in boats 
from Morris Island, under the command of Gen. Gurncy,'-' 
of New Vork, attempted to land between l^attcry Simpkins 
and Fort Johnson, but were quickly repulsed by the Con- 
federate infantry and artillery under command of Lieut. -Col. 
J. A. Yates, First South Carolina Artillery. Col. FJoyt and 
one hundred and f(-)rty of the command and five bar-^es were 
captured. On 17th l^Y^bruary, 1865, this fort was evacuated, 
and the works have been allowed to ^^o to decay. It will be 
interesting to record the number and calibre of the i^uns in 
position here, when abandoned, as the records of the United 
States War Department are incorrectly given. Under date 
of July 28th, 1883, Col. Yates, who commanded this part of 
the harbor defences, states: "The list below shows the bat- 
teries and guns as we left them ; this is accurate, as through 
the kindness of Dr. Rob't Lebby, Jr., some of the guns l\'ing 
there have been, measured. The heavy works around Foit 
Johnson were built by myself, wdth labor loaned by Mr. Geo. 
A. Trenholm and Mr. Thco. D. Wagner, after the attack 
of 3d Jul)-, at which time there was only a light earth-work. 

First. Battery Glover, near ' One Hundred Fines,' oppo- 
site Charleston. Four 32-pound smooth bore. 

Second. Battery Wanipl er, wq^kx oXd. IMartello l^ower. One 
7-inch Brooks, banded and rified gun ; one lO-inch smooth 
bore columl)iad. 

Fort Johnson. Two lo-inch rifled and banded columbi- 
ads ; two lo-incli srnootli bore. 

Battery Simpkins. Four 8-inch columbiads, smooth bore; 
two 8-inch mortars. 

Rl fieri Battery, on the beach between Battery Simpkins 
and Fort Johnson. One 6-inch banded Brooks gun (rifled). 

Small Battery inside of Ivies at Fort foJtnson. Two 
30-pound rifled Parrott guns captured near same (no name); 
one 42-pound rifled and banded ; two 8-inch mortars. 

Battery one mile above FoYt Joh.nso)i {Cheves). on Fast coast 
of James Island. Four 8-inch columbiads mounted on na- 
val carriages." 

*Gen. \Vm. Gurney, commanding the forces, failed to land. 




1\ 



A,,//,yM, '//„/[ 



/, /M'f'/y^^,^.„y/,/'0,,r 



4/8 Mayor Court oiays \\)inual Review. 

FORT MOUl/rRIE. 



177(). There have been three different forts erected r)ii or t 

near the site of the present l^^ort Moidtrie. On January | 

lOth, 1776, a facine battery was ordered to be constructed, | 

and soon after " Fort SulHvan " was built of palmetto logs. l 

by Col. Wm. Moultrie. The plan of this fort was square, ,| 

with bastions at the salients, constructed of a crib-work 'of I 

palmetto logs sixteen feet thick, filled in with sand ; merlons I 

of palmetto logs, filled in with sand to the same thickness, ^^ 

and ten leet above platform. On the 2Sth June the work | 
was only finished on the front, the Northern half was then • I 

raised to a height of only seven feet, when Sir Peter Parker | 

made his attack; the flag used was a blue field, with our | 

crescent and bearing the word LlP.Ei^TY. Tlie armament | 

consisted of thirty-one guns, chiefly 26" and iS*'.'. Since this I 

victory of 2Sth June the fort has borne the name of its he- | 

roic commander. I 

1780. On the 9th April of this ^'ear. Admiral Arbuthnot, I 

co-operating with Sir Henry Clinton in the siege of Charles- | 

ton, took advantage of wind and tide, and passed P^ort Moul- I 

trie, Col. C. C. Pincknc)-, commanding, without stopping to | 

engage it. The fleet suffered in casualties and injui'ies to | 

hull and rigging; one ship getting aground was fired on | 

from Haddrell's Point and abandoned. On Sir Ilenry Clin- | 

ton's Map of the Siege of Cliarlcston, Year P)Ook iS82,page | 

360, it is noted that this f^t, with rhe half-moon battery for | 

ei£|;hteen f^uns on the West of it, surrendered on ternis, the 1 

4th IMay, to the seamen and marines of the fleet. This was | 

eight days before the surrender of fhe city. I 

170(>. It is believed that the temporary character of the | 

early structure, and the action of the tides, soon destroyed | 

the first palmetto log fort ; in this year, the government \ 

secured from the State a reservation of about four acres, and | 

laid the foundation of the second fort. The tracing marked j 

13, herewith, shows the j)lan, which was pentagonal, v/ith .j 

obverse salients to the channel — the armament consisted of | 

ten 24^ and six 12^^ In a storm of some severity and high j 



rr r 



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y\^fc€^ 



X. 



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cMiM B'O^rc^na^, 



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c c^<S;^«4r 




The Ccnifiuiial of Incorporatiou. 4^9 

tides of October 1st and 2d, 1803, the Ldacis frontin<^ the 
harbor was destroyed, and the counter scarf ruined. 

1S(J7. In April o\ this year Lieut. -Cob John Wilb'ains of 
tlie Engineers, leporled "that the land reserved for th.e fort, 
origiiicdly less than four acres, is in fact aheady washed into 
the sea, the counter scarf and glacis obliterated, tlie revet- 
ment of the parapet, which was of brick, is in most part 
gone, and some of the guns have pitched forward, and leav- 
ing their, broken carriages behind them, lie in the debris; 
even the furnace for heating shot is now onl)' visible, as 
part of it projects from the sand of the beach, Vv'hcn not 
covered by the surf; there is nothing in this whole work 
that can be considered in any other view, than a heap of 
rubbish of no other value than the bricks that might come 
in use again," 

180*). In Jrine of this )'ear, Major Alexander McComb, 
Engineer Corps, presented a plan for the third fort, as 
shown herewith on Plat marked E, which appears to have 
been approved, for on December loth, 18 fi, the Secretary 
of W^ar, Mon. \Vm. Eustis, informed the Chairman o\ a Con- 
gressional Committee as follows: " Fort Moultrie, situated 
at the entrance of the harbor, is of an irregular form, built 
of brick, filled in udth sand, presenting a battery of three 
sides on the sea front, with ramparts, parapets, &c., mount- 
ing forty guns : the magazine is brick, dry and calculated to 
hold five hundred ban-cls of powder; the barracks are of 
brick sufficient for five hundred men and officers; tiie gar- 
rison is fixed at three hundred and ninety men." 

1S'2G. The. Engineer's report of this year speaks of Fort 
Moultrie as a work of some strength, but by no means ade- 
quate to its object, its battery being weak, and the scarf so 
low as to oppose no serious obstacle to escalade. Col. 
J. G. Totten's report confirmed this condition ten years 
afterwards. This is the fort now standing — its site v/as 
much endangered in 1839 ^^y '^'^^^ advance of high water- 
ma rlv. 

18(>0. On the 26tl! December of this year, an event oc- 
curred vvdiich led directly to a disastrous war. Major Rob- 



4^0 Mayor Coiirtcuay s A mm a I Review. 

crt Anderson and the o-arrison <it this post, contrary to 
orders from the Secretary of War, in viohition of the un- 
derstandings and agreements between the State and \wi\~ 
eral authorilies, at the snc;^i;estion of an officer not of the 
garrison, removed to Fort Sumter during the night, spiking 
the guns, burning the carriages, &c. This unexpected and 
unauthorized act brought on the war between the Statues. 
The arn^samcp.t at that time consisted of sixteen 24^, 
fourteen 32'-*, ten 8-inch columbiads, five 8-inch sea coast 
howitzers and seven field pieces. It was immediately 
occujMed by tlie .Marion Artillery, Capt. J.G. King, fifty 
men — Lafayette Artillery, Capt. J. J. Pope, fifty-five n-^.cn — 
Washington Artillery, Capt. Geo. 11. Walter, fifty men- 
German Artillery, Capt. C. Nohrden, fifty men — under com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. W. G. DeSaussure, First Regiment Vol- 
unteer Artillery, Fourth ]3rigade .South Carolina Militia. 
Subsequent!}', it Vv'as put in order and r.-uch strengthened, 
guns remounted, and under tlie ccjmmand of Co!. R. S. 
Riple)' took a prominent part in tiie reduction of Fort 
'Sumter on i2th and 13th April, iS6i. 

It was permanently garrisoned, during the war, by the 
First South Carolina Infantry, Col. Wm. Butler, commaud- 
ing, and on tlie memorable 7th April, 1863, was vigorou.-^l)' 
engaged witli Fort Sumter, in the complete repulse of the 
iron-clad squadron under Rear Admiral Dupont — eight hun- 
dred and sixty-eight shots having been fired from this post 
in this action. After Gen. Gilmore's descent upon Morris 
Lsland, July loth, 1863, it took part at long range in the 
defence of that island until its evacuation, September 6lh, 
1863. 

On the 8th September, Fort Moultrie, supported by most 
of the batteries on Sullivan's Island, was heavily engaged 
with the iron-clad fleet, and particularly the ''Ironsides'' 
frigate. 

isOo. Shots continued to be exchanged with the moni- 
tors at intervals un.til 4th February, 1865, when, according 
to Jndge Advocate Cowley, United Spates Navy, the last 
shot was fired at the squadron from this post, which struck 



48 1 

nth 
I em 
rce 
ave 
ans 
ace 
>ro- 
rhe 
and 



n a 

the 

pril 

esi- 

les- 

uth 

sed 

'ted 

led, 

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hat 

I in 

hat 

y it 

the 

-ted 
:atc 
fol- 
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ght 



Ihc 

the 
h it 







c^^ing^i^'c oijr oiiT Aroi/j^yrTiiK >,n ,2/ui.nan, sj'./u.u/ ^ tA^ J^'a^<n^-^^ (Ly)f}?:'kU^^'\M^\ 






The Ccn-lciuiial of Incorporaliofi. 48 1 

the motiitor C'Liiionifus. At tlie evacuation the same month 
the armaincnt was twelve guns and mortars, among tliem 
four 10-inch cohimbiads, two 8-inch cohimbiads, and three 
rifled guns (42^ and 3J -). Since the war great changes liavt^ 
taken place, ci.nd its armament comprises twelve 15-inch guns 
in barbette and four 13-inch mortars. The entire space 
inside the fort is now an extensive bomb-proof for the pro- 
tection of the gan'ison when engaged with an enemy. Idie 
garrison in future will be quartered outside the walls, and 
occupy the fort onlv when engaged with an eneniy. 

CASTLE PINX'KNEY. 

1704. The site of this work was selected in [794, on a 
shoal known as Schultes' l^^olly Island, by Paul Hyacinthe 
Perrault, under orders from the Secretary of War, April 
llth of that year, in pursuance of the directions of Presi- 
dent ^^^ashington to fortify the port and harbor of Charles- 
ton, and to act under the orders of the Governor of Soutli 
Carolina. Tlie work, howex^er, being on a scale supposed 
too extensive for the funds approjiriated, was not attemyjted 
until 1797; between this time and 1804 a work was erected 
on this site, the character of which, however, is unknown. 

180G. On I^^ebruary iSth of this year, it was reported that 
the sev^ere gale of 1S04 had left this work a ruin, and in 
April the following \-ear Lieut.-Col. Williams reported that 
the fort could not be effectually repaired, without taking it 
down to the foundation, and sawing off the remnants of the 
heads of piles at low water-mark. 

1809. On Januar)- 6th a new masonry work was reported 
by the vSecretary of W^ar as commenced, and in a rapid state 
of progress, and two years afterwards it is described as fol- 
lows: "This nev/ work of an elliptical form, built of brick, 
has two tiers of guns, of which, thirty are mounted — eight 
in casemates and tiie remainder en barbette ; a good mag:i- 
zine and quarters for two liundrcd men and officers." The 
work at that date was considered the most important in the 
harbor. A plan of the fort, showing the height to which it 
61 



R 



ip 



N 



I 






PLA N or CASTLE P/NCKNEV 

/N THE HARBOR OF 

CHAHLESTO/V . S.C. 







SKETCH or 

SHUTC'S FOLLY ISLANL^ 

EY CAPT CLIASON 




- . ."ErP'n . *l'?, -!learesf_ .Poijit_ofJ he_Ci^ J.'lt'i 'i^l 



I 






482 Mayor Coiirtciiay s Annual Rcviciv. 

was built in 1810 is presented herewith in tlie sketch mark- 
ed F. Up to 1S29 nothinc^ further was done exce]^ to make 
minor repairs and to protect the foundations by depositing- 
around it a quantity of large stones. 

1829. Ill April of this year Lieut. Brewerton recommend- 
ed the construction of a sea wall, to strengtiien the founda- 
tions, and this was completed in 1832. In the following 
year additions were made by Capt. Eliason for the tcm]:)o- 
rary defence of the gorge, by pallisades, &c. 

1800. At the close of this year its armament consisted of 
fourteen 24*^, four 42^, four 8-inch sea coast howitzers, one 
lO-inch and one S-in"ch mortar, and four light pieces for 
flank defence. On tlie 27th December, i860, a detachment 
of the First Regiment Rifles, South Carolina Militia, con- 
sisting of the Washington Light Lifantry, Capt. C. H. Si- 
monton, the Carolina Light Lifantry, Capt. B. G. Pinckney, 
and the Meagher Guard, Capt. Ed. McCrady, Jr., under tlie 
command of Col. J. J. Petigrevv an.d Major Ellison Capers, 
proceeded at half-past four o'clock in the afternoon to Rail- 
road Accommodation wharf, where the battalion embarked 
on the steamer Nina ; landing at Castle j'inckney, the com- 
mand scaled the walls with ladders and took possession of 
the fort, which was occupied at the time b)' a ^vo^king party 
under Lieut. JMeade, United States Army. While garrisoned 
by the Zouave Cadets, Capt. C. E. Chichester (1861), a nuniber 
of prisoners from the battle of first I\huiassas were confined 
here, among whom was Col. Corcoran of the New York Sixt}'- 
ninth Regiment. Later in the year Castle Pinckney was pre- 
pared for an armament, guns were mounted, &c. The garri- 
son continued unchanged until March, 1862. The Confeder- 
ates while in possession changed its character somewhat, b}' 
an embankment of earth against the scarf of the sea front, 
thus closing the caseiTiate embrasures and converting it into 
a barbette battery, with empaulements for four guns — three 
lo-inch columbiads and one Brook's rifle on centre -pintle car- 
riage, and this was its armament when evacuated \\\ Febru- 
ary, 1865, and maintained at the present time. A drawing 
presenting the location of Castle Pinckney is appended mark- 



TJie Coitcntiinl of fiicorporatioii. 483 

cd " G," whicli 8ho\vs it to be a little less tlian one mile from 
the East front of the city. 

FORT SUMTER. 

182 7. I»"i ]3eccmber of this year, a Board of Engineers 
subtnitted a report on the defences of Charleston harbor, 
with a plan of a casemated battery designated for the 
shoal, situated about one mile Southwest of Fort Moultrie, 
and about tlie same distance Noitheast of Fort Johnson, 
and these plans were a])proved by the Secretary of War, 
Hon. P. ]>. Porter, in December, 1828. The drawings and 
memoir describe it as an enclosed pentagonal work of 
masonry, witii truncated salients, and two tier of guns in 
casemate and one in barbette. The armament was to con- 
sist of one hundred and fort}\guns and four mortars, eighty- 
one guns being in casemate. To sustain a dctei'mined 
attack seven hundred men would be required. 

1S51. GcTi. Totten reported this year that the total 
armament wou.ld be one hunared and fort)'-six guns, in- 
cluding six niortars and thirteen field pieces. 

\^m. The work was essentially completed at this date 
in accordance with the plan herewith presented (Plat H), 
except as to the embrasures in the second tier of casemates. 
Capt. J. G. Foster, United States Army, reports the follow- 
ing guns then mounted : 

Cascjnatcs—'\\\x<cc^2'^, twenty- four 32", three 8--inch howit- 



zers. 



Barbette — Two lo-inch columbiads, six 8-inch columbiads, 
five 8-inch howitzers, five 42*', three 32°, six 24^. 

On the parade arranged as mortars — one lo-inch col urn- 
biad, four 8-inch columbiads. Total, sixty-two guns. 

18<J1. On the 12th and 13th April of this year it was 
bombarded b\' troops of the State of South Carolina, under 
QiQ.\\. Beauregard, and surrendered by Major Anderson, 
United .States Arm)-, on the latter day. The United States 
flag was saluted, and the United States garrison evacuated 
on the 14th, and embarked aboard steamships and proceed- 



484 Mayor Courlcnays A/iinml Rcviezu. 



cd North. Lieut. -Col. R. S. Ripley, Confederate States | 

Army, was ordered to oceupy Fort Suniter upon its evacu- ^. 

ation, proceeding to ]'""orl Sumter with Ca])t. Ilallonquist's I 

Company, Fiist South Carolina Regular Artillery. The | 

Palmetto Guard, Capt. G. B. Cuthbert, was ordered over ! 

from Morris Island, same da3^ On the 15th the Palmetto I 

Guard were relieved by Capt. Alfred Rhett's Company, \ 

seventy-five men, P^irst South Carolina Regular Artillery,' f 

with Lieuts. iMitchell and Blake ; soon after, Capt. Plallon- ■> 

quist was ordered to report to Gen. Bragg at Pensacola, and 
Capt. Alfred Rhett assumed command. f 

ISO.']. On the yl\\ April of this year its arniamejit was : ?; 

in caseniates, thirty-five guns of 8-inch, 42^ and 32'^ and in I 

barbette, thirty-seven guns of lo-inch and 8-inch rifled, 7-inch ^ 

rified and 42'^; total, sevent}^-two guns, and four lo-inch mor- | 

tars. On that day the fort was commanded by Col. Alfred I 

Rhett, of the P'irst South Carolina Artillery, and bore the f 

brunt of the attack by the iron-clad squadron under Rear-Ad- | 

miral Dupont, United States Navy. This squadron num- | 

bered eight turreted vessels, carrying sixteen guns of 1 i-inch I 

and 15-inch calibre, and one frigate, the new Ironsides, carr}^- I 

ing fifteen i i-inch guns and one rifled gun of S-inch calibre. I 

In two hours and a quarter the entire squadron retired com- | 

pletely worsted, after firing one hundred and thirty-nine shots j 

from twenty-three guns. More than half the vessels were . | 

badl)^ damaged, and one went down early the next morning. | 

Less than half of the guns of the fort were engaged, firing j 

eight hundred and ten shots. The masonr)^ in a few places I 

was much injured, but the efficiency of the fort to renew I 

the combat was but little impaired. | 

On the 10th July Gen. Gilmore, commanding the United f 

States troops, in conjunction with Rear-Admiral Dahlgren, 1 

United States Navy, made a successful descent upon the '\ 

Southern end of Morris Island, menacing batteries Wagner | 

and Gregg, the outposts of Fort Sumter, on the Norther,n ; 

end of that island. P\-H-t Sumter took' part in the defence 
of these works until 17th August, oii which day Gen. Gil- 
more opened his breeching batteries of the heaviest rifled 



H 



PLAN or FORT SUMTER 

OHARLESTOH HAHBOtl . S. C 

AS ORIGINALLY OESIQNEO, 

MO AS COMPLETED IN /66I . 

SCALE J INCH TO SO FEET . 













I "^ -•; 



The Coitoiuial of Incorporation. 485 

cannon upon Fort Sumter, at unprecedented range, from 
tlie distance of 3,428 to 4,290 yards, firing over the licads of 
tlie outposts, and actuall)' demolisliing I^^ort Sumter in seven 
days, altliough not silencing it until September ist — tlie 
sixteenth da}^ of the bombardment. The part played by 
tlie United States Navy in the demolition of the fort was 
quite secondar)', being limJted to an occasional niglit attacdc. 
During the first seven days the land batteries threw against' 
the fort five thousand and nine projectiles, of 100, 200 and 
300 pounds, from fourteen parrot rifled guns. 

I append the following complimentary oiTler of General 
Reaureeard to the First Ref^iment South Carolina Regular 
Artillery: 

HEAD-QUARTERS, \ 

C}iAR].ESTON, S. C, ist September, 1863, f 
General — The Commanding General has \v)tnesse(l with genuine pride and 
satisfaction, tlic defence made of Fort Sumter by Col. Rhett, b.i.s officers, .ind 
the men of the First Regiment of South Carobna Regular Artillery — noble 
frrdts of the discipline, apjdication to their duties, and of the crgm-nzation of 
the regiment. In the annnls (y{ war no stouter defence waf, ever made, and no 
Avork ever bef<ire encountered as formidable a bonrbardment as that under 
whicli Fort Sumter lias l>een successfully hekl. 

Resjjectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) THOMAS JORDAN, , 

Chief of Staff. 
To Brigadier-General Ripley, 

CofiunanJing First Military District South Carolina. 

On 6th September batteries Wagner and Gregg, the out- 
posts of Fort Sumter, after enduring an unprecedented fire 
from land and sea for upwards of fifty-four days and nights, 
during which time two assaults in force had been repulsed, 
were successfully evacuated on this night, and their garri- 
sons broupfht -into the inner harbor for its defence. 

On 7th September Col. Rhett was advanced to the com- 
mand of the First Military District, including Fort Sumter 
and the city, and was relieved by Major Stephen Elliott, 
Confederate States Army, commanding Fort Sumter Vvith a 
force of infantr}'. 

On the night of the 8tli September a naval attack in 
boats carrying four hundred and fifty picked men, was easily 



486 Mayor Coiiriciiay s A'dimal Review. 

repulsed in twent)' minutes, tlie officer second in command 
and one liundred and two oIIkm's were ca[)tured. 

On 26tl] October, the second heavy bombardment was 
bc^^un ; tliis time from the evacuated batteries — Wagner :■ 

and Grego-— and others on tiie Northern end of IMorris | 

Island aided by the squadron, was continued without in- I 

tcrmission for forty da\-s and nights, until December 6th. On |. 

the 13th October, by the falling of one of the East casemates, \ 

caused by a single shot from the enemy's batteries, eleven i 

members of the Washington Light Infantry of Charleston \ 

were killed.^' | 

On the Mth December an accidental explosion of the | 

small arms magazine took place at nine o'clock in the morn- f 

ing. The Commissar}' store-room being proximate, suffered | 

severely in casualties, Capt. Edward D. Frost and his non- -' 

comiriissioned staff and several con'ipany sergeants then 
drawing rations were instantly killed. There were besides 
forty wounded in the upper and lower casemates, accessible 
h)y passage to the scorching blast of tlie explosion, man}' 
were sleeping in their bunks when injured, having just been I 

relieved from night dut}-. The physical damage to the fort \ 

was so great, as to cause grave apprehensions for its con- 
tinued occupancy, and the fact that these serious disabili- 
ties were overcome and the fort held, is in keeping with the \ 
whole heroic defence throughout the war. , 

1S()4-. Oil t^i*"' ^4^^^ '^''"^y I^icut.-Crtl. Stephen Elliott, com- 
manding, \vas relieved, for active held service in Virginia, 
and promoted Brigadier-General, and Capt. John C. Mit- 
chell, First South Carolina Artillery, was assigned to the 
command. 

On the /th July the third heavy bombardment com- 
menced, and reached its height on the 20th instant, when 
Capt. Mitchell, the commander of the fort, was killed on the 
Southwest parapet. 

*Ca]n. James M. Carson's Crtnipany A, Twenty-hftli Soulli Carolina V\)lun- 
lecrs. AV/MZ—Sf-iL^eant W. Capers Owens, Scri.'-eanl j. Adger Stevens, Pri- 
vates Saniuel C, Amlcrson, Samuel L. InurouL^hs, F. Marion lUuroughs, Orville 
|. Burn, janiesCalder, Walter G. Gibbon, J. Walker Jones, Laurence T. Lee. 
Vv. L. Patterson. 



.•-M:.:.,.i.U»^; ,j. 



TJlc Cc}itc)uiial of hicorporaiion, 487 

On the 2ist July Capt. T. A. llugiicni!!, l^"'irst S(nilh 
Carolina Infantry, succeeded Ca{)t. Milcliell in command of 
the fort. The bombardment continued, with some docline 
of fire, until tlie first week in September, or u])\Vii.rd:; of two 
months; after tliis, desultory firing was kept up until the 
evacuation of the fort, on the night of the i/th February, 
1865. 

h^ort Sumter mounted at that date four heavy and five 
HgJit guns, and was stronger for defence than wlieii destroy- 
ed as an artillery post o\\^ year and five months previously, 
having been garrisoned during this period by infantry. 

"1870. In January of this year the Board of Engineers, 
United States Army, submitted a plan for arranging Fort 
Sumter for a battery of barbette guns. This plan was some- 
wJiat modilied afterwards, and work has been commenced 
u{)on it, but not completed, in accordance with the latest 
modifications the arm-nnent will consist of twent)- guns in 
casemates, ten 15-inch guns or equivalent en barbette, four 
siege or field pieces or gatling guns. 

ROSTER OF OFFICERS IN COMMAND OF FORT JOHNSON, 
FORT MOULTRIE, FOJ^T SUMTER AND CASTLE PINCK- 
NEY, 1860-65. 

Fort Johnson. 

1S60 — Dec C:iiiL Jo^cj^h Johnson. Ijlh Re^^nnicnt, S. ('. .M. 

iSGi — April Capt. Cit-urge H. James S. C. R. A. 

1861 — May. Lt.-Col. A. D. Frederick 2d S. C. Artillery. 

-, , \ Lt.-Col. Tos. A. Yatc-s, up to. ) , . r* u a 

^^^3- I February, 1S65. |- S, C. R. A. 

Fort Moultrie. 

i860— Dec. 27th.. . Lt.-Col. W.G. DcSaussure. . ist Reg't Art., 4ih Brig., S. CM. 

1861— Jan. : Col. R. S. Ripley S. C. R. A. 

1S61 — Ajnil Capt.W. Ransom Calhoun. , S, C. R. A. 

1S61— Suninier of. .Capt. Tlio.s. M. Wagner S. C. R. A. 

1S61 0.\\A. Jo.. A. Vate,-, S. C. R. A. 

r86i — Nov Col, Jno. Dunovant S. C. K. I. 

1SO2— Jan Lt.-Col. Wni. Jnitler S. C. R. I. 

1862— June Maj. Thos. M. Raker S. C R. I. 



4^8 Mayor Court c nay s Annual Rrvicw. 

iS62~Dec Capt. T. A. Jlujnicnin S. C. K. 1. \ 

iS63--Aito ^[.j. ].^^i,'t DcTrcvillc S. C. k. I. \ 

1S63--N0V CapL jacol, X'alcntinc S. C. R. 1. '/ 

1863— D.c Maj. Waiicii A Jams S. C. K. I. \ 

lS6.i--0ct. to Jan. .t'apt. C. II. Rivers S. C. ]<. I. \ 

1S64— toFeh. 1S65. Maj. Warren Adains S. C. K. I. l 

Fort SuDitcr. '■■ 

( Ll.-Col. R. S. liipley with Capt. J lalluiirpii.i'.s Company of ^ 
1861— April 14th. -s 40 men, S. C. R. A., and tlie j'almctto Cuia.d, CaiH. Culli- 

( bcrt, as a i;arrison. I 

fCa'p.t. Alfred Rhelt's Company, 75 men, S. C. R. A., re- I 

1861— April iGth -' '^'-^^'^'^ Capt. Cuthhert's Company. Capt. Hallonquist I 

'^ ^'''as ordeied to report to Gen. Rva^^, at Fensacola. Capt. '^ 

[^ Rhett icmained in conminnd until November. 

1S61 — Nov Cajv,. Thos. U. Wagner S. C. R. A. ^ 

1S62— Maj. Alfred Rhett S. C. R. A. I 

J863-— Sept -tli - C?pt. Stephen Elliott, of tlie Rcaufort Artillery, promoted 

" ' '■" i Major, C. S. A., and assigned to command of this i)0.>t. 

1864— May 24th. . .Capt. John C. Mitchell S. C. R. A. 

JS64— lulv '^l,-,t j ^^"j- '^- ''^- Huguenin, S. C. R. A., to Evacuation, lyih 
J >■ ) ^ -^ ■ , February, 1S65. 

Col. W'. R. Calhoun, CtKrimanding First Regimeirr South Carolina Regular | 

Artillery, v.as in comniand of the fort at different times, but (jwing to the con- i 

dition of his health, v.-as niuch of the time in the city on sick leave. It is not I 

possible to give a correct roster of commanding oflicers with p)articular dates of f 

service. i 



Castle Pinckncy. 'i 

1S60— Dec. 2 7tli. . .Col. J.J. Religrew . | 

1S61— Jan Capt. Raker S. C. R. I. \ 

1S61— Capt. Jos. A. Yates S. C. R. A. ' '"., 

Capt. H. S. Farley ....S. C. R.A. y 

Capt. C. E. Cliichcstcr Zouave Cadets. 

1862— Maj. Ormsby Rlanding S. C. R. A. \ 

1S62— Capt. W^ II. Perroucau S. C. R. A. ^ 

1S63— Capt. J. Cx. King to February, 1S65 S. C. R. A. 

In closing this brief and inadequate record, it is proper 
to say, that while in a general way, accurate, as to the pe- 
riod, 1860-65, there is much necessarily omitted for want of 

correct of"ficial information ; what is here printed, has been I 

obtained from private sources, and with the earnest hope 1 

that even this mere skeleton record, which omits many im- \ 



_;^.:!^ 



llic Ccntoniial of Incorporation. 489 

portant posts, will serve to direet attention to tlu^ j;'rancl 

story of the wonderful defence of Charleston for four years 

agaitist tlie persistent and hercnledn efforts of a governirient 

of unlimiled resources, in men and material, commanding 

the inventive skill and the workshops of the whole civilized \ 

world. 

POUT AND HARBOR LIGHTS. . \ 

As a suliject most interesting in connection u'ith Charles- | 

ton's commerce, and about which little is known to the ! 

general public, I have thought it in order to speak of our ': 

port and harbor lights, and with a brief reference to the grand : 

work of the Light-house ])oard of to-day, to show the origin ; 

of lights for maritime purposes soon after the early settle- \ 

mcnt of the country, and the vast changes made in this ; 

depart;^-ient uf the public service. I 

I'hcre is little doubt but that the early colonists recognized \ 

the necessity for beacons, with which to guide the English j 

and Dutch ships, which sliould make their landfall at night, \ 

the safe way to their harbors. The earliest records show J 

that as far back as 1673 beacons were then lit, with. " fier | 

balls of pitch and ocum," which were burned in an iron i 

basket on the top of these elevations. The firs', light-house r 

built at the public cost in America was on Little Brewster ;. 

Lsland, l^oston harbor, in 171 5, and was supported by light- \ 

dues of one penny per ton, on all incoming and outgoing \ 

vessels, except small local vessels: The maritime Colonics j 

fojlowed the example of Massachusetts, and when the f 

United States, by the Act of August 7th, 1789, accepted I 

from the States the title to and joint jurisdiction over the I 

light-houses on the coasts, and agreed to maintain them \ 

thereafter, they were only eight in number between Ports- i 

mouth, N. IL, and Charleston, S. C, a shore distance of j 

about one thousand miles, and comprised the following \ 

lights, all of which arc still in existence, though so greatly : 

improved that they are the same only in jnnpose and ? 

location : ■ 

Portsmouth (N. FL) Harbor Light ; Boston (Mass.) ILir^ ; 
G2 '■ I 



49'^ Mayor Court cnays Annual Review. 

bor Light ; The Gurnet Light, near Plymouth, Mass. ; Ih'ant 
J'oint Light, Nantucket, Mass. ; l^cavcr Tail Light, on 
Conanicut Island, R. L; Sandy Hool: Light, entranec to 
New York; Cape Henlo}>en, entrance to Dekiware ]^ay ; 
Charleston Main Light, on Morris Lsland. 

In the thirty years that had elapsed (1820) since the lights I 

had come under the control of the Federal govcrjiment, tlie % 

number had increased from eight to fifty-five, built to meet | 

immediate local wants and without reference to any general | 

system. ' 4 

Between 1820 and 1852, the number increased from fifty- I 

five to three hundred and twenty-five light-houses, and tliirty- | 

five light-ships, and namei'ous other aids to riavigation. I 

The " fier balls of pitch and ocum " used in the open brazier I 

in 1673, were succeeded by tallow candles in 17 16, Vvhich I 

gave place to fish oil,- burned in spider lamps with solid | 

wick, suspended from the dome of the tower, as late as 1760. | 

This v/as succeeded in 18 12, by sperm oil burned in a sort | 

of argand lamp, in " Winslow's patent magnifying and re- | 

fleeting lanterns." This illuminant v/as continued until the | 

beginning of the latter half of the present century, when \ 

the reflector system, much as it was improved, was itself I 

superseded by the Fresnel lenticular apparatus now in use. | 

The highest scientific authority has been used in obtaining I 

information as to illuminants. Analyses, quantitative and I 

qualitative, chemical, photometric, etc., of sperm, whale, | 

shark, seal, colza, olive, lard and mhieral oils, have been I 

made. | 

In turn, " colza " and *' lard " oils were used, but for some % 

years the Light-house Board, after much experimentation | 
in its own laboratory and workshops, succeeded \\\ perfect- 
ing a mineral oil, and a lamp capable of consuming all the 
carbon set free, and this has been introduced throughout 
the Light-house establishment, except insevent3^-three lights 
of the highest powers, in which there are still special reasons 

for using lard oil as an illuininant. | 

The cost of mineral oil is about fourteen cents a gallon ; \ 

lard oil seventy-five cents a gallon. The cost of oil for the | 



IIlc Cciitcujiial of Jncorporatioi. 491 

Light-house cstabHshmcnt in 1871, was $115,197.50; in 

1881, §32,889; this great saving is traceable to the use of 

mineral oil. 

The l^oarcl has watched the experiments made in otiicr 

countries with the electric light as a light- house illuminant, 

and while it does not consider that this liglit can be seen 

farther than its own best lights, wln'ch are seen, located and 

identified, as far as the curvature of the earth will allow, still 

for want of an apparatus no electric light has as yet been 

placed in competition with the oil lights in use. 

The records of the Lip"ht-house Board show that Pvlorris 
<-> 

Island on which tlie Charleston main light, and the Morris 
Island beacons are located, was formerly divided into three 
islands, the Southerly one called Middle Bay Island, the 
central portion Morrison's Island, and the part nearest 
Charleston Cummings' Point, each of these islands being 
separated by a creciv' or inlet which is now filled up ; and 
that by an Act of the Legislature of South Carolina passed 
January 20tl:, 1790, Middle Bay Island was ceded to the 
United States for light-house purposes. 

At the date of this Act of cession there was a light-house 
oji the land ceded, the date of the establishment of that light 
being. 1767, whether it antidated this there is no means of 
knowing, but most probably it had at an early date been 
the site of a beacon. 

In the office of the LiglU-housc Department in this cit)- 
are two most interesting relics taken from the corner-stone 
of the old Colonial Light-house, erected on what was then 
called " Middle Bay Island," now a part of Morris Island — 
one is a tracing on a plate of lead about twelve inches 
square, showing the outline of a small octagonal towxr, evi- 
dently arranged for the crude illuminants of that period ; 
the other is a copper plate of similar size, upon which an 
inscription is engraved. As objects of curiosity, 1 have had 
them reproduced in fac-siinilc and presented herewith. 

In 1837, ^'^^ United States government established a 
range light in connection with the old light, and to the 
Eastward and Southward of it, to guide through the ship 



y)92 J^Ii'iyor Courtcnay s Animal Rcviciu. :f 

cliannel. Tliesc lii^hts were dostro^-ed during the war he- .• 

tuecMi the Stales, and when the)' canie to be re-eslabhshed % 

it was found I hat the ship cliannel liad changed, and they | 
were therefore placed at hjcahties further to the South and 

West, to guide tlirough the new clianneh ! 

The Light-liouse I^oard was organized in 1852, and tlic ■ 

following statement shows the character of the Charleston '. 

harbor lights in existence at that time, ar,d the improxe- j 

ments tliat have been made in tlicm since : : 



18-52. 1SS3. 

Station. Location. Charactkk of Im.u- Charactek ok Ii.i.'j- 

Ml.V.ATING AlM'AK ATI'S. M 1 NATI.VG Al'l-AK A'i T.s. 

C f RehuiU in t257 ; fur- 

I I nished with 2d order of 

Charleston Morris Inland. . . -! -^f ^'''''>^'\ '■",™'-^'*^'^^ - ^^J"-^?"*^! ^^''^^ ^^^''u 'H 

inch rcllccturs. [ 1S70, and furnished 
■with ist order Fresnel 

Lens. 

Ch.irlfston Beacon Morris I^i.-^nd. . . -' '''"'-^ i^mp %viih 21-incl) _| ij^.,,^.,^^ ^^ ^gg 

( rcllector. j ^ 

Morns Island Beacon Morri^ l^hnd...-* ^'/'i't .^837. ibmp,j Reb'lt 1870 and 1S72 ; 

{ each lo-mch reflectors. | 5th order Fre^nel Lens. 

f r P.ebni!t 1S72. Front 

Sullivan'. Island Beacon ... .Sullivan's Island^ Budr ^848. 2 lamps, J Ll^ht 6th cmler Fres- 

I each lo-inch reiieciors. j nel jjcns; Rear Light 
I i 4th order Fresnel Lens. 

Fort SunUer Fort Sumter Established 1855 5th order Fresnel Lens. 

Castle Rmckney Castle Pinckney. .Established 1S55 5lh order Fre-nel Lens. 

Battery Beacon Batterj' -j Established 1857. \ '^' ';^'?'"^'^'' fresnel Lens 

■' . ■' I \ l>iscontinued 1S09. 



Few of our citizens fully realize the magnitude of tlie 
work done in the erection of the new " Oiarleston IMain 
Lightdiouse " and its equipment. It is still situated on Mor- 
ris Island, and the accompanying description will be read with 
interest and will elicit a general apj^reciation from every 
citizen. 

The height of the light above sea level is one hundred 
and fifty-eight feet, and the height of the structure from its 
base to the centre o{ the lantern is one hundred and fifty 
feet, the light being visible eigliteen and three-quarters 
nautical miles. 

The tower is a brick stru.cture tliirtj-'-three feet in diameter 
at the b:ise, and sixteen feet eight inclics in diameter at the 
neck below the cornice, being conical in shape, and is pro- 



'^^a 



'tkisBl 



laid oiv 



t/a,3o.cJLi//.J707. i/!i thi^ -^w&nt/i yearn of fiu 

Majesty: s Reign, Oeo'sge thejI 
King of Great Jjiiimm^- 
Lord Charles Grevuxe Montagu uovf 

IN CHIEF 

Honorable. William ijULL,EsQljEL' Grniymm 



iiQN^_i±TER_MANlGAULTE^ 



a 



(E/oiiynr%^i/jej. \ 






' .^ n 



G/lijlE/?'M 



QyAo7ria^''cJmjajm 



J 



Sam Caedy.Ahc. 



/ v^ 



vw. "l/ou. Gnc//- 



(iJ&?2/r//ic4 QyE>LfJ/, (juv/A.. 



ADAM MILLER.BRICKL AYER . 



TJic Centoiuial of hicorporatioii. 4.93 

vicicd witli an iron staircase of nine flights. The lantcin, 
parapet e^'aller)-, and its sup[)(Mling brackets are all of iron. 

Tlie tower rests on a foundation of two liundrcd and sixty- 
four piles, occup)-ing a circle havini^ a radius of twenty-two 
feet. Ivesting on the heads of tljese piles are two sets of 
capping pieces, forming a timber grillage eighteen inches in 
thickness. The spaces botweoi the piles and the o])en 
spaces in the grillage are filled with concrete to the level of 
the upper surface. Upon the top of this is built a founda- 
tion of rubble masonry Five feet six inclics in tliick'ncss, 
which carries tlie brick work of tlie tower. The estimated 
weight of the superstructure is three thousand two hundred 
tons, and the weight sustained b}^ each pile a. little over 
twelve tons. 

The approximate cost of the entire work wms §140,000.00 
and of its outfit $10,000.00. 

JETTIES. 

The first jetties constructed \v\ our harbor, were put down 
to rescue Sullivan's Island from thepi threatened destruction. 
As the report of Capt. A. II. Bowman, United States Corps 
of Engineers, contains interesting information, gathered from 
the earliest data, I cjuote from it to show the great changes 
which have taken place on that island in the last hundred 
}'ears. It seems that soon after the foundation oi h'ort 
Sumter was begun, there were ra[)id changes noted in tlie 
shore line of Sullivan's Island — the Vv'aters having reached 
the wall of Fort Moultrie. In an elaborate and valup.ble 
report, under date of January, 1842, to ascertain the real 
cause of these changes, from which I make some extracts, 
Capt. Bowman says: . 

"The preliiriinary survey of Drunken Dick Shoal being- 
completed, I have the honor to submit herewith, for tlie 
consideration of the department, plans and estimates of tin: 
proposed dike. The objects to be attained are: k'irst, ad- 
ditional security to Sullivan's Island and the site of VoxX. 



it- 
I 
I 

494 Illayo?' Coiir/cnay's Annual Review. J 

I 

Moultrie; Second, protection to the harbor of Charleston | 

from the effects of Northeast <j^alcs. | 

Before ]>roceeding with details of the plans snbniitied, it 1 

is proper to enquire into the causes which have been for a 1 

number of years gradually destroying Sullivan's Island, I 

The oldest map of this harbor to which I have had access, | 

is that of Col. Steadrnan, Adjutant-General of the English 
Army, made in 1776. 

7\ccordir.g to this authority, the Southwest point of 
Sullivan's Island then extended mucli farther than it now 
does, and terminated in a marsh. This fact, which is im- 
portant as indicating- that during the period referred to, the | 
shore was stationar)% is confirmed by Col. IMoultrie, who in | 
his report of the defence pf Fort Sullivan, speaks of a marsh f 
in the midst of the fort. At a more recent period cypress | 
stumps were standing on the beach in front of tlie fort ; and | 
as this tree generally grows in marshy soil, it w-'ould indicate \ 
that the marsh extended beyond the limits of the old fort, | 
which was far in advance of the present one. | 

The first well authenticated account, w^liich 1 have been I 

able to find, of th.e encroaclimcnt of the sea upon Sullivan's | 

Island, is that of Van Hoff. \ 

Upon the authority of this writer, it appears, that during | 

the three years ending 17S6, the sea carried away one quar- i 

ter of a mile of the beach. | 

From that time forward, till 1830. when it reached and 4 

destroyed a portion of the Vsalls of the present fort, its pro- I 

gress was more or less rapid in proportion as the storms by 
wddch its destruction was chiefly effected, were more or less 
severe. 

The works commenced during the year last mentioned 
for the protection of the site of Fort Moultrie, seem to have 
arrested the advance of the sea and have since caused an in- 
crease of the beach. 

First a comparison of the outline of the beach in 1830 
with the mai) of Col. Steadrnan (A. D. 1776) already referred 
to, comprising a period of fifty-three years imn.iediately 
preceding the commencement of h^ort Sumter, will exhibit 



The Centennial of Incorporatioi. 495 

a loss of several hundred yards in breadth. This period 
includes the three years nienlioned by Van lloff, when a 
quarter of a mile was carried awiiy. It was also prior to the 
commencenienl of Fort Sumter tJiat the first two forts 
erected on this point were carried away, together with that 
part of the island on which they stood. 

It has already been mentioned, that it is during flood 
tide with the wind on shore, that most injury is done to the 
beach; it is therefore to the ocean, and not to the harbor, 
we are to look for the source of mischief. 

In general the stability of a particular point on the sea 
shore, depends more upon the contour of coast and the di- 
rection of the prevailing winds and currents, than upon tlie 
nature of the materials of which the coast is composed. In 
illustration of this truth, innumerable instances might be 
cited ; it v/ill be sufficient for our purpose to refer to the 
Eastern coast 01 Englan.d and Scotland, wliich, although 
composed of high cliffs of chalk, oolite, magnesian limestone 
and even granite, have for hundreds of years been wasting 
away under the influence of the waves and currents from the 
German ocean : while many points on the same coast coni- 
posed of light sand and rounded chalk flints, by their mure 
favorable configuration and position with relation to the 
prevailing winds and tides, have remained permanent or 
even increased. 

The prevailing winds here are from Northeast, and South- 
west. A diary of the weather kept at the United States 
Hospital at this port, since 1829 (omitting 1836-37-38 and 
39), shows that during 2,555 days the winds prevailed from 
the Southwest, and Northeast 1,645 days; that from South- 
west exceeding the Northeast twenty-five days. The wind 
from the Northeast acting against tlie gulf stream causes a 
high rise in the tides, and is always accompanied by a he,;vy 
sea, and a Southwest current. 

The South and Southwest winds which frequently blow 
as violently as those from Northeast, throw in a heavy sea 
on the beach, at the point where the greatest injury has 
been done. 



49^^ Mayor Courtoiay s Aimual Rc^'icw. -^ 

•I 

yVssumini^ then, that, the direction of the pievailini; winds 
and cnrrents, and the cojUoinof the coasts (all other thin^';s 
beini,^ cqnal), determine their stabihty ; I ])rocecd next to 
the consideration of the best means of covintcn-aclinf^- tlie in 
flnence of tliose winds and currents which arc believed to 
liave caused tlie destruction of a portion of this island. S 

Tv/o [)lans have been tried in thic works already, con- i 

structed for the protection of the site of Fort Moultrie with 'J 

very unequal success. The first consisted in reveting the \ 

shore, along tlie line of medium tide, with a crib-work of \ 

palmetto logs filled with granite. This work was found ; 

efficient in preventing the effects of the waves in the region k 

of high water-mark, but was manifestly liable to be itself de- -j 

stro\'ed so soon as the currents should begin to encroacli | 

upon the beacli below the level of the foundation upon ^ 

wdiich it stood. | 

The second plan consisted in tlie construction of oril}a<>es I 

loaded with rough granite, in a direction perpendicular to 
the shore, and extending to deep water; the results pro- 
duced by these latter works, liave been quite equal to the 
expectation formed of them ; whatsoever sand was detached 
from the beach about high water-mark' or was borne by the 1 

current along the line of the shore, was arrested by the | 

grillage which it first encountered. A proof is here fur- 
nished of the assertion above made, that the flood tide is - 
the great movirig pov.-er of the sand. ; 

Tfie grillage nearest the sea, which of course first meets 
the flood tide, has caused such an accumulation of sand as 
to remove the line of high tide more than one hundred 
yards farther from the fort than it was before the grillage 
was constructed ; wdiile that which lies nearest to Hog Isl- 
and Channel, and should, therefore, first receive and arrest 
all sand supposed to be detached by that current from 
the shore, has scarcely accumulated any during the two 
years that have elapsed since its location." 

It appears from this information : first, that Sullivan's 
Island may be stated' to have washed and been reduced full)- 



ThL\Cc)tltiinial of Iiicorporaiion. 497 

a third of a mile in its breadth, since the pahiietto lo^^- (1776) 

fort was built; second, that the stone jetties of Capt. ]k)\v- \ 

man have not only arrested thic farther destruetiori of tlie ; 
island, but tliat thcie had been a gain of three to five hun- 
dred feet by the construction of the jetty in front of Fort 

Moultrie. The estimated cost of this splendid engineering • 

work is stated \\\ these papers at $178,201.18, and J should \ 

mention that the Secretary of War kindly enclosed elabo-- \ 

rate drawings of Hovv-man's Jetty of date 1845-1850 and \ 

1857, v/hich attention I desire to acknowledge, although \ 

unable to reproduce them here. \ 

The following extracts from Gen. Gilmore's official reports 

Avill prove interesting and instructive : } 

"In 1878 the outer end of the Bowman Jetty was lower- \ 

ed to a level of two feet above mean low water for an ad- | 

ditional thirty feet." '-' '■[ •• " The results showed quite I 

conclusively, that the shortening of the Bowman Jett)^ had \ 

not produced a wider channel at that point, but that the \ 

West end of Drunken Dick shoal approached Sullivan's Isl- 1 

and shore and the jett)-, as fast as the latter was reduced in \ 

length, neither was the channel deepened by the siiortcom- \ 

ing of the jetty ; on the contrary, the greatest depths o\\ the ■ 

smallest cross-section were less than existed on the smallest | 

cross-section four or five years before." \ 

Subsequent to these experiments at Bowman Jetty, the \ 

beach of Sullivan's Island washed away to some extent, de- I 

stroying a considerable amount of propert}\ { 

, Having stated the great changes that have taken place \ 

on Sullivan's Island, I have high authority for the state- | 

ment that Morris Island opposite, has waslied to an equal \ 

if not greater extent during the same period. What effect ? 

this widening of the mouth of the harbor may have had on ■> 

the changing of channels, or the shoaling between Fort \ 
Sumter and James Island, now so plainly visible, and which 
it is thought will, in a few years, enable one to walk dr\' be- 
tween these two points, I am not able to sa^^ but this fact 

is established, that from natural causes, the shores of the • 

islands, in tlie lower harbor, have receded nearly three- ; 
03 



49'^ ^Ictyor Courtoiay s /Iniiual Rcvicvo. 

quarters of a mile, and there arc numerous notable changes 
in the harbor. " The bar is essentially a drift and wave 
bar, produced in part hy the upheaving action of the waves | 

when thc}' approach the shore, and arc converted by break- I 

ing, into waves of translation, and in part by drift material, \ 

carried along the coast b}' surf currents, especially b}' those \ 

produced by Nort])east storms. The peculiar location of 
tlie bar, largely to the Southward of the gorge of the har- 
bor, and the conditions under which a very large proportion 
of the ebb-flow is diverted from its most direct path, and 
forced to skirt the main coast for several miles before it can | 

find a passage to the sea, indicate the controlling power of | 

these storms. The material conjposing the surface of the \ 

bar closel}' resembles that usually found on the sea shore, i 

between high and low water, in that section of the country, | 

beiivj^ shells and fras^rnents of shells, or siliceous sand or a I 

mixture of them all; it is easily thrown in. suspension by \ 

waves, and is moved b}" a moderate current." I 

Having the highest authority for the statement, that the ? 

entrance to our harbor has been widened, at least three- I 

quarters of a mile, in the last one liundred and seven years, | 

by the washing of the shores of Sullivan's and IMorris Island : I 

knowing also that the chaniiels leading over the bar have I 

shifted during the same period considerably to the South- 
ward by the action of the ocean currents and the washing 
of the island shores ; finding in the early records mention 
of greater depths of water on our bar than we in the pres- 
ent century have known, I think it is a fair conclusion th.at 
the shoaling on the bar, in greater or less degree, is attribu- - 
table to the broadening of the harbor opening. 

It will be most interesting to have these facts in mind in con- 
sidering the extensive works now going forward for the deep- 
ening of the entrance to our harbor, which are described by 
the distinguished projector, Gen. Q. A. Gilmore, U. S. Corps 
of Engineers, as " low or submerged jetties," which are not to 
obstruct too much the flow of tlie surface currents by which 
the harbor is supplied with tide water. The scouring effect of 
the ebb tide, and only tlie ebb tide scouring, is greatest, if not 



TJie Ccnioiiiial of Incorporation. ^cjrj 

alto^^etlicr, during the last tliree hours of its prevalence; 
and the submerged jetties will confine this effect to the 
space between them. Quoting from tlie official reports: 

" It is proposed to construct two jetties, one springing 
from I\lorris Island and the other from Sullivan's Island, con- 
verging towards each other in such manner that the outer 
ends on the crest of the bar shall be one-half to five-eighths 
of a mile apart. The outer ends of the two jetties will rest' 
respectively upon the shoals lying to the Nortliward and 
Soutliward of what is known as the North channel, that 
being the middle channel of the North group of three chan- 
nels, a/i(/ Jiavi)ig its line of deepest loater located more nearly 
than either of the others upon the prolongation of the axis of 
deep u'ater-fo:o throngh the gorge of the harbor, betioeen. Qon- 
i.n-ingi Point and Fort Monltriei" 

It is of interest to add from the official reports, that the 
North Jetty starts from a point on Sullivan's Island, eighteen 
hundred feet East of the Bowman Jetty. The half next the 
shore is curved to a radius of about one and a half niiles, 
the outer half being very nearly a straight line. The total 
length is fourteen thousand three hundred and sixty-one 
feet, and its general direction is Southeast. 

The South Jetty, having a total length of fourteen thous- 
and one hundred and nine feet, starts from Morris Island, at 
a point six hundred and fifty yards from Cummings' Point, 
its general direction being East. The shore end is cur\'ed 
to a radius of about three miles for a little more than one- 
half its entire length, while the half next the sea is nearly 
straight. 

It is regarded as certain that these stone jetties, if kept 
at proper heights, " will produce an ebb-flow through the 
gap able to maintain a deep channel through the bar." 

It wull be perceived from the statements relative to the 
changes in the shore lines and channels from natural causes, 
given above, that the location of the jetties is in the direc- 
tion, not only o{ contracting the mouth of the harbor, but 
is also in a measure tlie rectification of Ccirl)' natural l)oun- 
daries. Their locations have been reached b)' the closest 



5C)0 Mayor Courtcuay s Annual Rci'U'iv. 

olDscrvMtion of the currents on tlie ebb and flow of the tide, 
and by scientific calcidation. to so place thcni as to prolong- 
the a.xis of dccYi water existing between Forts Moultrie and 
Sumter, Eastward])' to the ocean. 

In brief, the scheme of tlie jetties is to direct the ebb- 
flow in the pro1onp;ation of the deep water between tlicsc 
two points. Recent soundings show tliat this deep water 
area extends Eastward!}' in a long pocket into the ch.annel 
between the jetties, and otiier changes are noted hete, and 
are ascribed to the influence of the works thus far con- 
structed. It is not rn\' purpose to do more tlian refer in a 
brief wa}- to tliis great project which', if pro\-ided for by 
suitable annual monc}' a]")propriations, must make the 
entrance of our harbor as attractive as any on the coast. 

This grand scheme is of the deepest consequence to 
Charleston, and it is earnest!)' hoj)ed tliat plans so full of 
promise to a large section of tlie Union contiguous to our 
port ma)- Iku'c ample support from Congress, and thus en- 
sure its earl)" and successful completion. 

Froni the latest ofllcial records of Captain Bailey, United 
States Corps of Engineers, in charge of the harbor improve- 
ments, courteousl)- placed at my disposal, 1 learn that an 
accurate survc)' of tlie ouiter hai'bor lias been made, includ- 
ing the sliore lines of r\lorris and Sullivan's Islands — over 
forty thousand soundings liaving been taken, covering 
twenty-four miles of h^'drography, and ensuring for the first 
time an accurate map for use in computing changes and 
studying the effects of the jetties. 

A recent survey of Elog Lslancl Channel compared with 
the Bache ]\Iap of 1823-5, the coast survey of 1849-64, and 
the United States Elngineer Map of 1881, show the cutting 
away near the point of Hog Island of three hundred and 
fifty feet in this period. Since 1881 the wear has been 
thirt)--flve to forty feet. SchuUe's I^olly Island sliows a 
diminution on the North side and on the South side of 
two hundred feet in this period, while tlie East and West 
ends have enlarged one hundred and fifty feet. 

The channel widths off the point of Hog Island, measured 



The Ccutcunial of Incorporation. 50I 

between hioh water, show a gain of five hiDidrcd and sixty 
feet in the last ticenty years, and it is within tliis period 
that the long established line for the protection of the cit\' 
water front has been altered and extended Eastward to 
promote private ends, followed by wharf extensions, which 
have served as jetties to tnrn the natural currents from 
their course along the city front through Mog Island Chan- 
nel. As a sequence, the engineer in charge thinks shoaling 
may result in the channel in front of the cit}- wharves, and 
render protective work necessary. 

To the same causes is properly attributable the marked 
changes on the Mount Pleasant shore, which requires a 
system of jetties to prevent its w'ashing. 

rUMPKIN IllLL CHANNEL. 

"Since 1864 the West end of this channel has moved 
South eight hundred feet, while the Eastern end, in the 
vicinity of the outer 18-foot curve, is sixteen lumdrcd feet 
further South. 

The point of the shoal just North of the East entrance 
to the channel has moved Southwest eight hundred feet, 
the shoal itself passing South six hundred feet and West 
three hundred feet. The 15-foot curve in this vicinity shows 
a W^esterly movement of one thousand feet, and a 9-foot 
shoal South of this entrance has disappeared. The outer 
18-foot curve of th.e bar shows an irregular movement West 
of six hundred feet; that of the 15-foot curve amounts to 
twenty-four hundred feet. The distance over the bar be- 
tween the I 5-foot curves was forty-four hundred feet in 1S64; 
at present it is twenty-four hundred feet. The shoalest 
sounding at mean low water was, in 1864, 12.5 feet; now it 
is 12.3 feet." 

HARBOR APrROPRIATIONS FOR CHARLESTON. 

I do not know how far the very conservative views of the 
public men of our State were enforced against receiving 
monev from the Federal Union for internal improvements 



502 Mayor Cojivtoiays Annual Rcvicru. 

in the earlier years of the century, but tliey did consent to 
receive lari^'e sums of mone)^ and used it for bank ca[)ital, 
for the State from that source less than ludf a century ac^o. 
From the information now available to me, 1 fmd that 
the following amounts have been a})propriated h^r the im- 
provement of the harbor, siibsequent to the outlays for the 
jetties on Sullivan's Island, already referred to, whicli were 
primarily for military purposes, in, the preservation of" the j 

site of Fort Moultrie : 1, 

i 

1S52 — 30th August !?50,ooo.oo A ■ 

1.371— 3d March 13,000.00 J 

1S72 — lotli June 3S,7(.K).oo -1 

1S73 — 3(1 Marcli 5.000.00 | 

1S74 — 23(1 JuiiC iS.ooo.oo I 

1S75 — 3fl March 10,000.00 . \ 

1S76 — 14th August 10,000.00 I 

' >;94,7O0.oo I 

I 
''The first appropriation of 1852 was applied to iiiiprov- | 

ing" the Beach Chaiinel, by dredging, but no substantial re- ; 

suits were obtained. The appropriations from 1 8/ 1-76 were 

expended, for the greater ))art. in taking up at various points 

of the inner and outer harbor the wrecks of fourteen iron- \ 

clads and wooden vessels sunk during the civil war, and ■? 

their removal was of benefit to commerce." -• 

In 1S78 the jetties were projected, for increasing the I 

depth of water across the bar to twenty-one feet, the greatest 1 

depth then being eleven and one-half feet, and for this \ 

purpose tlie following appropriations have been made by | 

/- ' i 

Congress: .^ 

% 

1S73— iSth June §200,000.00 -| 

iS79--3(l M.arch 200,000.00 \ 

iSSo— 14th June 170,000.00 j 

1881— 3<.l March 175,000.00 \ 

1 882— 2d August 300,000.00 "1 

§1,045,000.00 I 

s 

For small jetty work on Sullivan's Island $5,000 was | 

specially appropriated on 14th June, 1880. These sums I 

exhibit all the outku's at Charleston harbor, as far as 1 can | 

ascertain, and will be convenient for reference hereafter. | 

i 
'^ i 



The Coitoinidl of Incorporation. 503 

NOTKl) EVl-XTS IN TIIK CKNTUIIV.' 

17tn. \Vashix(;ton's Visit. — Tlieinost i)roniinciU social 
event in the annals of Charleston is the visit of l^esidcnl 
Washington on 2d Ma)', 1791. l*^"oin an old ne\vs})aper 
cutting 1 am able to give tlie proceedings of the City Coun- 
cil in anticipatio'a of his coming: 

"Wednesday, 27th April, 1791.— Tlic lion. AnioMus Windeihor.t, In- 
LcndiiiU ; Col. MiLchcll, Mr. Morvi-. Mr. Corbett, Dr. Ilanis and Mr. Mar- 
shall, C()mniittee to make the necessary arrangements for the reeeptinn aiid 
entertainment of GeorL:;e Washington, Esq., President of tlic United Stale> 
on his arrival in the City of Charleston, reported, and the said reijort Ijcin"- 
read, Ordered, That the said report be taken into consideration imme- 
diately, and the sanre l-teing again read, was agreed to, as follows, viz ; The 
Intendant and Committee ap[)ointed to make the necessary arrangements 
for llie reception, and enteitainment of Cieorge Washington, E-cj., Ihoi- 
dent of the United' States, on his r.rriva! in Charleston, rccominend tliat the 
lunise of Thos. Heyward, Es<p, in Church Street, at present in the occupa- 
ti(jn of Mrs. Rebecca Jamie^oa, be taken for the use of the President during 
his residence in this city, together with the furniture, for which the .sura iA £bo 
be paid, it l)cing the lowest rate at wliich tlie said house can be procuied. 
They recommend Mrs. Frances Ramadgo for Mousedceeper, and Maigarct 
Daniel, with other necessary servants for the house, ti_) be )xaid by the Cori>ora- 
tion. Major Peter Bocquet having offered his Parge avid Mr. Paul Pritchard 
agrees to lengthen and put it in thorough repair, gratis, for the purpose of cf)n- 
veying the President of the United States fronr liaddrel's Point or lluluau 
Ferry to the city. Capt. Cochran and twelve other masters of American vessels, 
viz: Jacob Milligan, Geo. Cross, Charles Crawley, John Connely, Henry Lau- 
rence, Thos. Kean, Jeremh. Dickenson, Luke Swain, Thos. Piundel, Wm. 
Conyers, James Rea, John Driidvcr, to be handsomely dressed at their own 
expense, will serve as a volunteer crew. 

The Committee advi-e that their offers be accepted, and that the Recorder in 
his Robes be directed to attend and present the Barge in the name of the Cor- 
poration, to the President at liaddrel's Point, for his accommodation and con- 
veyance to the ciiy ; they also advise that tlie Custom House Barge and tire 
Fort boat be procured to assist in bringing over any gentlemen who may 
acc<nnpany the President, and that a temporaiy pair of stairs be placed at such 
wharf as may be appointed for his landing. ^ 

The Litendant and Committee recomnrend that a Dinner be given to the 
Presitlent, and such other gentlemen as the Council shall think proper tt)inviie. 
Mr. Wiliiam> of 'he Coffee House, having made pro))osak> to provide a good 
Dinner, for six shillings for each person, with a hand>ome Desert ; the best 
Madeira wine for 5--;. per bottle, and other Liquors as u>ual, but that he cannot 
find Tables, Seats and Sconces or Candlesticks; it is recommended t:hal hi.s 



504 Mayor Court cnay s AiDiual Reviriv. \ 

proposals be ac(^i-pLc(l, niul that the Exclutn^c be suilably fUud up with Tabic,, . 
Cliair:,, iJenclie^ Sconces ami Awninys. 

It is fuiiher. rccomuicudcd lliol the City Ijnll be put iiUo proper order, for 
the piupo.:,e of giving a ]>al1 to the Ihoident, find the Ladies of the city, with ' \ 

sucli gentlemen as tlie Council shall thiiik proper to invite, and that a genteel ■■. 

Supper l)e provided on the occasion. ; 

The Intendant and Committee further recommend, thai a proper stock of ] 

liquors, groceries, and provisions, be laid in for the use of the President and '" 

his suite, wliiie in the oil)', and th:U his horses be properly provided will) ^ 

stables, hay, corn and oats. - \ 

They further recommend, that tlie Bells of St. Michael's Church be put in ^ 

repair, and proper persons emj^loyed for the purpose of linging a Peal, on the j 

approaching joyous occasion, to be paid by the Corporation. 1 

Asamark of distinction to the Jntendan.t and Wardens, ii is recominended that \ 

handsome black varnished Wands threc-ipiarlers of an inch diameter, ai-id six j 

feet long, be provided. The Intendant's Waa*! to have a gold head, and the '^ 

Wardens silver heau.^, uith the cypher C. C. L. on each to be uscd on this and \ 

other public occasions.* ' 

Lastly, they recommend, that the expenses which may be incurred in carry- ■ 

ing tlte foregoing or any other necessary arrangements into execution, may be \ 

defrayed by tlie Corporation." j 

^ ' % 

The Prciideiit liad journeyed by land, .stoppiiif:^ at George- j 

town, S. C, and anived opposite the cit}' at what is now ? 

Mt. Pleasant, on the day named. A committee consisting I 

of the Hon. John Bee Holmes, Recorder, in his oiTicial | 

robes, General C. C. Finckney, and Edward Rutledge, Esq., I 

had crossed the river to meet him, and accompanied him in I 

a barge rowed by the twelve American captains of vessels J 

then in port, above named, and con^smanded by Captain t 

Cochran. A flotilla of boats of all sizes and kinds, filled I 

with ladies and gentlemen, and two bands of music, attended \ 

him over. As he approached the town a salute of artillery ^ 

was fired. . i 



'' MOND.W, 2d NL\y, 1791. — The preparations in the city were begun by the 
assembling of the City Council. I'resent: His Honor, the hitendant, Mr. 
Morris, Col. Mitch.ell, Mr. Corbett, ^h•. IJeckman, Capt. Noith, Mr. Crip])s, ^L'. 
Lee, Mr. Cole, Mr. Krov/nlee, l^r. I'oyas, Dr. l:L^rris, Mr. Robertson. 

The Council being met, j.^roceeded with their oihcer^ to Prioleau's Wharf.j- 
the place appointei! hjr tlie landing of the Presideut of the United States ; 
where after stavini;^ some tinie, the I'resident land.ed from on board of the city 



'J"hcj.e W.-iiids remained in. use up to 1861. t Foot of Queen Street. 



The Ccnfotuial of hicorporatio)i. 50; 

bnrgo, with the Rcconler in his Robes, who Iiad l)ccn I'.ifviou.ly sent to 
iladdifl's I'oint to lecreivc him there and to oiler liim the use of th<' barpc. 
On his Iandini^^ the I'rcsident was met by Gov. Cliarles IMnckncy, Lieut. -(Jov. 
Isaac Hohiies, Intendani. \',TnderlK)ist, llie gentlemen oi the Cit) Council and 
the State Society of tlie Cincinnati. His iiouor, the Intenchinl, addressed him 
as follows : 

The Tntendant and Wardens beg leave, sir, to welcome you to this city. Il 
will be their care to make your stay agreeable — they have provided accommo- 
dations for yourself and .■,uite, to which thc\- will be happy to conduct you. 

The rresident replied that he was ready to attend them, and would follow. 
The Corporation then returned to the Exchange in the following order: 

City Sheriff (with inace). 

M e s s c n g er a n d M a r s li a 1 . 

Treasurer and Clerk. 

Recorder. 

\Vardeu> with their Wands (c\so and two). 

The Intendant. 

President and Suite. 

After remaining some time at the Ev:change, the Corporation and their offi- 
cers were in lividually introduced to the President, and tlic ortler of procession 
being reversed, they proceeded on to ^[ajor Heyward's house, in Church Street, 
which had been previously iiired from Mis. Jamiesi.>ii, for his reception, from 
which the City Council retired to the Council Chamber, where an address to 
the President from the Corporation, which had been previously prepared, was 
read and agreed to 

Ordered, That the Recorder do wait on the President of the United States, 
to know when he would be ]?leased to receive the Corporation, with their ad- 
dress. 

The Recorder being returned, informed the Council that the President would 
receive the City address to-morrow afternoon, at 3 o'clock." 

"Tuesday, 3d May, 1791. — The Council met according to adjournment, and 
proceeded to the President's house, in the same order they had done before. 
His Honor the Intendant then presented the address to the President, which is 
in the words following, viz : 

To the President of the United States : 

Sir — The Intendant and Wardens, representing the citi/.cns of Charleston. 
find theniselves particularly gratified by your arrival in the Metropolis of the 
State. It is an event, the expectation of which they fiave for some time with 
great pleasure indulged. When in the person of the Supren\e Magistrate of the 
United States, they recognize the Father of the People, and the defender of the 
liberties of America, they feel a particular satisfaction in declaring their firm 
persuasion that thcv speak the language of their constituents, in asserting, tliat 
no body of men throughout this extensive continent can exceed them in attach- 
ment to his public character, or in revering his private virtues. And they do 

64 



5o6 Mayor Conrtcnay s An)nial Review. 

not hesitate in anlicipatini; those blcssiuL^s which niu.'.t ulliniaLcly be dirUi.-eil 
amongst the inhabitants of the^e State., from his exerLinn> for their cjeneial wel- 
fare, aided by thn:,e in wliom they have olso vested a share Ki{ llieir confidence. 

Go on, sir, a> you ha\e done. Continue to possess as well as deserve tlic 
love and esteem of all your fellow-citizens : while millions in other .p:-irt> of the 
globe, though -strangers to your person, shall venerate your name. Ma) you 
long be spared to receive those niarks of respect ^vllich yoa so entirely nreiit 
from a grateful people ; and may all who live under your auspices continue to 
experience that freedom, and happiness, whicli is so univer.-,ally acknowledged 
to have proceeded from yuur wide, judicious and prudent administration. 

ARNOI-DUS VANDERHORST, Inkndanf. 

To which tiie President returned the following answer: 
To ilu Intcndant aiiJ Wardens, repres^'ntatives of the citiw)is of C/iar/eslon : 
• Gp^ntlemex — The gratilicalion you are pleased to express at my arrival in 
your Metropolis, is replied to with sincerity, in a grateful acknovvdcdgmeut of 
the pleasing sensations v.duch your affectionate urbanity has e.xcitcd. 

Highly sensible of your attachment and favorable opinions, I entreat you to 
be persuaded of the lasting gratitude which they impress, and of the cordial re- 
gard v.itli which they are returned. , 

It is the peculiar boast of our country that her hnpj^inchS is alone de]iendent 
on the collective wisdon-i and virtue of her citizens, and rests nol ori the exer- 
tion;.. of any individual. Whilst a just sense is entertained of tlieir natural and 
political advrnlages, we cannot fail to iniprove them, and with the progress of 
our national importance, to combine the freedom and felicit}' of iiidividuals. I 
shall be particularly gratified in observing the happy irilluence of public meas- 
ures on the prosperity of your city, which is so much entitled to the regard and 
esteem of the American Union. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON. 

And then the Council retired to the Council Chamber, and adjourned sine die." 

As previously arranged by the Charleston Chamber of 
Commerce, the following address of the merchants of 
Charleston was presented on Wednesday, 3d May: 

"J^o the President of the United States : 

Sir — The Merchants of Charleston, eiilertaining a just sense of the high 
Honor conferred on the City by your Presence, take the earliest opportunity of 
congratulating you on your arrival. 

The obligations which are due to you by every Member of the Republic, aie 
acknowledged by all ; — to enter into a detail of them, would be to produce the 
history of vour life, and to repeat what is re-echoed from one end of the Conti- 
nent to the other. Were it possible. Sir, for your Eellow-Ciiizens to omit 
doing justice to your Merits, the Testimony of other Nations would evince 
their neglect, or ingratitude ; — the whole world concurring in the .same opinion 
of you. 

Convinced as we are of your constant Solicitude for the general Welfare; — 
it must afford you particular Satisfaction to find the progressive Effects of the 



Tlic Coiteiniial of Iiicorporafion. c^oy \ 

\ 

I'cderal ( iOvcrninent in tliis Suilc ; ;iiul lh.it the Iii]ial)il;i.!Us iiir fast cmcrf^iii!.; i 

from the heavy Calamilies, to wliich they were siihjeeted hy the \:\\v War. ■ 

.Sensible of the nnnieious IMc.-siiigs our Country lias derived fioin your Wise 

and judieious Adminisliation, uc feel animated willi the most lively Sentiniciil.>> ' 

of Clratitude towards you : .Suffei- us tlien, on tlie present C)eeasion, to re|)rescnt [ 
to you {\\Q affeetionate Sensibility with whieh we are impressed, by a->suiiii<^ 
you tliat we yield to none in sincere Respect and attachment to )our Person ; — 

and, we earnestly implore tlie Alnughty Fatliei of the Universe, loni; to ])re- '' 
serve a life, so valuable and dear to the reopie o\er whom )ou preside. 

In behalf of the Merchants of Charleston. } 

EDNVARI) IJARRELT., Chairman. > 

Charleston, 3d May, 1791. ^ "^ 

7^0 the MercJianis of Chnrhstoii: "- 

J 

Gex'J'Lt:n[EN — Your conL^ratulatlous on rny arrival in South Carolina, enhanced j 

by the affectionate manner in which they are offered, are received with the 
most grateful sensibility. ; 

Pdattered by the favorable sentiments you express of my endeavors to be use- \ 

ful to our country, I desire to assure you of rny constant solicitude for its wel- 
fare and of uiy porticular satisf*iction in obser\ing tlie advantages whieh accrue 
to the liighly deserving citizens of this State from the operatii_»ns of the general 
governntcnt. < 

I aui not le.^s indebted to your expressions of personal attachment and ' 

respect — they receive my best thanks, and induce my most sincere wishes for 
your professional prosperii\' and )our intlividual happiness. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON. 

The President spent a week in Charleston, and there was 
a series of balls, dinners, breakfasts and other entertain- 
ments, and every attention that hospitality, public and 
private, could devise was shown hirn. One of the hand- 
somest entertain.ments given in his honor was a splendid 
concert and ball at tlie Exchange, on which occasion the 
ladies wore bandeaus of wdiite ribbon interwoven in their 
hair, with Washington's portrait and the words "long live 
the President" painted on them. The late Mr. Charles 
Fraser says: " Ever}' hand that could hold a pencil, profes- 
sional or amateur, was enlisted to furnish them." 

"Satlrday, 7fh May, ijyi. — Present— rii> Honor the Intendant, Colonel 
Mitchell, Mr. Morris, Mr. Corl^-tt, Mr. Beckman, DocL. Harris, Captain North, 
Mr. Cripp.>, Doct. Poyas, Mr. Lee, Mr. Robertson, Mr. Cole, Mr. r.r(>\\ nlee. 

Read the [ournals of the 27th ulto. and of the 2d and jd in^t.s. 

On motion. 

Resolved Hnani)nousI\\ That hi> Honor the Intendant, in behalf of the Citv 



5o8 Mayo?- Court oiays Ainiua/ Review. 

Council and their constitueiUs, he desired to rcciuest of Ceo. Wasliinrrton, Esf]., 
I'rcsidenl of the United States, that he will be pleased, wlicu il is e<»nvenicnl 
to hiui, to i)eiuiit his ]>ortrail to be taken by Colonel Tn.ir,d)ull, in order that 
it may be placed in the City Mall, as the most lasting tcstiuit)ny of their attach- 
ment to his person, to CDiumemorate his arrival in the metropolis of tliis State, 
and to hand down to posterity the remembrance of the man to whom they are 
so much indebted for the blessings of peace, liberty and independence. 

And then the Council adjourned till tcj-morrow morning, half-pa-^l 9 o'clock, 
to meet at the Intendant'shouse." 

This valuable portrait is still preseivecl in the Council 
Chamber. 

At a meeting of the Vestry and Church-wardens of St. 
Philip's Church, 3d i\lay, 1791, 

^^ Resolved, That the President of the Unitetl States be invited to service in 
St. Philip's Church, and the Church-wardens do inform hum that a pew is ready 
for his accouirnodation on Sunday next, or on an}' other day that lie may think 
proper." 

" SUiNDAY, Sth May, 1791. — The Council met at the Honorable tlie Intend- 
ant's house, agreeable to adjournment, and proceeded from then.ce to the 
President's, from v.hence they went iir their usual order of procession, and 
acconipanied the President to St. Philip's Church. After divine service, they 
returned in the same order. 

And then the Council adjourned till half-past 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

Half-past 2 o'clock P. M. — The Council met agreeably to adjournment, and 
accompanied the President to St. Michael's Church. After divine service, they 
proceeded to tb.e Honorable Ceneral Moultrie's, where the Council adjourned 
till 5 o'clock to-morrow morning, to meet at Kouudary .Street. 

Boundary .S'i'REp:r. Montlay, 9th May, 1791. — The Council met according 
to adjournment. 

Th.e President, who set out from the city for Savannah, in Georgia, esct)rted 
by a number of gentlemen, soon came uj), where the President was addressed 
by bis Ilonor the Intendent, as follows : 

Sir — The Intendanf and Wardens, in behalf of themselves and their con- 
stituents, beg leave to offer you their unfeigned thanks for the visit with which 
you have honored this city, and they are ho]:)efu! it will not be the last. They 
sincerely wish you a pleasant Lour and happy return to }our mansi(jn ; and may 
health, that grateful of al! temporal bles■^i^gs, attciul you. 

To which the President was pleased to reply: 

Sir — I beg you will accc^U and oiTer my best thanks to the Corporation and 
the citizens of Charleston for their very polite attentions to me. Should it ever 



The Centciiinal of hicorporaiioi. 509 

be in my po\ver, he assured il will give me r>]casin"C to visit this very respect- 
ahle city. 

The Pi-esi<lent tlien took his leave of the Corporation. 

His Honor the Intcndanl informed the Council that he hod applii-d to the 
President to rdpie^t that he v.ould he pleased to >il foi" his picture, to whirli ho 
readily assented ; in conseijuence of which fie liad written to C^olouel Truinhull, 
the artist, on the suhject. 

And then the Council adjourned sine die" 

17*)2. Citizen Genet. — In marked contrast with tlic 
formal and distinguished reception and cntcrtainincnt of 
the President a short year ])reviously, is the arrival of Citi- 
zen Genet from France and his stay in onr cit3\ 

The French Revolution, of course, produced great excite- 
ment among the French element in Charleston, augmented 
b}' the open s\'mpathy of the general commtn!it}% v/ho re- 
membered the alliance of France in the war for indepen- 
dence. The tri-colored cockade was among very many a 
badge of honor, and "Ca'ira" and the " ^Marseillaise " hymn 
the most popular airs ; " Vive la Rcpublique Fran(^^aise " the 
universal shout, and the flags of France and the United 
States, waved together on all public occasions. 

In the midst of this excited condition of affairs ''Citoyan 
Genet," as he was called, landed in Charleston on the 9th 
April, en route for Philadelphia, as tlie P'rench Minister, at 
the American Capital. Pic was enthusiastically welcomed, 
and encouraged by these demonstrations of popular feeling. 
Genet thought he could easil}' persuade the American peo- 
ple to embark in the cause of h'^rance, notwithstanding 
President Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality re- 
cently issued — despite wdiich he commissioned and fitted 
out privateers from Charleston to cruise against vessels of 
nations then at peace with the United States, and projected 
hostile expeditions against P'^lorida and Pouisiana, then 
Colonies of Spain. Privateersmen paraded the streets of 
Charleston with long sabres at their sides, and assiuned 
c|uite an ascendency in our communit)', <ind also had a 
rendezvous opened in Chatleston for volunteers, which the 
Governor of the State had to order closed in 1793. On the 



5IO Mayor Court c nay s Annual Rcvicvo. \ 

t 

14th of Jul)' in tlial year, t1ic anniversary of tlie ck-slruction | 

of tlie P)astillc, there was a ^jrand civic pai;eanl, and so i;reat | 

was the public enthusiasm that St. Micliacrs bells wcxr \ 

chimed and a salute fired by the artillery. These public | 

demonstrations were participated in by the most prominent | 

officials and citizens, on one occasion includinf^ the Go\-- 2 

ernor of the State, Chief Justice, Judges, Chancellors, etc. | 

President Washington finally had Minister Genet recalled, I 

and the exciteiiient subsided. \ 

' i 
J 

1708. SlooP"Of-War John Adams.-— The European | 

complications of this period produced deep feeling in | 

Charleston. On the 7th Ma}-, 1 79S, a public meeting was | 

held in St. Michael's Church. Resolutions expressing regret I 

at the alienation of the French Republic from the United % 

States, and the determination of the citizens to uphold the | 

United States and assist by voluntar}' contributions in I _ 

streno"thcnijv2: the sea coast fortifications, were then voted I 

rmanimously. The amount of §2,250 was raised on the ad- I 

journment of the meeting. ,j 

It became necessary that the Federal Union shoulcFhave '% 

war shlj)s afloat; without m.eans fully sufficient to this end, J 

the government invited offers for a limited number of ships, T 

to be paid for in United States six per cent, stock, and | 

offered to accept volunteer ships. When the news reached | 

Charleston, a meeting was called on 3d July, I/QS, and a J 

committee appointed to raise money by subscription among | 

the citizens, and on the i ith August succeeding one hundred ] 

thousand dollars had been secured in cash. There was a ] 

meeting of citizens In St. Michael's Church to tender to the \ 

President on loan, according to terms prescribed by Act of | 

Congress, a vessel of war of not less than 550 tons, to carr}- j 

twenty-four guns on main deck, of not less calibre than | 

nine-pounders ; this sum was raised previous to the meeting. 1 

This was the origin of the building of the sloop-of^war I 

John Adams. The work u-as undertaken by Mr. Paul Prit- | 

chard at his shipyard on Cooper River; Mr. James I\Iarsh, 1 

Sr. the father of our venerable townsman, James ^larsh, was I 



The Ccuiouiial of hicorporation. 511 / 

foreman of the woti:. The keel was laid in November of \ 

that year, and slie was launched on 5th June, 1790. This ^ 

incident is mentioned to show the public spirit of this com- \ 

munity, their devotion to the Federal Union, and as \\c\\ \ 
to exhibit the mechanical skill to desi<jn and build a vessel . * 

of war at a critical time, and the readiness with which tlie ^' 

large sum of money required was supplied by the citizens. i 

From the Navy Department 1 have a number of interesi;- \ 

ing letters from the Hon. Ikmj. Stoddard, then Secr.tar}- of ? 

the Navy, addressed to the committee of citizens, showing : 
the urgent need for the ship, and acknowledging the extra- 
ordinary efforts made for her completion, but I have no 
space for them here. ■ \ 

1807-1-2. The Embargo and the War. — President ^ 

Jefferson's administration covers an eventful period in the •• 

life of our city. The French government, jealous of the '■ 

growing commercial importance of the United States, had 
in 1798 issued a decree forbidding the entrance into any 
French port of any vessel which in any previous voyage 
may have touched at an English port, and declaring good 
prize all vessels having merchandise on board, the produc- 
tion or manufacture of England and her Colonies, whoever ■ 
the owners of the merchandise might be. This was regarded 
as being little short of a declaration of war, and authority 
was given to tlie American navy to sieze vessels under the • 
French flag which had committed encroachments upon 
American commerce; commercial intercourse between 
France and the United States was suspended, treaties were 
declared to be no longer binding upon the latter, and letters 
of marcjue and reprisal v/ere authorized. It was in the midst 
of these stirring events that our merchants and mechanics 
built the sloop-of-war ''Jo/in Adauisy In 1807 came the '. 
" English orders in Council," the " Milan decree of Napo- 
leon," and followed by the " Non-i[itercourse policy of I'resi- 
dent Jefferson." When it is recalled that "the transfer of 
flour and grain from tlie Southern States to the Northern 
and Eastern ports was interdicted," and that " the Northern 



512 Mayor Courtciiay s A}niital Rcviciv. 

fislicrics woi'c ordered abandoned," \vc get \\ glinii)se of th«: 
general ruin of tlie times. Tlie encounter between the 
Leopard 's.\\d Clusapcakc near tlie Capes of Virginia, in June. 
1807, fired the war feeling of the ccnintry, and it is not sur- 
prising that tlie historian of that period should say that the 
excitement was only equalled by that which followed the \ 

battles of Lexington and l^ort Moultrie. On the iSth \ 

June, 1812, after an embargo of sixty da)-s, tlie U-nitcd \ 

States government declared war against England, and in i 

December, 181 3, Congress passed further restrictive meas- * ' 
ures, which added greatly to the suffering alread)' existing, 
and increased the complaints of the people ; it was so severe 
as to ''interdict the coasting trade between ports in the 
same State, and the fishing business in small craft near the 
coast." Despite tlie burdens so imposed, tlic merchants and 
people of Charleston met these disastrous times without j 

complaint, arid with uner|ualled fortitude. \ 

The following quotations will show how the same difn- ) 

culties were met with elsewhere: 

'•'New England was bitterly opposed to the embargo, and 
opposed to the war even to the verge of unpatriotic selfish- • 

ness. Smuggling became common, and was engaged in by 
wealthy and respectable men. In this way Boston became 
a most important centre of trade, and in fact almost the 
sole source of supply of certain classes of foreign goods that 
could not be legally admitted into the country at all." 

"The Eederalists found willing listeners when they 
pointed out to a people naturally brave and ready to fight, 
that the injuries inflicted by England were trifling in com- 
parison with the total destruction of trade caused by their 
own government." 

Resistance to the embargo began to crop out on all sides, 
and finally the Legislature of Massachusetts passed resolu- 
tions denouncing the embargo and questioning its consti- 
tutionality. "John Ouincy Adams thought treason and 
seeessw?f'' were afoot in Boston." : 

* A withdrawal or separation, from st'cwfcre, lo go asitle. Th;ere was a body 
of secoders from the Ei^tablished Chinch in Scothmd, 1733 ; and the first men- 



The Centennial of Iv.corporation. 513 

1819. Moxrof/s Visit.- Scom after his inauouration, 
James Monroe, fifth Presklent of ihc United States, visited 
the Southern States to inspeet tl^.e coast defences and to 
acquaint himself with the people. Mis popularity caused 
him to be rccei\"ed with civic processicuis, milita!)' escoits, 
and throngs of admiring citizens. 1 dc arrived in Charleston 
on Monday, 26th April, 1819, and remaineel for a week, 
lie spent the night previous to his arrival at tlie mansion 
of Jacob Bond I'On, Esq., in Christ Church Parish, in com- 
|)any with Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, his lady and 
famil)'; Major-General TJiomas Pinckney, Mr. Gouveneur, 
his private Secretary, and Lieutenant Monroe, his nephew. 
The party left Mr. V)0\\([ I'On's on Monday morning, after 
breakfasting, and were escorted by Captain Toomer's Caval- 
ry to Gordon & Spring's (since Clement's) P^erry, about five 
miles froni the town. PI ere the}- embarked on an elegant 
barge, prepared by the City Corporation for their transpor- 
tation, manned by tv/enty-one mcml)ers of the Marine 
Society, and steered by their President, Captain Thos. PI. 
Jervey, The style of tlie affair is described as " very supe- 
rior" and "much to the gratification of the President, who 
was pleased to pass a very handsome compliment upon the 
barge and her patriotic crew." On landing they were re- 
ceived by a military escort under Captain Payne, and by 
hundreds of citizens on horseback, whose eagerness to be- 
hold their chief magistrate carried them in attendance. 
Soon after leaving the ferry the party was met by Governor 
Geddes and his entire suite. At the lines liacl been posted 
a regim.ent of artillery and the infantry companies under 
General Rutledge. The artillery hailed the President with 
a Federal salute, after which he reviewed the troops. A 
''fen de joie'' was then fired by the infantry and a second 
salute by t.lic artillery. 

tiou of tlie \vt)ixl in ihe United States was in New England about three-quarters 
of a century after. The word lias a different ineaninL;, however, aeeording to 
the dci^ree of latitude in which it is u.->ed. In one jdaee it is ihoutjht lii^hly 
patriotic, in another very wicked. 

"Strar.ge such a diffoence there should be 
B'twixt tweedlc-dum and tweedle-dee." 

05 



5^4 Mayor Coiirtoiay s Ainiuai Ri'i'ic7u. 

Inlcndant Daniel Stevens and ihc Wardens of llic city 
occupied tlic intersection of i\feeting and Boundary Streets, 
while the officers of the Cincinnati, Ivevolution and Sevent)'- 
six Societies, the National Societies, and an immense con- 
couise of citizens, lined both sides of Meeting Street for <i 
considerable distance into the cit)\ The President and his 
attendants preceded by the civdl authorities, passed through 
the admiring throng of citizens, who welcomed him with 
three hearty cheers. The whole population, it is related, 
seemed to be present, and emulous to honor the Ihxsident. j 

The procession halted at St. Andrew's Hall, in Broad Street, \ 

where the best taste of the cit)^ had " arranged things " for I 

the distinguished guests. | 

On Monday the President dined with the Governor. Tlie 1 

forenoon of Tuesday was devoted to receiving the Intendant :,l 

and the City Council and the Society of the' Cincinnati. | 

Appropriate and affectionate addresses were delivered on .| 

the part of the citizens and replied to in the same terms by :| 

the President. At four o'clock in the afternoon the city I 

authorities and many citizens assembled at the South Caro- 
lina Hall, where they were joined by President Monroe, Mr. 3 
Calhoun, Gen 'is Thos. Pinckney and Gaines, the Governor 1 
and Lieutenant-Governor, the Presidents of the Charitable f 
Societies and the P'oreign Consuls, all of v.'hom proceeded ;l 
to the City Hall, and there dined in becoming style. In- I 
tendant Stevens presided, supj^orted by Wm. Drayton, i 
Thos. Bennett. Thos. Lee, K. L. Simons and T. W. Bacot, ^ 1 
Esqs. '\ 

On Wednesday the President dined with the Cincinnati So- ] 

ciety after visiting the library and other places of public inter- I 

est in the morning, and attended the theatre in the evening, 
Thursday he visited the forts in the harbor, receiving a 
PYxleral salute of twenty-one guns upon arriving at each ; 
partook of a spread at P^ort Johnson, and returned to the city 
at five o'clock in the afternoon. In the evening fire-works 
were attended at the Orphan House grounds. Friday he 
visited the lines and breakfasted at the villa of J. Iv. Poinsett, 
Esq., in Cannonsborough. Saturday was spent in receiving ' 



TJic Centennial of Incorporation. 



:>':> 



the different incorporated societies, dininj.; one hundred and 
fifty guests at his residence and attendinc^ a grand concert 
and ball at tlie South Carolina Hall, given in his honor by 
the St. Cecilia Societ)'. Sunday he attended divine service 
at St. Philip's and the First Presbyterian Churches- the 
Rev. Dr. Gadsden officiating at the former and the Ivev. 
Mr. Reid at the latter. 

On Monda)', 3d May, he bade adieu to the cit\'. Tlie 
military escorted him to the Charleston Bridge Ferry, where 
he reviewed the troops, and declined a further escort. Tlie- 
artillery discharged a farewell salute, and the citizens repeat- 
edly cheered him as he departed. 

At his first election Monroe received one hundred and 
eight}--tliree and Rufus King thirty-four votes. At his 
second election, but one electoral vote was given against 
liim for J. O. Adams. No one but Washington was ever 
re-elected to the highest office in the land with so near an 
approach to unanimit)'. 

A full length portrait of F'resident Monroe, painted by S. 
F. B. Morse under resolution of Council adopted in March, 
1819, to con'^.memorate his visit, still adorns oui" present 
Council Chamber. 

1825. Lafayette's Visit.— On Monday, 14th March, 
1825, Gen. Lafayette visited Charleston, on a tour through 
the Southern and Western States. Me had passed through 
the cit)' fort\'-eiglit }'ears previously, in company with the 
Baron DeKalb, when as a youth of twenty he landed in 
Carolina to espouse the cause of the American Colonies, 
and to hazard his life in defence of their rights. lie now 
came as the guest of the American people, in respoiise to 
the unanimous request of Congress. 

His return, therefore, to our city, at a time when our 
people were peacefully enjoying the civil and political liber- 
ties secured to them by the very rights for which he so abl\- 
contended, gave rise to a genuine enthusiasm and a feeling 
of profound gratitude. Lver)' preparation was made to wel- 
come him in a becoming manner. Cavalry was disixitched 



5i6 Mayor Courtcuays Ainiual Rcv'unv. \ 

to meet bini at Clement's Ferr)- on liis crossing-, and escort 
him to the upper lines of tlie cily ; lierc he was received on 
the ATeeting Sireet Road, above l^i)'ne's farm, by a special 

guard of honor consistinc^ of the Washington LiglU Infan- \ 

try, Capt. \V. H. Miller, and the h^usilier Fran(,-aise, Capt. % 

A. Folh'n — Capt. Miller giving all orders in J^>cnch ; a na- ;■ 

tional sahite was fired by a battery of artillery. Fie entered J: 

the cit)- in an open carriage containing His Excellency Gov. I 

Manning and his old friend Col. Francis K. linger. In the | 

procession was tlie Cincinnati Society, among udiom were i 

the two Gen'ls Pinckney with the surviving officers and sol- | 

diers of the revolution, tlie numei'ous societies of the city, I 

comprising the clergy, the benevolent and patriotic, the | 

medical, scientific arid literar\' institutions, tlie students of f 

the college, the seminary, and the children of the private | 

and free schools and of the Orphan House:— all joined in to | 

swell the gi'and pageaiitr\- in honor of the '' illustrious visi- I 

'^'■•: . ' ■ .. ■ i 

1 he procession was met at the City Hall by Samuel | 

Prioleau, Esq., Intcndant of the city, and the City Council. | 

The former delivered an address expressive of the jo)'ful | 

emotions inspired by the presence of the distinguished .| 

guest, and of the tribute of gratitude the people desired ;;l 

to pay to his virtues. The General responded in earnest | 

terms, and the procession was resumed through East Bay | 

by South Bay, up Meeting Street and to St. Andrew's Hall, | 

the residence appropriated for him by the city authorities. | 

Here lie received the citizens and the military; in the after- | 

noon he presented to the Seventeenth Regiment, wdiich had | 
been formed opposite the residence, a standard prepared b\' 
the field officers; in the evening he visited the theatre, 
wdiich was thronged with citizens to behold the "guest of 
the union." 

On Tuesday he received the salutations of the reverend | 

clergy, the ofiicers of the militia, judges and gentlemen of | 

the bar and many citizens; after which he visited Gen'ls | 

Chas. C. and Thos. l^inckney, Mrs. Shaw, the daughter of | 

Gen. Greene, and Airs. Washington, relict of the late Gen. \ 



Tlic Coitcnnial of Jncorporaiion. 517 

\Vm. \VasliinL;ton. lie then attended a ]>u1)Iic dinner at 
the Cit\' Mall g-i\'en in e(^ni|di)-nciU to hini b)- Council, and 
'afterwards a grand display (^t firc-worlcs at the ()rphan House 
enchjsure. 

On \Vedncsda)' lie received at his residence the facidt}' 
and students of the phihxsopln'cal and classical seminar)', 
with Rt. Rev. Bishop F,nqland at their head, also the South 
Carolina hLncampment of Kniidits I'emplars, dined with tlu-^ 
Cincinnati Society, and attended a f^rand ball at the theatre 
in the evening. 

On Thursda}- he left the city at 12 i\T. Thousands 
thronged the streets, the military were forined opposite to 
liis residence and escorted ham to Fitzsimmons' Wharf, 
where he embarlced for Savannah, intending' to stop at F^d- 
isto and Beaufort. A salute oi twenty-four guns was fired 
by the artillery, and he received a national salute from l^^ort 
Moultrie. 

Every evidence of appreciation that a sensitive people 
could display, our citizens manifested for Gen. Lafayette 
during his stay here, and the late Charles h"^raser painted a 
beautiful miniature portrait of him for tlie City Council, 
which is still preserved in the Council Chamber. 

1882. Nullification. — In 1832-33, the exciting politi- 
cal issue of Nullification culminated. Prior to the \'ear 
1 8 16, the duties imposed by the Federal government upon 
foreign imports had only been such as wei'c necessary for a 
revenue to discharge the legitimate expenses of government. 
About 1 8 16, however, a system for protecting Northern 
manufactures appeared in the Federal legislation, was pro- 
pagated by various Acts from 1820 to 1828, and under the 
Act of 1832 (to take effect after the discharge of the public 
debt) became clearly the " Settled Policy" of one section of 
the country. 

Starting vritli seven and one-half |)cr cent, in 1790, the 
duties rose to tu'entN'-five j)er cent, in 1816, forty })er cent, m 
1824, and fifty, sixty and one hundred per cent, from 1828 
to 1832. 



5i8 Mayor Courloiays A nunal Review. \ 

On 24th November, 1S32, tlic ])tjO[)lc of the Stale, as- 
scaibled in convention at Columbia, declared and ordained 
''that the several Acts and parts of Acts of the Con<.n-ess of 
the United States purportin-^Mo be laws for the im))osin^ 
of duties and imposts on the importation (jf forei^^n com- 
modities, are unauthorized by the Constitution of the United 
Stales, and violate the true meanini^- and intent thereof, and 
are null and void and no law, nor binding upon this State, 
its officers or citizens," &c. \ 

At this distance in time from that eventful period in the 
history of tliis city and State, when following close the dis- 
cussion of the tariff came the consequences of that discus- 
sion, in the highly wrought feelings which weix- produced ; 
it is well to consider the nnorcd udiich it commends. ' 

Our State and our city were in the highest degree pros- 
perous. Seldom had the material condition of any people 
been more calculated to make them satisfied. The aggres- 
sion, as the imposition of duties was termed, on the rights | 
of the cotton-growing States, in so small a degree affected | 
their prosperit\', that it onl)- became oppressive when rheto- ; 
rically explained. Vet, as the discussion of the oppression, \ 
so called proceeded, there came naturally the question of | 
the remed)' proper to relieve it ; and " Nullification, tlie 
rightful remed}'," became the absorbing topic with those 
who advocated and those who denounced it. It involved, 
as now considered apart from the temper of th.at time, the 
paradox of a State being at one and tlie same time in and 
out of the Union; a contradiction in itself, warmly insisted \ 
on by those who denounced it, quit.e as warml)- denied b\' \ 
those who maintained it as rightful, l^ut no one who re- \ 
members aught of th.at eventful period would wish to see 
again enacted the scenes that marked it. Never in any 
time, not even in the progress of the Revolution of 1776, 
when the sternest passions of men were aroused, did the in- 
tensity of feeling exceed tliat which prevailed during the 
discussion of the right of tlie State to nullify within its 
limits the operation of a law which it declared to be uncon- 
stitutional. The division it produced affected all classes 



The Cciitoniial of Jiicor porn t ion. 319 

and coiulilions. The lii^h in i)laco and ixnvcr, and those 
who were not so favored, alike differed and (h"videfh 'i'he 
ties of blood could not prevail against the storm of passion, 
and they who should "dwell togethei' in aniit)%" were ai"- 
raycd against each other. The bonds which held men 
togetlier in a religions communion were fearfully strained, 
and even the ministers of religion, the " he)-alds of peace," 
were swept awa}- by the torrent as it rolled ow in its over- 
whelming course, and were found in the one or the other 
of the hosts marshalled under the banners on which were 
inscribed the texts of the political faith they professed. 
Happily, as events have proved, however differently con- 
sidered at that time, the spirit and determination of our 
own people were confronted by a spirit and determination 
(|uitc as strong, on his part v/ho then had to speak iind act 
for the govcrnjnent of the United States; the issue of 
force seemed inevitable, when, happily, as then consid- 
ered, as it is now and ever will be, the commanding influ- 
ence of the men wdio were then in the Congress of the 
United States, under the promptings of a patriotism which 
embraced the whole country — the North, the South, the 
East, the West — and respected the honesty of conviction 
which had produced the difficulty of the situation, bravely 
interposed and secured the passage of the "compromise," 
as the legislation was termed, by which peace was once again 
given to all portions of the Union. That peace was an 
honest peace; there was not in it guile or falseliood. And 
this w-as so well shown when Clay and Webster and Cal- 
houn, and others only second to them, counselled together 
to avert the impending storm. Seldom in all history is 
there a picture so impressive as is that wdien Cla}' flung him- 
self between the combatants, and with the olive branch in 
his hands beat down the. swords crossed for combat. And 
of a different style is that other picture, alike imj)ressive, 
when Webster, as chief mourner, brought back to this State 
and in this cits' to be deposited, the remains of its most hon- 
ored son, and his most formidable rival in the Senate llouse. 
And to its great credit be it said, in the State and among 



520 Illayor Court ciiay s Annual Reviciv. 

its own people there was nKini tested the Sciinc- lionest)' in 
the aecejnance oftlie coni[)i'onHse as that wliicli ended theii' 
diflerences. And this was seen wlien to one""- \vhose capa- 
city and inte^^rily had been acknowledi^^ed by his hi5:di jndi- 
cia! position, and whose decision had been adverse to the 
opinion of tlie majorit)' of the j^eople, by an unanimous 
vote the State gave him tlie place of its chief magistrate, as 
Governor oi tlie State, To another,! ec|ually conspicuous 
on the same side, it gave him a place in the Soiate of the 
State, and afterwards in the Senate of the United States. 
More than all, with the generi)sity which is ever the attribute 
of true manhood, it sent to him:]: whom it had boldy opposed 
in the Ordinance of Nullification, and v/hose su|)erior power 
it defied, when that controversy was over, the expression of 
its approbation of his conduct in the trying exigencies 
of the defence (jf New Orleans. While he not less gene- 
rous or unmindful of the State in which he was born, look- 
ing u[)on the silver vase which the ladies of this State had 
presented to him because of his victory at New Orleans, 
suggestive at owcc of his native State and of his high mili- 
tary renown, in the absorbing love of his countr\% directed 
in liis will that this testimonial should be given to that citi- 
zen of this State who Vv'as " tlie most valiant in defence of 
his country." And the legacy was accepted by the gallant 
soldier appointed to receive it in behalf of the State, as a 
memento "of the affection and veneration of the fair ladies 
of his native State for the grand old hero." 

The result of these peace measures was that Congress 
greatly ameliorated the tariff, estabhshed a s)-stem of ad 
valorem duties, and abandoned the specific duties and mini- 
mums, and distinctly recognized two great principles then 
being contended for, namely: first, that duties were to be 
eventually brought down to the revenue standard ; and, 
secondly, that no more money should be raised than was 
necessary for the economical administration of the govern- 



ment. 



The evil liaving been remedied,Ao the extent mentioned 

i-Chaj>cc!lor ]Ja%Id Johnson. tjudge Druiiel EllioLt Hiigor. :;:Geiic!-;d Aiulrcw Jiicksou. 



TJlc Coitciinial of hicorporatioi. S^i ' f 

above, tl)e people of South Carolina, on 15th March, 1833, 
in convention assemlilecl, orJained and decl.ued that the 
ordinance adopted by them on 24th November, 1832, nulli- 
fying tlie tariff .Vets of Con<^re.ss, would henceforth be 
deemed and held to have no force or effect. { 

i 

18J(J. The IMextcax War. — Growing out of the anncxa- \ 
tion of Texas there were disputes with Mexico as to bounda- % 
ries, and in the spring of 1846 a slight collision •occurred on 4- 
thc Rio Grande between General Ta)dor's arm)' and the \ 
Mexicans under General Arista. In May, war was declared, - 
§10,000,000 appropriated, and 50,000 volunteers called for 
{ox twelve months service. General Ouitn^an says: "The .' 
State of South Carolina, although remote from the theatre of \ 
war; although not disturbed by the recldess s|;irit of adven- '■ 
tare which forms so distinguishing a trait of character in the \ 
pioneer population of new States, yet was thoroughly im- \ 
bued with the military spirit of a free people." Desirous of I 
emulating the chivalry of their sires, her sons demanded a \ 
place in the volunteer line for their own Palmetto flag. \ 
They were accepted and received into the service of the \ 
United States soine time in the fall of 1846 under an Act ' 
autliorizing the President to call for twelve months' volun- ^ 
teers, but shortly afterwards the go\'ernment changed its \ 
policy, and determined not to receive volunteers for a ^ 
shorter time than during the v\'ar. Influenced b}' patriotism 
and by a high sense of State and personal honor, the regi- 
ment, officers and men, consented to the change of engage- ; 
ment, and in December were regularly mustered into the ■ 
service "during the war." One of the first, if not the very '; 
first response, was the Charleston Companv, originating 
at the suggestion of Mr. Lewis F. Robertson ; a meeting . 
was called at the residence of Wm. Blanding, Esq., in Logan 
Street, about forty persons attended, and at a subsequent 
meeting at Masonic llall a compan.y was organized with 
Wm. Blanding as captain, A. M. Manigault as first lieutenant, 
L. Y. Robertson as second, and Ralph Bell as junior second 
lieutenant. The City Council of Charleston provided an 
66 



r 22 



Mayor Courtoiny s Annual Rcvinv. 



outfit of clothing, &c., and the company entered tlie regi- 
ment in proper condition for active service, and the value 
of this excellent clothing was proved on the severe campaign 
in Mexico. The following was the roll of "Company F," at 
Vera Cruz, March, 1847, which is reproduced here to hand 
down to posterity the names of the gallant men who repre- 
sented our city in the Palmetto Regiment : 



Captain, William Blaucling.* 
First Lieulenant, A. M. Manigault.* 
Second Lieutenant, L. F. Robertson.* 
Third Fieutenant, Rali^h Bell. 
First Sergeant, J no. I). Walker. 
Sceond vSergtant, Chas. V. Barbot. 
Third Sergeant, Horatio ^L Ripley. 



j Fourth Sergeant, Jno. M, Easterby.* 
I First Corporal, Wm. L. Wilkie. 

Second Corporal, Thos. B. Merritt. 

Third Corporal, Jno. N. Ilicks. 

Fourth Corporal, James F. Quinn,* 

Musician, J. C. Parker. 
I Musician, Benj. Miller. 



Axson, Samuel E. 
Alexander, S.imuel W. 
Anderson, Charles. 
Braden. Miner L. 
Bencke, Henry 
Beaurschm.idi, tienry. 
Bouise, Jr>o. 
Bold. Jno. 
Bold, Geo. B. 
Brannaka, Chas. 
Bode, Jno. 
Bradey, Andrew J. 
Bryr^.er, Wm. 
}?endcr, Wrn. J. 
Cnrsten, Christopher G. 
Carsten, Henry. 
Cockran, John. 
Corkle, David W. 
Carr, Thos. G. 
Cameron, Duncan.* 
Campsen, John. 
Cooper, Micajah E. 
Douling, Daniel J. 
Duidap, Robert. 
Dukes, Augustus G. 
DufT. Vincent. 
Dickson, Hen.ry S. 

*Scvcntccn .survivors, as f: 



Musician, George Miller, 

PRIVATES. 

j El ford, Jar man T. 
i l''i--cher, Stephen. 

CJraham, Pat. S. 

Gilli..on, \Vm. D.* 

Ciilbot, Ephriam M.* 

Hernandez, Janies. 

Hitchfeldt, Rudolph. 

Henderson, James M. A. 

Hamner, Horton W. 

Hamner, Harris A. 

Howard, Chas. 

Hartman, Michael K. 

Hyllested, Waldernar. 

Hillerhonlagen, Fred. 

Hilkin, Ortgis. 

Hargiave, Chas. W. 

Jones, Henry W, 

Kennedy, Thos. 

Koefoed, Berirand S. 

Eeitch, Thos. W. 

Eevy, Orlando R.* 

McCollum, Jno. 

Maxcy, Devi. 

Martin, Jno. 

Mackcy, Thos. J.* 

Mulkey. Chas. 

Murken, Henry. 
Total 96. 



Mark, Thos. 
Meyer, Clans. 
]\lc KcA\', Norton. 
Miott, Jno. R. 
Mowry. Ed. S.* 
Nix, Francis. 
Oswald, Wm. J. 
Pendergrast, Martin. 
}-'atat, Augustus. 
Parsons, Henry H. 
Pinckney, Roger. 
Purvis, Stephen. 
Pratt, Chas. H. 
Rivers, Constant H.* 
Sanders, John J. 
Smith, James T. L. 
Schroder, H. 
Thayer, T. H., Jr. 
Yannoy, John H. 
Valentine, Jacob.* 
Verdier, Meade W. 
Vangerlist, John. 
Wienges, Henry W. 
Weatherby, James. 
Wright, James D. 
Wagoner, John C. 
W^illiams, Joseph. 



tained. 



llic Coitcuiiial of IiKorpuraiion. 523 

On the rolls of the Charleston con-ipan)' wore the n.-.mcs 
of citizens who had been classicall}- educ<itecl, professional 
men, business men of standing, and even men of means and 
comfortable expectations — in fact there were numbers hold- 
ing social positions cqu.al to those of the officers wlio com- 
manded them. Only the highest motives of patriotism and 
State pride could have stimulated such men to subject them- 
selves voluntarily to the privations, discomforts and toils of 
war, and to the perils and dangers of the battle-field. From 
the day of landing at Vera Cruz to the entry into the City 
of Mexico, there was but one sentiment in the corps — that 
every man should perish on the held of battle rather than 
the honor of South Carolina should be tarnished'; and they 
signall)' maintained the honor and reputation of the State, 
and "laid on the altar of her renovv-n fresh and brilliant 
wreaths of fame." In the short period. of six montlis, be- 
tween the landing at Vera Cruz in March, 1847, '^^'^^ ^^^^ en- 
trance into the City of Mexico on 14th September, the 
ninety-six men of the Charleston company had been reduc- 
ed below forty. The regiment won great renown in all the 
battles, and Gen. Quitman says " before the smoke had ceas- 
ed to curl over the heads of the brave victors, the Palmetto 
flae, the flap" of this <jallant recjiment, was seen floating" over 
the conquered walls — -the first America }i fiag \v\\\\\w the Cit)' 
of Mexico." These facts alone " furnish pages for comment. 
They stand as lasting monuments Vv'hich the future liistorian 
cannot pass withoj.t pausing to meditate on, to admire the 
record; they entitle the regiment to add to the palm which 
graces its banner, the motto Pahiiaiii fcrai qui meruit ^ 
The Palmetto Regiment flag, the first to be displayed in 
the City of Mexico, was presented by the City Council of 
Charleston. Upon the return of the remnant of the regi- 
ment, the City Council arranged for a grand public recep- 
tion and dinner, and there are still nuany who recall the en- 
thusiastic and hearty welcome home, given to the gallant 
survivors. The City Council presented handsome swords 
to each of the commissioned officers, and to each non-com- 
missioner ofticer and soldier a silver medal. In size it was 



524 Mayor Court cn'ay s Ainiudl Review. I 

a little less than two and a quarter inches in diameter; on 
the obverse is the seal o( the cit)', and around the <niter 
border " Presented by the City of Charleston to tlie Charles- 
ton Conipau)- of Volunteers in Mexico;" un the reverse is 
the figure of a soldier displaying the I'dlnietto flag in the 
City of Mexico; on the outer border: A'era Cruz — Chmu- 
busco— Chapultepec — Garita de Ikdin. 

1850. Caijtoux's FUNl'RAr.. — The funeral obsequies of 
Senator John C. Calhoun were conducted in tliis city Vvith : 

imposing magnificence and impressive solemnity on the "l 

25th and 26Lh iVpri), 1850. The remains arrived from 
Washington, \\here Mr. Calhoun died on 3rst March, 1S50, | 

escorted b}- a committee from the United States Senate | 

and House of Representatives, the Sergeant-at-Arms of the I 

Senate, a committee of citizens from W^ilmington, N. C, a 
committee of twenty-five from South. Carolina, and a sub- 
committee of arrangements. Upon arrival, the remains 
were placed upon a funeral car, drawn by six horses, capari- I 

soned in mourning trap|)ings which trailed the ground, and | 

was escorted, to the sound of muffled drums, to the Citadel I 

Sc[uare. ■ Here the body was forniall)' surrendered by the 1 

Senate Committee to the Chief Executi\"e of the State, | 

Governor Whitemarsh B. Seabrook, and by him in turn to | 

the ]Ma\'or of the cit}', Hon. T. L. Hutchinson. A funeral '| 

cortege was then formed, and proceeded down King Street | 

to Hasell, through Hasell to Meeting, around White Point, | 

up the Ikiy to Ikoad Street, thence to the City HalL Here | 

the body was received by the Mayor and xA-ldermen, and 1 

deposited within a magnificent catafalque, wdiere it lay in i 

state until the next day, under charge of a guard of honor, ^ 

composed of two hundred citizens. Thousands repaired to j 

the hall to pay their last tribute to the illustrious dead. 
The next day, 26th April, at early dawn, the bells of the 
city resumed their toll, business remained suspended, and 
a civic procession was formed. T'he remains were removed 
from the catafalque to St. Philip's Church, which was draped 
in deepest mourning. An anthem was sung b)' a full choir, . 



The Centomial of hicorpDrdtion. 525 

the burial services redd by Jjisliop Ciadsden, and .1 funeral 
(.b'scourse pi'onounccd b}' l\e\^ James W. IVIilcs. The bod\^ 
was tlien borne b}' the ^cuiard of h.onor to tlu: Western ceme- 
tery of tlic churcl) and dejvjsited within a structure: of ma- 
sonr)', raised above tlic ground and h'ned with cedar wood. 

Every organized association voluntari!)' paraded- thje 
civic autliorities, the- mih'tary, the firemen, tlie masonic and 
odd-fellows lodc^es, the benevolent societies — ever}'tliing 
that could add to the mournful pageantry' of grief had, b)' 
its presence, outwardl)' manifested the ip.v/ard sorrow of the 
community. 

The funeral cortege was tlie largest gathering of citizens 
ever seen in Cliarleston, occup)-ing over two hours in pass- 
ing any one point. Every arrangement for moving so large 
a body of citizens was made and carried out under the 
thoughtful direction of the Hon. A. G. Magrath, as Chief 
Marshal, and his assistants, in co-operation with committees 
of the City Council arid citizens. To indicate the extent 
of the arrangements, I reproduce one feature of it —the 
names of the 

Honorary Guard over tJie Remains of Mr. Cnlhoiiii. 

First Watch. Skcond Watcu. Thuu) Wa'ich. 

Jacob l^.ond rOn. J. II. Read, Sr. J. S. RheU. 

James L. Petij^ru. Elias Vaiiderhorst. A. G. Rose. 

H. L. I'inekney. R. W. Cogdcll. John Heart. 

Jud'^e (iiicb;i.-L John Rutledge. Rawlins I.owndes. 

Daniel E. 1 1 user. Jr. Charles Allston. ■ J. L. Nowell. 

Dr. H. Waring. Dr. B. Iluger. ^wjui-^,^-, Kavenel. 

II. W. Conner. Jarnes Ferguson. William ]>. Rringle. 

John S. Ashe. Thomas Middleton. J. V>. Camphell. 

Mnj. Samuel Porcher. • T. Crange Simons, Sr. Edwin P. Starr. 

William f. Gray.son. Dr. John Bellinger. C. M. Furman. 

D. C. Webb. Dunbar Paul. W. P. Fmley. 

William rhd:)ose. George Kinloch. W. Ci. Simms. 

William C. Preslon. WilbuTm C. Dukes. *n. D. Eesesne. 

James Adger. lion, judge Rice. ■ Dr. Jame> IM<)Uitrie. 

B. F. Hunt. .M. T. Mendenhall. Robert Martin. 

Wade Hampton. Eduard Blake. Dr. F. Y. I'orcher. 

Dr. Jos. JohuMin. H. W. Peronncau. *James Mar>h. 

Mitchell King. Capt. John Bonnell. William 1'. Eea, Sr. 

Charles Eraser. *\\ illiam Kirkuood. Thoma^ W. Baeot. 

Julm Eraser. J. J. McCarler, James W. Cirey. 



526 



Mayor Courteiiays Animal Review 



FouKTH Watch. 
*G. II. Tngraliam. 
*J. R. I'rlngle. 

T^dwiinl H. White. 

John Colcock. 
*Ralpb I. Mitklleton. 

Thomas A. Cotnn. 

W. H. In-lesby. 

Samuel G. Harker, 

Abialiain Tobias. 

A. H. Belin. 

R. Q. Pinckney. 

Otis Mills. 

Richard Ycadon. 

George Robertson. 

I.angdou Louie. 

A. Barbot. 

B. F. Porter. 
Alexander Gordon. 
S. P. Ripley. 
Thomas Farr Capers 

Seventh Watch. 
Frederick Shaffer. 
John Bickley. 
*J. H. Honour. 
James Welsman. 
Charles Parker. 
Dr. A. P. Ilayne. 

C. B. Northrop. 
Robert Aid rich. 
W\ V. Paxton. 
B. F. Scott. 
Septimus Sanders. 
B. D. Roper, Jr. 
George B. Locke. 
F. R. Shackelford. 
Joseph Walker. 
Frederick R ichards. 
Robert Bee. 
Samuel J. Berger. 
W. P. Shingler. 

T. C. Mitchell 



Fifth Watci[. 
W. R. liabcock. 
T. I,. Gourdin. 
George M. Cofiin. 
A. H. lirown. 
Joshua Pa/arus. 
*J. W. Wilkinson. 
P. M. Coll en. 
J. V. Stock. 

* William McBumey. 
Arthur Huger. 

*John Cuningham. 
W. S. King. 
J. M. Caldwell. 
J. L. Patterson. 
F. C. Matthicsscn. 
P. II. Tucker. 
Theodoj-e 1 ).' Wagner. 
F. S. Holmes. 
Archibald McKenzic. 
John E. Cay. 

Eighth Watch. 

* Alexander Robertson. 
William Mazyck. 

*Jolin S. Bird. 

Dr. P. C. Gaillard. 
*Dr. O. A. White. 

James English. 

M. \\ Matheson. 
*C. Wiiliman. 

Wm. Pat ton. 
*A. R. Taft. 

Joel R. Stephens. 

Henry T re scot. 

George Buist. 

Edward Harle^^ton. 

James Chapman. 

Charles Manigault. 

John Phillips. 
*II. A. Middleton. 

William E. Martin. 



SixiTi Watch. 
*T!iomas P. Smith. 

Henry florlheck. 

George \\'. Cooper. 
^Edward Barnwell, Jr. 

Jacob Colien. 

W. B. S. Horry. 

William P>ernie. 

George W. Brown. 

William I.ebby. > 

J. R. Heriol. 

John Deas. 

E. M. Carey. 

William Lucas. 
*H. P. Walker. 

I'homas L. Wragg. 

R. T. Chisolm. 

George S. Cameron. 

J. D. Yates. 

D. C. Gibson. 

J. W. Brown. 

Ninth Watch. 

Edward R. Laurens. 
^Edward McCrady. 

William Jervey. 

James Lamb. 

Thomas Miiliken. 

Jonathan Bryan. 

Frederick Winth.rop. 

James Robertson. 

James Macbeth. 
*S. T. Robinson. 

William A. Carson. 
*Dr. T. L. Ogier. 

r)r. T. G. Prioleau. 

William Ikll. 
*Dr. D. J. C. Cain. 

Thomas 1\. Waring. 

R. W. Bacot. 

Dr. Thomas Fayssoux. 



C H. West. 

Tfie twenty-four names designated thus (*) ;iro known to be survivors. 

The great "Defender of the Constitution" on tliis occa- 
sion received .such offices o{ rcs})cct and veneration as liad 
never before been witnessed in our State. 



The Ccnicuuial of Incorporation. 527 

SLAVERY IX rilOVINCi; CO]/)^;V AND STATE. \ 

In tin's connection J desire to record some historical facts I 

relative to the appearance, growtli, existence and disap[K:ar- ! 

ance of the slave system on this soil. It is now time to i 

look at history and preserve it ; witliout prejudice and with J 

unbiassed judgment. A narrative without motive save to f 

chronicle the past is now possible. - \ 

The first contact of Europeans with the Indians was I 

marked by an act of perfidy. In i 520 Yalasquez de Ayllon 
visited tlie coast of Carolina, at the mouth of the Comba- ■ 

hec River, and held communication with the natives; gain- 
ing their confidence, they visited his sliip in large numbers, \ 
and watching the moment when his decks were most crowd- \ 
ed, suddenly made sail, carrying two liundred innocent atid \ 
confiding peo[)le into captivity; there being at that early | 
date a slave market at St. Domin^^o. Thus the seeds of '; 
subsequent hostilities were early planted, and in the early \ 
history of th-:; Colonies slavery was the result of captivity ■ 
in war, and many Indians were then made slaves (see Elli- •; 
ott's History of New England^ to this custom, v.'hich was 
the heritage of Greece and Rome, and in later European 
civilization, more brutality vvas added at times, by the local 
English governors on their soil, as is apparent from the fol- 
ing account :^ ! 

" During the Luiian War in Carolina, the Honourable 
Charles Craven, Esq., was Governor, who behaved on all 
occasions, at the Head of the Eorces of that Province, 
against the Indians, with signal good conduct, much per- 
sonal Bravery and Gallantry, and it was often thought, that ^ 
if a Man of only ordinary Ability had been Governor, that \ 
Province would have been destroyed. As soon as this Qn^w- \ 
tleman had reduced the Indians, his Affairs calling him to 
England, he left IMajor Daniel in his stead, before whom an 
Indian Chief, named Turkeycock, of a neighboring nation of 
Indians, accused tvvelve of the Cussoes (as I remember they 
were called) of having held a correspondence wdth the Che- 

*Pamphlet. l.ond.in: 1731. Paf;es S7, SS and 89. 



528 Mayor Coiirtiiiay s Annual Review. '• 

rok'ces our KnciiHcs in tlu: TiiVR; of \\\v. lalc War. The ac- 
cused Peojilc were thcii at Charles Town, and, at tlie com- 
mand ot tlic sa.id Daniel, were sent foi', and without beiiu^f 
heard, put in Irons, and immediatel\- ordered and sent on 
board a sloop for lyarbadoes. The iMas>ter of 1 he sloop came 
to the GovenK>r to excuse liin^iself from taldn^ any charge 
o(' those JVople, who, as he said, were most of them old 
Men, and such as moved his compassion ; that if he .were 
inclinable to sell them at Barbadoes according to the (tov- 
crnor's command, the\- would not fetch cnouc;"h to pay their 
Passage. Tlie Governor still insisted on his carrying them ; 
but the ^Master being resolved not to have any farther to do 
with them, desired to know where he should send them : 
Upon which the Governor said fiercel}', 77/ sejui them; | 

wdicreupon he called Turkeyeoek, and bid him take some of .:, 

his People and kill those Indians on board the sloop ; wdiich ; 

they did, by cleavin.g their Skulls with Hatchets, as they sat '' 

on the Hatches of the sloop, and threw them overboard. ^ 

This was done hi an English Town, by comm;ind of an ; 

English Governor; no one v\dio lived at that Time in South 
Caroliiui is ignorant of this Fact." | 

While by some accounts tlie origin of African sku'cry in 4 

America may be traced to the Spaniards, it is well known i 

that in 1620 a Dutch ship of state landed African sla\'es at ' \ 

Jamestown, Virginia, and thereby the slave system was in- | 

troduced into several Colonies, among others particularly \ 

in New York, tiu-u under Dutch influence, and wdiere the I 

system grew to large proportions; New York eventually be- 1 

coming a large slave mart. After the fall of the Dutch in- 
fluence in New York, and the domination of the English, 
the system increased rather than diminished, both in -^ 

New York and in other Colonies, the settled policy of 
Great Britain being profit froiii the slave trade as a source 
of revenue, and that as against the expressed wish and laws 
of most of tlie Colonies. This is the language of a Ih'itish 
statesman of the day: 

"To conclude, I am of opinion that this Kingdom gains 
clear profit by our Amicrican Colonies yearl}-, tlie sum of 



TJie Ctnicnnial of Incorporation. 529 

One PJilliou Stcrlinc^ exclusive of what we i;el by any l^rades 
for Ncgioes or dry Goods b)' tlie Spaniards ; and tliat in 
and by our Colonies only, we maintain and employ at least 
Eighteen thousand Seamen and Fishermen." 

It was thus the policy of England not to allow the several 
Colon.ies to enforce their lei^al enactments prex'cntin''' or 

•-5 1 It 

modifying the introduction of slaves in the ]^ritish Cc»lo- 
nics. In the Constitution of the United States, as it was 
first drafted by Jefferson, the l^ritish Crown and George 111 
was severely deiiounced for continuai^iCe of the slave trade, 
and this was set forth as the principal cause of grievance of 
Colonial America. 

The following was the Ihitish tariff of force in Colonial 
days (1775): 

Duty ox Slaves. — Indians im].)orted as slaves, each, ,^50. 

Negroes or Slaves, four feet two inches or more in height, 
each, £\o. 

Negroes, under four feet two, and above three feet two 
inches, each, i'5. 

Negroes, under four feet two, and above three feet two 
inches, sucking children excepted, each, £2 los. Negroes 
or slaves from any of Mis ?\Iajesty\s plantations in America, 
where such slaves have been for six months or more, unless 
imported by the owners with design to be employed on their 
own account, besides the above ^10, £,^, and £2 los., each 
slave, ;{^50. 

As an evidence of the feeling against the extension of 
slavery, beyond the protest from Virginia, there is other re- 
markable data. The Continental Association evinces the 
same spirit : 

" We his Majesty's most loyal subjects, the delegates of 
the several Colonies of New Hampshire " " and South 
Carolina de[nited to represent tliem in a Continental Con- 
gress, held in the City of Philadelphia on the j/// day of 
September, I/J4, avowing our allegiance, &c. " '^ And 
therefore we do, for ourselves, and the inhabitants of 
the several Colonies whom we represent, firmly agree and 
07 



530 Mayor Court oiay :^ Annual Rcviriv. 

associalc inidei- t'hc sacred tics of virtue, honor, and love of 
our country as follows: 

" II. That we will neither import, nor purcliase an)' slave 
imported after. the first day of December next, after which 
time, we will v\-holl)' discontinue the slave trade, and will 
neither be concerned in it ourselves, nor will we hire our 
vessels, nor sell our commodities or manufactures to those 
who are concerned in it." 

In the Council of Safety of South Carolina; letter from 
Henry Laurens, President, to the Committee at Geor^^e- 
town, January loth, 1776: 

" Foreign coffee, sugar, and other foreign commodities 
may undoubted!}- be imported and sold in tliis Colony. 
Except Vv-ine from Madeira and the Western Islands, and 
slai'cs from any place. See Articles i and 2 Continental 
Association, 1774." 

The following extracts from the report of the late lion. 
J. Johnstone Petigrew to the Legislature of this State in 
1856, states with historical exactness the legislative history 
of this Colo',!}' and State upon tliis topic: 

" \\\ taking leave of this part of the subject, it will not be 
amiss to review cursorily the legislation of South Carolina, 
in reference to the question. The l^ritish, having wrested 
the Assiento from the Spaniards, extended greatly their 
commerce with Africa, and enjoyed until 1776, a monopoly 
of supplying the Carolina slave nrjarket. After the peace of 
1783, the New Englanders obtained a participation in its 
profits. In the early history of the Colony individuals, 
mosth' foreigners, holding high positions under the govern- 
ment, were interested in this traffic, and it flourished greatly, 
the evil effects of which were soon felt, as will be apparent 
from the Statutes enacted. 

*' The A.x-\. of 1698, for the encouragement of the impor- 
tation of white servants, after the following preamble: 
'\Micreas, the great number of negroes which have of late, 
been imported into this Colony, may endanger the safety 
thereof, if speedy measures be not taken, and cncouragenient 



The Centennial of hicurporation. 531 

given for the importation of white sei'v^ants' — requires eacli 
phantcr to take one white servant for every six negiax^s, <.^e. 

"Tlic A. A. of J/l::, ' for the more cff'.:etual prevention of 
the spreading of contagious disorders' rests upon tlie fol- ; 

lowing foundation: AVliereas, great numbers of the in- 
habitants of this Province have been destro)-erl b)' niahg- , j 
nant, contagious diseases, brought here from /Vfrica, aiid \ 
other parts of America, &c.' Among those enumerated, f 
arc plague, spotted fever, Sian distemper and Guinea fever. ^'l 

'* The A. A. of 1714, after the following preamble: 'And, | 

whereas, the number of negroes do extremely increase in * \ 

this Province, and through tlie aftlicting Providence of God, \ 

the white persons do not proportionabi)' multipl)', b)' I'cason ! 

whereof the safety of the said Province is greatly endan- j 

gered, for the prevention of which, for the future, &c., &:c.,' ' \ 

imposes an additional dut\- of £2 upon every slave over | 

twelve years imported ' fiom any part of Africa.' \ ^ 

" The A. A. of 17 16, ' to encourage the importation of white | 

servants into this Province,' after the preamble, ' Whereas, \ 

sad experience hath taught us, that th.e small number of f 

white inhabitants of this Province, is not sufficient to de- :- 

fend the same, even against our Indian enemies; and j 

whereas, the number of slaves is daily increasing in this I 

Province, vdiich may likewise endanger the safety thereof, ^ 

if speedy care be not taken to encourage the importation f 

of white servants,' requires planters to take one lor every 
ten slaves, &c., &c. ■ 

"The A. A. of 1717, after the preamble 'And, whereas, ■ 

the great importation of negroes ruie this Province, in pro- t 

portion to the white inhabitants of the same, whereby the j 

future safety of this Province will be greatly endangered, i 

for the prevention thereof, &c., &c.,' imposes an additional \ 

duty of ^40, upon every negro slave, 'of any age or condi- \ 

tion, whatsoever, and from any part of the world.' \ 

" The A.A. of 1744, ' for the further preventing the spread- 
in^'" of malignant ;ind contagious disorders' has the follow- 
ing preamble: 'Whereas, it liath been found by experience, 
that since the importation of negroes and slaves from tlie : 



532 Mayor Coiirtcnay s AiniKal Review. 

coast of Africa into this I'l-ovincc liatli hccii jjroliibitcd, this 
Province in ocpcral, and Charleston in j)arlicuL'ir, liath been 
much more healthy tlian heretofore it liatli been, 6v:c., tvc' 

"I'hc A.A. of I7.}0, and tlievV.A.of 175 i, followinc;- out the 
Act of 17 [6, imposes a tax iijjon tlie im|)ortn.tion of slaxx's, 
to be devoted to the encouragement of wliitc servants. 

"The A. A. of 1764, after tlie preamble 'Whereas, tlie 
importation of negroes equal in number, to what have 'been 
imported of late years, may prove of the most dangei'ous 
consequence, in man}- respects to this Province, and the best 
way to obviate such clanger, vvill be by imposing sucli ad- :? 

ditional duty upon them, as may totall)' prevent the evils,' 
imposes an additional duty of £\qq. 

"Tlie A. A. of 1787, enacts that no negro or other slave 
shall be imported under penalty of forfeiture, unless master •] 

come in to reside. , i 

"Another A. A. of 1787, both before the adoption of the i . 

P^cderal constitution, enacts 'that any person importing or :| 

bringing into this State a negro slave, contrary to the Act '| 

to regulate the recovery of debts, and prohibiting the im- "i 

portation of negroes, shall, besides the forfeiture of such | 

negro or slave, be liable to a perialty of /^loo in addition to | 

the forfeiture, in and by said Act prescribed.' | 

*• The A. A. of 1788 prohibits the importation of negroes \ 

or other slaves, unless at that time the property of citizens I 

of the United States, and within the limits of the United l 

States, under pain of forfeiture and i^ioo. | 

''The A, A. of 1792, after the preamble ' Whereas, it is I 

deemed inexpedient to increase the nu.mber of slaves within 1 

the State in our present circumstances and condition,' pro- J 

hibits the importation of slaves from Africa, the West Indies, | 

or other places beyond seas, for two years. I 

'* By A. A. of 1794 extended to 1797. 1 

"The A. A. of 1796, after the preamble 'Whereas, it ap- i 

pears to be highly impolitic to import negroes from Africa, | 

or other place beyond seas,' prohibits such importation till 4 

1799, under pain of forfeiture of the slave and a fine upon I 

the captains. . \ 



;.K. o:ll 



llic Coilciuiial of liicorporalion. 5:^3 \ 

\ 

'' By A. A. of 1798 extended to 1801. ] 

"And by A. A. of 1 Soo extended to 1803. 

" In 1803 all the existing- Aets were repealed, and tlie re- 
strictioii a^^-ainst imj^ortation was eonHned {o Sonth Anicriea, 
the West Indies, and the otiier States of the Confederae)-, 
unless, in case of the last, a certificate be fded with the 
Clerk of the Court, 'under the hands of two Ma_L,nstrates - 

and the seal of the Clerk of the Court of the District wlicre : 

the said negro or negroes have resided for the last twelve 
months previous to the date of the certificate, that such ' 

negro or negroes are persons of good cliaracter, and liavc 
not been concerned in an}- insurrection or rebellion.' 

" It is apparent from this sketch that the injuiious tendcn- ■, 

cy of the iniportation of barbarism is.not an idea originating I 

with Northern abolitionists, and forced upon the reluctant 
South as a stigma; it was recognized in Carolina as far back l 

as 1714; nor was it then tlic creature of sickly and maudlin i 

equivocators, wh.o had neither tlie firmness to give up the I 

institution vliich they deplored and excused, nor to follow f 

it to its legitimate deductions. There wasno.hint of aboli- ] 

tion, no distrust of slavery . but these sterling citizens had " ;■ 

sufficient wisdom to perceive a vast difference between a ; 

system of civilized and a system of barbarian slavery. The 
great historical Carolinians of 1789 and 1791, many of w horn ; 

were violently op[)Osed to their grant of power to the Fed- ' 

eral government, never supposed themseh'es thereb)' com- 
mitted to an appro\'al of the slave trade, nor thought that 
their condemnation of this latter would be inconsistent with I 

fidelity to the institution itself. They w-ere keenly alive to , 

the necessity of developing it at home, of keeping it free 
from all foreign impurities. Mence the preambles ; hence • 

the prohibition of importation from Africa, or even from 
sister States, unless with evidence of good character. The 
restriction against importation from Africa was removed a ' 

few years previous to 1 808, but this was owing to the im- I 

possibility of preventing evasion o( our laws through the 
want of a State navy, and it was tlnnight better to bring : 

them directly from Africa, than receive them through New ; 



534 Mayor Courtoiay s Annual Ri-vu'zv. 

York as pictended Americans. That the sentiment of the 
State underwent no change is proved by the subsequent 
unanimous vote of her deh^g-ation in Congress. It is to the 
wise statesmansJiip of these men that is owing the present 
felicitous condition of our Laboring population. The pro- 
gress of a joint civilization since that time has rendered tlie 
treatment of slaves throughout the Union nearly the same. 
There is, therefore, no longer any reasot] for the suspicion 
which formerly existed with respect to negroes from other 
States, and all laws against their importation have been 
repealed. But every day widens the difference between 
the American and the native African slave, and the wisdom 
which counselled the passage of existing laws would im- 
peratively demand tlieir continuance. 

"Thds sketch discloses moreover that the barbarians them- 
selves were not the only barbarous things introduced by the 
slave trade; it was accompanied by. all manner of liorrid 
diseases, whicli were not con.fmed to the City of Charleston 
alone, but spread through the length and breadth of the 
.land irrespective of locality and climate. The West Indies 
have long labored under this affliction ; certain species of 
maladies, as certain species of sharks, liaving followed in the 
wake of the slaves from Bight of Benin to tlie ]^.\y of Ha- 
vana. 

*' It shows, too, that they were not insensible to the neces- 
sity in a military point of view, of maintaining a due pro- 
portion between the dominant and servient races ; the slave 
trade was accompanied by plans for the importation of a 
corresponding number of white servants. The Message 
prefer African slaves to European laborers; fortunatel}- we 
are not compelled to choose between the two ; our own 
white population increases with sufficient rapidity for the 
slaves we have. But when it is proposed to flood the land 
with barbarians, why is not some plan devised for at least 
retaining our own inhabitants at home?^ A vast tide has 
distributed throughout the West one lumdred and eighty- 
six thousand four hundred and seventy-nine native white 
Carolinians of all classes, whose virtues reflect honor upon 



1 Jw Coitouiial of Incorporation. 535 

the land (^f their biith, but who .'irc no hjiu^cr chjvotcd to 
her advancement. What means can be devised of prevent- 
ing this evil, it is diflicult to say ; certainly the importation 
of barbarians will not render South Carohna ri more attrac- 
tive residence either to rich or poor, and it would be ques- 
tionable statesmanship, to embrace what the experience of 
history, and particularh^ our own, has shown to be an evil, 
without providini^ in advance some antidote." 

" Pre\'ious to 1808 the slave trade was carried on mostly 
by New England men and New England capital, with agen- 
cies established in-CharlG?^ton, and sin.ce that period it lias 
a clandestine existence onh' at tlie North. No instance can 
be adduced of a native Carolinian being implicated in the 
remotest degree. Our people have manifestly no partiality 
for this commerce, whether from a moral repugnance or 
from a pride that scorns such an occupation, cannot be 
ascertain.ed ; the fact is so." 

From 1804 to 1807, when the slave trade was open, two 
hundred and two vessels brought slaves to Charleston, and 
all tlicse vessels excepting thirteen were owned in the North 
and in Europe — more than one hundred belonged to New 
Englanders. 

While slaver^' existed, it was defended North and South 
by. the same argument. One of the most notable and char- 
acteristic defences of both the African slave trade and the 
institution of domestic slavery u-as that of Gov. Griswold, 
of Connecticut, in 1795, a revolutionary patriot, the ances- 
tor of a long line of worthy New England governors, judges, 
statesmen, in the States, and in the Federal government up 
to this date. The Bible argument, the betterment of the bar- 
barian, the moral right of one man to hold another in personal 
subjection, are all stated and urged with singular force and 
earnestness by this New England statesman. The same 
theory had been held by divines and thinkers of previous 
generations in all the Colonies. Jonathan Edwards, plan- 
ning in his Ic ng rides, his treatise on the " Freedom of the 
Human Will," usually had his negro boy slave ridiiig be- 



53^ ^fd\or CoiirfDiays Annual Rrvin 



hind him ! Such is the contrdst, strange tliougli it be, tliat 
histoi')- lias for us. 

Of the system of sLavery itself it oui^lit l.) be said, 
tliat tlius upon the soil as an existir."- social institution 
when in the devolution the counti'v was born, it passed 
over into the new c^overnnient as an established part of 
its organic life. It was incorporated into the constitution 
of the United States by the vote of the fathers' of tluj Re- 
public. It was protected b\' constitutional law, as absolute 
as tliat establishing and preserving the govern iVi en t itself. 
Whatever we may say or think, and however much North and I 

South may both rejoice in the discfppcarancc of the institu- { 

tion now, the historic fact is that North and South founded I 

the system as a part of the social system of these States, .| 

and provided b}^ law for its enforcement and perpetuation I 

by tiie lav.s of Congress. In the North the question was .1 

one of comparative insignificance, becau.se of their small J 

number of slaves, and because of the almost inappreciable j 

effect of tlieir presence upon the industries and social prob- I 

lems of those Comnionv/ealths. In the South it was para- J 

mount, it involved the labor of a section, and in some States | 

the status of n.iore than half the population. By the cli- '| 

mate, b)' the special industries, rice, sugar, cotton, &c., and 1^ 

by the association and habits of two centuries, the almost 
entire activity and destiny of the Southern States as then 
conceived depended on this institution. It was thus that 
it was without dilTiculty and without any visible change of 
circumstances, that Vermont freed, without compensation 
to the owners, the seventeen slaves in her borders; that 
other New England States named future days within their | 

domains, the owners meanwhile sending nearly all their \ 

slaves Southward and selling them in other States before 
the day of emancipation came. These acts of abolition 
were therefore mainly accomplished without any price 
being paid, with cheap sentiments of humanity, and with 
no ripple even upon the tide of the life of their States. 
Small as was the effort and ridiculous the scurijicc, as some 
have called it, even under these conditions, slavery was not I 

i 
f 



TJic Coitcnnial of Incorporation. 537 

finally abolishctl in New York till 1827, in New Jersey till 
1846 and in Connectieul till 1848. So (lee[) was tin: root 
in tJK^ soil tlKit even in New I^i^iand, with its few slaves, 
it lingered fourteen years after Old iMigland had paid twen- 
ty million pounds sterlint^ in iS34to emancipate eif^ht hun- 
dred thousan^d slaves in lier West Indian depcndeneies. 

To the Southern States, where it involved industrial and 
social revolution, it perished in the war between the States, 
not as the object of that strui^ide, but purel}' as an incident, 
when in the latter part of the war it became a measure of 
milifary necessity in tJie invaded States. This is clear from 
President Lincoln's words in his inau<airal, iMarch, 1861 : 
''I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with 
the institution of slavery where it exists. I have no lawful 
right to do so, and 1 liave no inclination to do so." Sena- 
tor Sumner said in the Senate, 25tli Februar)-, l86i : "I 
take this occasion to declare most explicitly that I do not 
think that Congress has any riglit to interfere v/ith slavery 
in any State." 

After the war was begun, 22d July, 1S61, the day after 
the first Manassas was fought, the resolutions of Congress 
declare "that this war is not waged on our part in any 
spirit of oppression or for any purpose of conquest or sub- 
jugation or purpose of overthrowing or interfering with the 
rights of established institutions of tliose (Confederate) 
States, but to defend and maintain the supremac)' of the 
Constitution, arid to preserve the Union with all the dignity, 
equality and rights of the several States unimpaired." 

It is clear from the further fact that slavery was abolished 
not b)' arms or proclamation, but by the constitutional 
amendments in 1S66, up to which time slavery existed in 
Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware. 

In disappearing amid the tumult of v/ar and the exhaus- 
tion of twelve States, crippled b)' long resistance, and the 
waste of invading armies, emancipation came at a time and 
in a way most hard, both for the slave and the owner. It 
afforded the one no means of preparation or adjustment for 
so vast a change, wdiich had previously been enjoyed by the 
68 



538 Jl/'ifj'or Court oiay s Aintnal Rcviciv. 

Northern owner, and to the other it brought confusion, 
anarchi)' and riot as the first experience of liis hberty. 
Add to these the misfortune at the time of the factitious 
rule of the stranger on tlie soil, and the [)oisoning of the 
mind of the new citizen against his former master and 
future employer, and you have a picture of complete dis- 
ruption and disorganization. 

I'hc price of Southern emancipation was costly indeed, 
and beyond measure, not in money alone, but in the over- 
turning of civilized States. Still, through all this terrible 
experience, the normal and abiding forces on the soil have 
finally asserted themselves, and the moral and intellectual 
dominion of the higher race has eventually established 
social order. Sla\ery is gone, and the people are grateful 
that it is so; grateful even in memory of the circumstances 
under which it vrent dovv'n. A great and unspeakable bur- 
den' o{ moral responsibility has been lifted from the mind of 
the master. The State under the free system is more boun- 
tiful in the yield of her great products — the fruit of a quick- 
ened individual energy. There is a growing diversity in her 
industries that betoken? a higher form of material civiliza- 
tion. There is a more widely diffused intelligence among 
her people, and quicker and readier sympathy and concert of 
action. There is more enlightenment of the masses, giving 
to labor in greater degree a skilled hand, and to blind 
muscle direction and purpose. And vv'hile many problems 
remain, problems inuniiic/it 3.r\d fateful, still they are not, in 
my opinion, be}'ond the solution of v/isdom, kindness, mo- 
deration, and the might of our moral manhood. 

It is simple truth to say, that in the half century previ- 
ous to the war between the States, there was a greater bet- 
terment in the condition of Southern slaves than in the con- 
dition of any similar laboring population in the civilized 
world. In this period they were advarxed throughout the 
South to more comfortable homes, and in food, clothing and 
daily medical attendance there had been a vast change from 
the early years Oi the century. Every large plantation, and 
■ every group of small plantations had its christian chapel at 



The Coitouiial of hicorporatioii. 53(j 

the cost of owners, and Southern missionaries, men with the 
faith and hope of the hite i^dfted and eloquent Kisho}) Wil- 
liam Capers, carried the c^ospel to the slaves everywhere 
throughout the South. When tlie end of the institution 
came, amid the crash of shot and the bursting- of liostile 
shells, and sadder to relate, in the glare of burning home- 
steads through hundreds of miles of agricultural regions, 
forty miles wide, where nothing but gaunt chinincys-wcrc 
left as landmarks of this unprecedented warfare on helpless 
women and children, and where the Southern slave popula- 
tion largely outnumbered the white, the broad fact is re- 
vealed that universal consideration and kindness was the 
rule on the part of the slaves for the defenceless women and 
children of the South who were sufferers by this needless act 
of war. 

In .April, 1869. our gifted townsman,"''' in a public address, 
said: "Slavery was something more than a contrivance for 
consolidating labor witli capital ; it was a discipline for both 
races ; a school for the formation of character. As far as 
slavery and our administration of it are amenable to moral 
judgment, it must be judged b}- its influence upon the ma- 
turit}', and not by its impression upon the pupilage of those 
whom God placed under its restraints. The masters as well 
as the slaves, the whites as well as the blacks, learned man)' 
noble lessons in life at this discontinued school. Providence 
a]Kl forecast for dependents, indulgence for the weak, and 
an habitual consciousness of responsibility upon the part of 
those invested with power; the obligation <^{ honor, the 
force of character, the power of self-reliance, the sanctit}' of 
individual rights, the elevation of dignity above gain, of 
worth above w'ealth, were all acquired there, and are char- 
acteristics of which we had a right to be proud, and to 
which we should still tenaciously cling. 

'' It is no reproach to our past to say that it had accom- 
plished its allotted days, and that its dissolution was the 
natural process by which we have emerged into a new and 



*-The Suutli ; an addicsb. by W. L. Treuholm, lOsq. 



540 Mayor Cojtrteiiay s Annual Review. 



larger life. Looking back now upon tlic dead past of the ■ 

Soutli, we need not blusli for it, for its life was vigorous and ; 

fruitful. It is true tliat Ioul^" af-o the world condemned "i 

' ' ^ \ 

slavery, but the world has never known it as uc have known \ 

it, and histor)- will yet do us justice, for it must record how ^ 
difficult its duties were and how faithfully and successfully 

we discharged them. Half a century before the war, when ; 
the slave trade ceased, the South contained less tlian a 
million souls of the African race ; when tlie war occurred 

they had isicreased to upwards of four millions. These four \ 

million descendants of savages were more orderly and moral ^ 

than the sanie class in any civilized country, and they re- / 

main so up to the present moment, notwithstanding the j 

temptations and privations of the war, the license of sudden S 

freedom, and the bad advice of political agitators." .. 

Here, in Charleston, we liave endeavored to recognize ] 

these relations of amity and mutual good offices. Our J 

people can never forget that the negroes within our limits, - 

\fith few exceptions, have borne themselves with singular ^ 
propriety. In recognition of this, among the largest items 

of our public cliarities are appropriations for hospitals, medi- '- 
cal advice, medicines, and provision for old age among 

them ; they share, too, in the discharge of many public | 

duties, and 1 venture nothing in saying that no other sim- I 
ilar aggregate of pojjulatioii is as orderl}^ all the }'ear round 

as the colored people of Charleston have shown themselves - 

to be for several years past. | 

Quoting further from the same address: "It is no new 1 

thing in modern history for a people to live out niore than : 

one phase of civilization. The genius of Eg}'ptian labor, ;; 

the grace of Grecian art, the power of Roman law, the h.onor 1 

of Medi<xW''al chivalry, had, indeed, each in turn, flowered \ 
and passed away, but England, France and Germany have 

perpetually renewed, in changed institutions, the vigor of 4 

their national life, and it is to modern, and not to ancient | 

instances, that we must look for the true type of our own | 

civilization." \ 



The Ctnicniiial of incorporation. 54 1 { 

THE COMIIIOMIS!' MEASliRKS AND TllKIl! IlKPKAl. ' 

THE E\'KNTS I.1':a1)1N(; to disunion— CHAKLl'S'lOX ]N- 

THE WAR. \ 

\ 

lS5()-(!.>. The question of the admission of California ' 

into the Union under a constitution adopted by tlic j.)eoj)le \ 

of that Territor}' in 1S49 pi'ohibitin^^- slavery, revn'ved the \ 

agitation of that excitin.c^ question, and produced in South : 

Caroh'na \\'hat is now known as tlie "Secession niovenient," "^ I 

which, however, did not meet with pubh"c approvah \\\ \ 

the midst of the consideration of Senator Clav's compromise ■ 

measures (1850) looking; to the final settlement of this vexed I 

question, Senator Calhoun died; in Jul\', President Ta)-lor \ 

died and was succeeded by President Fillmore. Later iji \ 

the year Senator Clay's influence prevailed, and the several , 

Acts of compromise were passed b)^ Congress, and the ■. 

whole weip-ht of President Fillmore's administration was i 

[,dven to the support of these Statutes. I 

The expression of popular approval made in the Presi- ^ \ 

dential election of 1852, gave promise of quiet to the whole J 

country; it is a significant fact that both the Democratic f 

and the Whig p:u-ties, at their conventions that )'ear, incor- ■ 

porated in their platforms forfnal declarations of acquies- | 

cence in the Acts of 1850, " as a final settlement in principle j 

and substance of the subjects to which the}' nilate." The .'' 

popular vote cast for Pierce v/as 1,601, .^7.^ ; for Scott, \ 

I,386,578--=2,98S,052 ; in opposition, 155,825 votes were cast J 

for John P. Hale. And so it appears that in November, \ 

1852, ninety-five per cent, of the qualified voters of the 7 

Union confirmed the legislation of 1850, which was intended { 

to end forever the slavery agitation, and y^z'^' /rr f^v<'/. dis- \ 

sented. It was only a short respite — fourteen months after, ^ 

in January, 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, from the \ 
Committee on Territories, undertook and successftdly car- 
ried through- Congress a bill repealing the original IMissouri 
compromise, and sweepirig away as well the great work 
done in 1850. Idiis measure became a law in. 1854, ;uul its 
approval by the Presiden.t roused to intense, excitement the 



TROOrS FURNISHED BY THE CTTV OF CHARLESTON. 

From the receipt of the news of the election of President 
Lincoln, in November, i860, to the surrender and evacua- 
tion of Fort Sumter, r4th April, 1861, the militar)' organ- 
izations of this cit)' comprising tlie Fourth Brigade, South 



i 

S42 Major Courlcnay s AiDiual Rcvieiv. X 

lately dormant anti-slavery elements, culminating in the 
armed Northern settlement of Kansas and Nebraska to pro- 
hibit slavery, and a counter movement by the South, which 
aimed to plant this institution in a region of ice and sncnv 
in winter, at a time when the price of iiegr-o laborers in the 

Cotton States had advanced to extravagant figures. l 

Subsequent events added to the excitement of the times; ': 

notably the startling raid of John Brown, in Virginia ; \ 

the whole country, Noith and South, was profoundly agi- - -^ 

tatcd, and public opinion was reflected in the party convcn- « 

tions of the spring of i860. These need only to be referred '-. 
to here — the disruption and division of the Democratic 

party under the leadership of Douglas and Ih'eckenridgc, \ 

the nomination of Lincoln, the wide-spread alarm through- \ 

out the South, and especially in South Carolina, intensified % 

by Mr. Lincoln's election ; these events are too recent for \ 

comment here. The secession of this State on the 20th of :) 

December, the unexpected event at Fort Moultrie on the | 

26th of December, the firing on the Star of iJic West from | 

Morris Island in January, the bonibardment of Fort Sum- f 

ter in April, the Battle of Manassas in July, and then — \ 

four years of desperate struggle against fearful odds on sea | 

and land. l^^e)'ond any human foresight, a series of unex -i 

pected events which led directly to the grave issue of war 3 

happened in this city, and its subsequent successful and '| 

notable defence for four years has attracted the attention of -3 

military circles all over the world. It is not my purpose to | 

enter into details of those events or of that resistance, but it I 

is proper on this occasion to show what response Charleston \ 

made, not oidy for its own defence, but for the general cause \ 

of the South.. I 



The Ccniciuiial of J}icorporatio)i. 543 

Carolina Militia, were continuously in the service. In fact, 
it was during the early months the only considerable body 
of troo[)s thoroughly organized and disciplined in the Slate. 
It is proper, therefore, to make a record of this conmian(], 
and show the part takei^ subsequently by Charleston in the 
war between the States. 



Brigadier-General James Simons, Conimanding. 

First Rcgiincnt of Rifles. 

Colonel J. Johnstone Petigrfav. Lieutcriant-Colouel J. L. Branch. 
Major Ellison Capers. Adjutant Theodore G. Barker. 

Washington Light Infantry Captnin Charles II. Sinionton. 

Moultrie Guards Captain Barnwell \V. Palmer. 

Gernian Rif.cinen Captain Jacob Small. 

Palmetto Kifiemen Captain Alexander Melchers. 

Meagher Guards Cajjtain Edward McCrady, Jr. 

Carolina Eight Infantry Captain B. Gaillard Pinckney. 

Zouave Cadets Captain Charles E. Chiehester 

^ ScveiitccntJi RcgiiJicnt of Infantry. 

Colonel John CrNLN(;HA%L Lieutenant-Colonel Wm. P. Shin(;lek. 

Major J. Jonathan Ll'Cas. Adjutant Lieut. F. A. Mitchell. 

Charleston Riflemen Captain Josepli Johnson, Jr. 

Irish Volunteers Captain Edward Magrath. 

Cadet Riflemen Cai«tnir, William S. Elliott. 

Montgomery Guards Captain James Conner. 

Union Light Infantry.. Captain David Ramsay. 

German Fusilier.-, Captain Sarnuel Lord, Jr. 

Palmetto Guards Captain Thos. W. Middleton. 

Sumter Guards Captain Henry C. King, 

Emmet Volunteers Captain P. Grace. 

Calhoun Guards . ..Captain John Eraser. 

First Regiment of Artillery. 

Colonel E. 11. Locke. Lieut. -Colonel Wilmot G. I>ESAfSSURE. 

Major loHN A. Waoenek. Adjutant James Simons, Jr. 

Marion Artillery Captain J. Gadsden King. 

Washington Artillery Captain George 11. Walter. 



Fourth Brigade, Sou™ Carolina ]\Iilitia. > \ 



544 Mayor Couytoiay s Ainiua! Rcvic^v. '^ 

h 
i 

LafaycttL' Ailillciy ; . . . .Captain j. J. Pope. j 

Germ;\n Artilk i y— Conipany A Captain C. N..ihr!cn. I 

Company n Captain H. Ilaini>. J 

Cavalry. 

Chark-,ton Ci^-ht Dianouns Captain llciij. Ihi-or Kullc.i<;o. 

German flus-^ars Captain 'I'lu-.Mlr.ie Cnrrlcs. 

RutIeciL;e >.f()unted Rifkanen Captain C. K. llu'^cr. 



Volunteer Cori's ix the Imkio I)i;partment. 

Vigilant Rillcs Captain Samuel ^^ 'J'ui.per. | 

Phieuix Ritlc^ Cainain Peter C. Caillaid. % 

/Etna Rifles Captaii\ E. E. Swoegan. '■- 

Marion Rifles CajUain C. Ij. Sigwald. ; 

. .1 



TROOPS "EOR THE WAR." 

With the occupation of Fort Suniloi in April, 1861, tliere 
came the feehng; tliat we were on tlic threshold of a gi'cat 
war; the militia comj^anics returned to the cit)% and were 
mustered out of their temporary service, raid as the spring; 
advanced into earl}' summer, there could be seen rn archini;, 
to and fro, in our streets, those commands " for the war" in 
their ''Jackets of Grcy'^ who were to enact, on a broader 
field than ever before, the martial fame and glory of South 
Carolina. As the need arose for niore men. other compa- 
nies, battalions and regiments were organized " for the war," 
and so it came that Charlestonditerally sent to the front lier 
last soldier, and contributed to the cause her last dollar. 
On sucli an occasion we must make record, even though 
brief, of that time, so that when it may be said, that here in 
Charleston the civil war originated, it ma)^ also be said that 
Charleston was not wanting in that great emergency, and 
here is the proof. From the best private sources, and with 
no little labor, the following roster o{ Charleston companies 
is presented, and is as nearly accurate as has been possible 
to make it : 



J 

f 

The Ci')iic)i)iial of hicorporation. 545 f 

Chakli:stox Cumtaxiks in 'v\\\^ Armies of tiii:: Con- ^ 

FKDKKATK STATFS— -1 861 -65/''- | 

Wa.sihis'GTO.n' Light Ink.anikv ('I'hico Cumpanies)— \ 

Company A, Hampton Lci^'ion JnfanUy Cajjlain James Conner. ' 

Company A, 25tli Regiment S. C. V Captain J. M. Carson. \ 

Company]], " " " Captain K. W. 1 ,!oycl. ': 

German Arullkry (Tiirce Companies) - j 

Lii^ltt Jiattery r>,f Hampton I.,cgion Captain W. K. I'.aehman., | 

Light Uattcry A Cai>tain F. W. Wagcner, \ 

Liglu Balteiy B Captain F. Melcheis. '" • 

Washington AuriLLERV (Two Companies) — \ 

Light Battery A, Ham{>lon Legion Captain Steplien D. T,ec. 

Light Battery Captain George H. Waller. 

Irish Voluntf.ek^ (Two Companie.-)— "; 

Company K, isl Regiment S. C. V Captain Edward McCrady, Jr. \ 

Company H, 27th " " Captain W. IL Ryan. I 

Palme'ito GrAR]> (Two Companies) — \ 

Company T, 2d Regiment ;^. C. \' Captain G. B. Culhbert. ! 

Light Battery Captain G. L. Buist. \ 

Gist Guard (Two Companies) — - 

Siege Train, Heavy Artillery Captain Charles E. Chichester. : 

ZoijA\'i. Cadi.ts (Volunteers)— \ 

Company H, Hampton Legion Lifantry Captain L. C. McCord. f 

RuTLEn(^E Mounted Riflkmex (Two Companies) — \ 

Troop B, 7th Reg't Soutli Carolina Cavalry. .. .Captain W. L. Trenholm. I 

Troop G, " " " " " ....Captain L.J.Walker. 

\ 

RlCILVRDSGN (,;UAiU).S — ^ I 

Conrpany L i-'^t Regiment S. C. V Captain Chailes H. Axson. / 

Carolina Light Lneantrv — ' 

Company L, 1st Regiment S. C. V Captain C. 1>. Barksdale. % 

Brooks Guard — • f 

Company K, 2d Regiment S. C. V Captain A. }'>. Rhett. | 

l^EE Rifles— 

Company A, 23d Regiment S. C. V Captain L. P. Miller. : 

Chicoka Rifles — I 

Company B, 23d Regiment S. C. \" Captain T. M. Whilden. 

*I have no means of obtaininL^ an accurate and complete roster of ,L;eiK'rn!, field, line and ; 
staff officers fnjrn Ciuirleston in the Confederate service, or of officers anil men in tlie navy, 
and in so impo'tant and delicate a luattcr it would not be proper to attempt an uncertain 
record. This will account for thi- luiiite.: -:.ac:neut. 'j,iviii4 only the companies from the city. 

fr}iis convpany, called the Geriiiaii \'o!anieers, was raised by the German citi/cns of : 

Charleston, mnstercd into service for the war as rin Infantry company, and subsevjnently : 
transferred to the Li^jht Artillery. 

09 



4^ Mayor Courtcnay s Aiuniai Rc7'ii-7U. \ 



Johnson Rim.k;- — 

Coini>any C, 23(1 KrrrinuMU S. C. V Captain M. \'. i;ancr..rt. \ 

Dl'kvf.v r,i:.\uns-^ ' 

Company D, 23(1 Roi^inicnl S. C. V Ca))tain V. O. Muidcn. J 



Marion Rifi,k.s — 
Coinpcauy A, 2_it]i Regiment S. C V Captain C. 15. Sii;\val<L 

Veadon Light Infantkv— 
Company H, 25tli Rcr^inient S. C. \ Captain Lcioy Hammond. 

BEArRKGARI) LlCHT InI-AMRV— 

Comi^any E, 25ih Rtginient S. C. V Captain N. ]'.. ^^a/,Yck. 

Caimdun Cuard— 
Company A, 27ih Regiment S. C. V .Captain F. T. Mile^,. 

Charleston Ligfit Infantry (Two Companies)— 

Company }>, 27ih Regiment S. C. V Ca}>lain TlKjmas Y . Simon-. 

Con)pany K, " " " Caj-tain William Clatkson. 

Union Light Lnfantrv and (German Fl-su.ieks — 
Company E, 27t.h Regiu'ient S. C. V Captain Samuel Lord, Jr. 

Su^rrER Ci'af.ds — 
Company F, 27ih Regiment S. C. \' Cai-»tain Henry C. King. 

Charleston Riflemen— 
Company L -Jth Regiment S. C. V Captain Julius A. RIake, 

Marion Akmllerv — 
Light Battery Captain E. L. Parker. 

Lafayette Artillery — 
Light Battery .CajUain J. T. Kanapaux. 

Brooks Flying Ariillerv — 
Light Battery C^aptain A. ]>urnett Rhett. 

Wagner Artillery' — 
Light Battery Ca^itain C. E. Kanapau.x. 

German Hl'ssars — 
Troop G, 3d Reg't South Carolina Cavalry. . . -Capt. Theo. Cordcs. 

AsiHJ Y Dragoons— 
Troop H, 3d Reg't South Carolina Cavalry. . . .Captain Cieorgc C. Heyward. 

Charleston Light Dragoons — 
Troop K, 4th Reg't South Carolina Cavalry. . . .Captain Benj. linger Rutledge. 

Dixie Rangers — 
Troop B, 5th Reg't South Carolina Cavalry. . . .Captain A. V>. Mulligan. 

South Carolina Rangers — 
Troop T), 5th Reg't South Carolina Cavalry. . . .Captain R. J. JetTords. 

Willi NGTON Rangers — 
Troop G, 5th Reg't South Carolina Cavalry. . . .Captain W. L. Disher. 



TJic Ccitii'iDiial of Iiicorpoyatioii. ' 54/' 

Totnl number of Clhirh.^ston Companies " for the war" : 

1 \i fa n 1 1 y 2 s 

Arli!l-jrv II 

Caval ly S — 42 

There are no means at this lime of slating accurately the 
number of men furnished, but man)' of these company rolls 
sliow one hundred and fifty men, some as high as two huji- 
dred; few less than one hundred; add to these the large 
number \vh>o went as officers and men into the Confederate 
Navy--as general, field,' staff and line officers in the general 
aiiny — many who enlisted in the regular regiments, and 
who formed parts of companies mustered into service fi-om 
other parts of the State, and it is fair to estimate that be- 
tweeii five and six thousand officers and men represented 
Charleston in tlie war between tlie States, and an actual 
enumeration mioht foot up nearer the larger number than 
the smaller for the four years. 

I have no means of knowing accurateh^ what the sacrifice 
was, in killed and wounded, but I know of many companies 
wdiosc records show thirty per cent, and over in killed, and 
large numbers permanently' disabled — *' officers and men, 
they were of the ver\' llower of this old cit\', her young 
hope and fair renown," and it may truthfully be said, that 
Charleston was in mourning from the h^irst Manassas to 
Bcntonville — " at every board a vacant chair'' ! 

" Where some benealli Vir^aaia ImH.s, 
' And some by green Atlantic rills, 
Some by the Nvateis of the West, 
A myriad unknown heroes rest. 

And we can onl}' diinly i^^uess, 
What worlds of all this world's distress, 
What utter woe, despair and dearth, 
Their fate has brought to many a hearth." 

Sad retlections but precioiu> memories centre here, and 
whatever \\'e forget, we cannot forget these things. " That 
is a su.rroidcr no true man v/ould ask. It is a surrender no 
true man would make, for he ci:)uld not make it without 
infamy." 



^UU..]:-f 



54^ * Mayor Courtoiays Auuual Review. 

As of Charleston, so is the record for South Carolina — 
from the wliole State about five hundred companies were 
mustered into the Confederate service, representing^ sixt)- 
thousand men, or twenty per cent, of the white population, ;" 

and one-fifth of these brave men went to their graves, on 1 

crimson fields, in the hospitals, and on the weary wayside— \ 

all this at the bidding of the State. The mists of time which \ 

shrouds all things, is fast destroying the records of those • 

four years, and I ask \\hat is being done to tell the story of I 

those times? Some patriotic citizens have for years been 
working in the Legislature, to have means provided for ' 
securing the rolls of South Carolina soldiers. This has 
partly been done, and the present Adjutant-General is 
most earnest in this good work, and he should have the co- 
operation of the people in every county for its completion. 
But there is a larger and more imperative duty. As far as 
can be obtained, every command should have its history. 
The thousands of oflicial reports relating to South Carolina 
troops now gathered together in W^ashington, should be 
copied and published, and such documents in private hands 
should become the property of the State. This requires 
money, fortunatel}^ in such small sums annually as "not to 
reach the consequence of even an infinitesimal fraction o{ a 
mill; but this item of a few thousand dollars, in every ap- 
propriation bill, would be enhanced in value, if it was made 
the first item by unanimous consent. If it is asked, why 
this expenditure ? I answer, the dead and the living alike 
will be vindicated by placing the truth before their children ; 
all those official records are necessary in the preparation of 
a history of those times — and the State, in whose cause 
these costly -sacrifices have been made, should not measure 
a few dollars, as against the priceless possession of a correct 
historic record of the 1860-65 period. 

A most gifted writer in our State said in 1866: "We 
have a sorrowful history to teach our children. We must 
tell them that, in the pride of a strength and wisdom which 
Vv'e did not possess, we inaugurated a revolution which we 
could not achieve — that, in the unequal strife, our past 



TJic Coiloniial of Licorporaiion, 549 J 

power and our future hopes were alike })roken in blood. 

Our vindication with tliem and in histor)' must be, tli;it we j 

ventured on this terrible issue in an honest, earnest, unques- \ 

i 

tionin^ conviction of the truth, undei- tlie solemn obli^.^ation j 

of our duty to maintain inviolate those [)rinciples of consti- * 

tutional liberty which we inherited, and that it was no un- 
worthy effort which, at the close of such a war, had cleared 
our great defeat from shame, and given dignity to our dis- 
aster." Nearly two decades have passed since ; for two- 
tliirds of that time. South Carolina vv'as "the ])rr)strate : 

i 

State" under bayonet and corrupt rule; more recently a •: 

new government controls, and it should be their high privi- ■ 

lege and sacred dut)- to so legislate as to supply so keenly 

felt a public want as SoUTM Carolixa's War RECORDS : 

i86c^6$. 



CIIAIllESTOX'S HOME DEFENCE. ] 

ARMORED SHIPS— RIFLED CANNON— PROJECTILES— SUHMA- r 

RINE TORPEDOES— BLOCKADE RUNNING. ' 

Armored Vessels of War. — While it is not possible to \ 

enter into general details of Charleston's part in the war, \ 

there are some local matters that should have record here. ; 

Armor-plated ships of war are now afloat under the flags | 

of mariy nations, but I think the first thought of the modern \ 

iron armor now in use originated in Charleston, with the | 

late Col. C. H. Stevens, Twenty-fourth South Carolina Vol- \ 

untecrs, who as a private citizen, in January, 1861, began i 
the erection of an iron armored battery of two guns on 

Morris Island, built with heav}' yellow pine tim^ber of great • 

solidity at an angle of ^&\ and faced with bars of railroad ' 
iron. This batter)- participated in the bonibardment of 
Fort Sumter in April, and as a first experiment proved 
successful. 

When the Norfolk navy yard fell into the possession of 

the Confederate government, later in that year, this armor- ; 



) Mh 



550 Mayor Court ciiay s Annual IxcvicuK 

plating of Col. Stevens was applied, for the Hrst time with 
modifications to suit naval j)uri)oses, t(j the hull of the 
frigate Mcrriinac ; and the encounter betwt-en this first 
Confederate armored ship and the turreted '' Monilor^' the 
first United States armored ship in Hampton Roads, on the 
9th o[ iMarch, 1863, was the first naval duel in the world 
between such vessels, I state this to show that the thought 
originated here, and with feeble mechanical resources and 
ver\' limited materials, it was within a very {izw months 
successfully developed here. h^arl\- in 1862, was begun b)- 
the Confederate government, tlie first of four iron-clad 
vessels built in this h.arbor. The design adopted was 
simply to cover the gun-deck with an iron shield at an angle 
of about 32^. 

This first ship was constructed under the direction of 
Commodore D. N. 1 nrraham, and other officers in the various 
departments of the navy. During the carl}' weeks of this 
construction the question was frequently asked, xA\y does 
the government build only one armored ship? and there 
v.-as great restlessness throughout the community, and a 
general agitation for more ships. It v/as thought in official 
circles that the mechanical skill, material and supplies 
would not be more than enough for one ship at a time at 
Charleston. 

Tlie general public opinion was, that if three or four 
armored ships cou.ld be put afloat, tlie blockading fleet could 
be kept away from the immediate entrance of the harbor, 
and Charleston would be practically an open port. This 
public opinion was finally recc)gnized, and Mr. James M. 
Eason,two months after the keel of the armored ship " Pal- 
vielto State'' had been laid by the Confederate government, 
was entrusted by the State of South Carolina with the build- 
in"" of the second armored ship under the authoritv of an Act 

fc> . i. 

of the General Assembly "appropriating $300,000 for con- 
structing marine batteries." This keel was laid in the rear 
of the Postoffice in IMarch, 1862; one hundred and fifty feet 
long, thirty-five feet beam, and tv/elve feet depth of hold ; 
the armor coiisisted of two layers of two inch iron-i)lating 



The Cnilcuuid! of Incorporation. 551 

secured to backiiii^ of lieavy timber; every prirt of llie luill 
for five feet below tlie draupjlit. line was so plated, .iiul 
heavily timbered inside. She was i.)ropened b}' an cii^^n'rie 
tliirty ineh diainetei' of C)dinder, twenty-six inch stroke, ; 

dri\-in<^^ an eight foot propeller wlieehand about five lumdred •' 

and fift)' tons of iron |)lates were v\<^c<\ ; her armanent con- 
sisted of two smooth bored guns for round shot and shell, • 
and four 32-pounders /^^7;/^A7/ and rijlcd. She was launched * 
five montlis after the keel \\'as laid, in August, 1862, and was ' \ 
comnn'ssioned and commanded by Capt. Tucker, Confed- ( 
crate States Xa\'\', and named the Chicora. As an evidence ; 
of tlie difficrdties encountered in these times, I quote from \ 
a letter written by Mr. Eason to the Secretary of tlie Con- 
federate Navy of date 25th June, 1S62: 

" I will finisli my contract in advance if I can obtain tfie \ 

iron-platiiig ; I am without one bar to work ovx, and beg to \ 

impress un \'ou rhe importance of at once ordering me \ 

supplies froni the mills. Mr. Porter told me there was a f 

lot in lvichnH)nd which could be sent me. The Tredci/ar \ 

Iron Works promised to send me some bolt iron if trans- \ 

portation could be furiiished. Way I ask the aid of your \ 
department, &:c." As eviden.ce of the earnestness of Mr. 

Eason's efforts I publish here a letter from the Confederate % 

States Navy constructor: \ 

" Charleston, June 20th, iS62. \ 

Sir — IL affords me pica-urc !o .slate ihal the iron-clad gun-hoat and ram "; 

wdiicli you arc now building \K.n- the State Commission of Soutli Carolina, aftev '.' 

drawings and specillcations made by myself, is a good jol) in all lespects, and \ 

of the very best mateiia!. She will compare with the very best of thc^e vessels^ ;; 

in all respects, and will afford great protection to the harbor of Charleston when ' 

completed. The work has progressed with great ra/idity, and is in advance of ; 

the two boats of the same cla>s now being built at Wilmington. N. C, also tlie \ 

one being built for the Confederate States Navy at this place. The Savannah | 

boat I have not yet visitetl. 

T was much jri-aiified al the a[)pearai^.ce of things about the sliip-yard, and the 
spirit vvilh which everything seemed to move, and can only hope you w ill soon 
finish lier. Yours, respectfully, 

(Signed) JNO. L. PORTER. 

C. S. A^. CoJisfnd/ar. 
J. M. Eason, Esq., Su/l Gtm-boaty 



55- Jl/ayor Courtcnay s Afiinia/ Kn'/cw. 

The official action of the "State Mariiie Hattciy Commis- 
sion " later in tlu: year, sliows the ]"iic>;]i appreciation in wliich 
Mr. Mason's mechanical skill and indomitable energy was 
held, by such citizens as ]\lessrs. G. A. Trenholm, C. I\I. Fur- 
man, \V. C, Courtney, J. K. Sass and \V. B. JJeriot, who had 
been elected by the Legislature for this duty. 

"State Mai;ixk BATrKi;Y Commissjox, } 
Columbia, S. C, 2>){]\ Novenibci, 1S62. ) 

At a rnccling of tlic Covmrii^siou hold tliis day al llie ]'>auk of Charleston, the 
following rL'6ol\iLi(ms were unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Commission are justly due, and are heiebv 
cordially tendered to Mr. J. M. Eason, for the promptitude with wliiih he 
undertook the superintendence of the construction of tlic iron-clad gun-boat 
*' Chlcora^' and the skill, cneigy and perseverinn- industry manifc->ted by him 
from the conimencement to the completion of tlie work, by which great economy 
lias been secured, and the \s ork accompli.>l!ed for the moderate sum ofc^203,Sg2.O2. 

Resolved, That tlie sun\ of three tliousand dollars be tendered to Mr. I-'.ason 
by our Ch.airman, as not more than a just compen>ation for the sacrifice of his 
private interests while attending to this important public work. 

ICxtract from the Minutes. ^ 

(Signed) WILLIAM B. IIERIOT, 

Sccrc/djy." 

"CoLtrMKlA, S. C, 1st December, 1S62. 
My Dj-.ar Sir — It atTords me great pleasure to hand you the enclosed resolu- 
tions, adopted by the State ALarine Battery Commissioners, with a clieck on the 
Bank of the State of South Carolina for ^^3,000. 

1 know that to you the pecuniary consideration is of sniall moment, compared 
with the consciousnes. of having merited the approbation of those with wdiom 
you have been associated. 

For my own part, I do not hesitate to say that it is youf energy and devotion 
to duty that Charlestoti is indebted to the means of defenee, v/hich I am sure will 
prove in the hour of need of incalculable importance. 
Assuring you of my high esteem and regard, I remain, 

Yours, sincerely, 
(Signed) J. K. SASS, Chairman. 

J. M. Eason, Esq." 

Mr. Eason, having a complete organization of workmen, 
and having denionstrated his ability in this new ship-btiild- 
in«", was commissioned to construct a larger vessel, and the 
keel of the " CJiarleston'' was laid, one hundred and eighty 



Tlic Ccntouiial of Iiicorporaiioii. 55^ ^ 

i 

feet long, tliirty-six feet bedni an J twelve and one-half feet ' 

depth of hold; propelled b)' an engine tliirty-six incli 

diameter of C)dinder, and eight and one-half foot wheel. Six 

hundred tons of iron i^lates \N'ei'e re(]uirod to armor her. The \ 

engine and l)oiler of this vessel weie bmlt entirel)' at Messrs. ' 

Eason's shops in Charlest<')n. She was l.innehed, and proved 

to be a splendid ship. Idie fourth shi]) was built by the 

Navy Department under contract for the hull b)' Mr. V. j\T. \ 

Jones and the |)!ating b}' ^Messrs. Eason, but had not l)een 

entirely completed when Charleston was evacuated, and fcdl 

into tlie hands oi the United States authorities. Wy order \ 

of the Confederate military commander the iron-clads ''Pal- \ 

iiu'tto State r "'Chiiora^' and ''Charlcstouy were bloun up and \ 

sunk at their anchorage in Cooper River — a sad and melan- \ 

choly spectcicle for those leaving th.e cit)- in h\?bruai'y, 1865. 

R]LL]:]J CanX(jn — Pl;<)Jl::c'riLES. — Jvifled cannon are a : 

comparatively recent invention. After the Criinccm war, 
Napoleon 111 rifled his bronze field guns, and the new 
pieces exhibited great nierit at Magenta and .Solferino in i 

1859, -''^^ ^^^'^^ '^ ^"^'"^^ only a year before our \var that rifled 5 

field cruns were used in battle. The United States fjovern- \ 

ment adov)ted what was known as the NaDoleon c^un, and i 

some of our city h'ght batteries had guns of this character 
when the State seceded, but we find no record of large rifled 
guns in an}" of the forts or shiips of the United States. The , 

armanient of Fort Sumter, which was delivered there in \ 

i860, the latest equipped fort in the United States, had \ 

nothing but smooth bore guns. Just.previous to the attack \ 

on Fort Sumter in 1861, there was received in Charleston, 
as a gift from ivlr. C. K. Prioleau, then residing in Liver- 
pool, a small English rifled gun, known as a " Whitworth ; 
patent," and a few bolts. ■ 

Rifled cannon were so rare at that date that much im- 
portance was attached to this little gun, and as no suppl\' of 
shot liad come v/ith it. these novel projectiles had to be 
hastily supplied, and during the two cays bombardment, 
four hundred of these new projectiles were delivered from 
70 



554 Mayor Court cvay s Aiuiual Review. 

Messrs. Eason's founchy for use with tin's gun. Soon after 
the evacuation of h^ort Sumter, Messrs. JCason prepared 
machiiiery and bei^un to riiie a t\v'cnty-rour-|)ound(n" smooth 
bore on the 24th A})ril for the State of Soutli Carob'na. one 
of a number of smo(jth bore i^uns purchased from the Trede- 
gar Works, Richmond, in 1850. From the time-book I find 
the names of the following machinists doing this work, viz: 
" Lamble, Sigwald, ]\irse, h^rieze, Beaufort, Due, Mustard, 
Petsch and Duncan." This gun was mounted on a carriage 
and taken on the South Carolina Railroad, to near Summer- 
ville, for a test, under the auspices of Major Manigault, 
Ordnance Officer of the State, and Professors P. Y . Stevens 
and E. Capers of the Citadel Academy, on the 6th and 8th 
of June, 1 86 1. As far as could be ascertained, the gun 
promised to be successful. Subsequent experiments were 
made, niobtly with different kinds of projectiles weighing 
from thirt\'-tliree to fifty-six pounds; this gun burst after 
about one hundred sliots had been fired. The result of this 
experiment led to shiinking wrought iron bands around the 
breach, and so entirely successful were tliese, that rifling and 
banding smooth bore guns of the largest sizes in the liarbor 
and elsewhere Vv'as undertaken and successfully accomplished. 
Subsequently, machinery was contrived in Charleston by 
Messrs. Eason which could be moved and used to rifle can- 
non in position at distant points. These proved to be long 
range guns of wonderful accuracy and force. 

SU]5MARiNE Torpedoes.''^ — The germ of the device of sub- 
aqueous explosions is to be found in floating powder-ves- 
sels, first used at the siege of Antwerp in 1585, and renewed 
at Fort Fisher in 1865 ; so that it is not in any sense a new 
weapon in war. The destruction of the docks at Sebastopol 
by the French engineers in 1855, using electricit)' to fire the 
mines, attracted to this subject universal attention in Europe 
and this country. 

The P'^ederal fleet found torpedoes of the simple contact 
class in Mud River, near P^ort Pulaski, in P^ebruary, 1862, 

*The lace St. Juliciv Kavencl, M. D.. and Mr. Thco. D. Stoncy, initialed 
and developed the>e weapons. 



The Coiiciminl of Jncorporation. 555 

hut tlic service was not fornKilly legalized by the Confederate 
Congress un.til (.)ctol)er of tliat year, when a Torpedo 
]>nrean w.'is established at Richmond ; a special cor[)s of 
ofllcers and men was ra'ised and trained for submarine war- 
fare, and great destruction was caused by them in the last 
two years of the war; seven United States iron-clads, eleven 
wooden war vessels, and six army transports were destroyed 
by torpedoes, and many others temporarily disabled. 

The service in Charleston harbor, with the n.ovel' boats 
in use, v\'as of tlie most desperate character; officers and 
crews staking their lives in every attempt. We have iio 
space for more than a brief m.ention of the fact tliat three or 
four crews successiveh' lost their lives in experiments b)'the 
sinking of torpedo boats, and yet volunteer crews were ever 
ready to step aboard these strange craft to renew these efforts. 

Two attempts were made to blow up the new Irojisidcs, 
one with an impro\'ised torpedo boat, fitted out by iAIajor 
F. D. Lee, Captain Carlin commanding, with the usual crew, 
and Lieuteiiant Tickling with eigiit men from Companies 
C, D and F, First Regiment S. C. R. A., volunteering to go 
with rifles to guard against an attack by Federal naval 
barges. The boat proved to be in ver}- bad order, and bad 
to be bailed with buckets to keep her afloat ; nevertheless, 
she attempted the tasl:. Upon nearing, the new Ironsides 
she was found swinging on the turn of the tide, and the 
blow ainncd at her did not take effect. The spar became 
entangled in the anchor chains of the Ironsides, and while 
getting disengaged they were discovered, and made off, and 
this attempt failed. 

Later in the year the torpedo steamer David, built in 
Charleston, with a crew of four volunteers, viz: Lieutenant 
W. T. Glassel, J. H. Toombs, chief engineer, and James Sul- 
livan, fireman of the gun-boat C/iieora, with J. \V. Cannon, 
assistant pilot of the gun-boat Palmetto State, left South 
Atlantic Wharf between 6 and 7 P. M. October 7th, 1S63. 
The weather being dark and hazy, favored the enterprise. 
The boat \\'\\\\ its gallant crew proceeded down the harbor 
until nearly opposite the new Ironsides, when the command 



53^^ ^idyor Courtciiay s Aiirntal Rcuiczv. 

was given, and she was aimed directly for the ship. The | 

next moment they struck the Ironsides and ex])lodcd the 
torpedo fifteen feet from tlie keel on the starboard side. 
An immense volume of water was thrown up, covering- the \ 

little boat, and goinc^ down through the smoke stack, enter- \ 

ing the furnace, and extinguishing the fire. J 

Glassel and Toombs jumped overboard to avoid tlie liail 
of shot and shell which were directed at the little boat, and 
swam to the chains of the Ironsides, where they were made 
prisoners. 

Sullivan and Cannon remained in the boat and succeeded 
in re-lighting tlie fires, and ran the gauntlet of the monitors, 
reaching the cit\' in safet}'. The /;'iVj.v;V/rj never fired a shot 
after tliis aiTair, being permanently disabled. 

In Februar)', 1864, the iron-clad Ilousatoiiic was sunk by a 
torpedo boat twent}"~five feet long, shaped like a segar ; built 
of iron boiler plate and provided with a screw wheel; slie 
had no smoke stack, and her deck was flush with the v/ater; 
projecting from her bow Vv'as a fifteen foot spar, with an • 

electric torpedo containing a charge of two hundred pounds j 

of powder. 1 he little vessel, under Lieut. Dixon, of ]Mo- ,^ 

bile, attacked \.\\c Ilousafonic ; the explosion was something l 

awful, a hole was made in the big ship through which one '\ 

could have led a horse, and the men on her decks were, in I 

some cases hurled fift}' feet, and in others lifted fifteen feet 1 

high; the largest guns were thrown off tlicir carriages and 
beams twelve inches thick were broken off, and in two min- j 

utes the Ilousatoiiic was at the bottom of the sea, and the | 

torpedo boat out of sight. 1 

I, have only made brief and partial reference to a few of ! 

these noted achievements of our people in their great strug- 
gle. 1 have shown that with small mechanical appliances, i 
with meagre supplies and under every conceivable disability, 
an armor plated battel y was used as early as 1861 — that in 
1862 v/e put af!o:it armored ships with smooth bore guns, 
rifled and l)a!idcd — that we largel}' changed the armaments 
of our fnrts and batteri(^s, b\' ritling and banding the newest 
<TUns o\ \\\v. United Statc-s in use in 1860— that we perfected 



The Coitoinial of [jicorporatioii. 557 

projectiles for tliesc new c;uns, that were effective, to Ihc 
sinking of monitors---th<'it in 1863 we built torpedo boats 
of novel construction, and equip])ed and used them with ; 

tremendous effect — and so "rc-it was the dread of our tor- j 

pcdocs that the Federal navy never tested those tliat i^uard- ; 
ed the inner harbor, even after Fort Suniter ceased to be nn 

artiller)^ post. I 

l\Iy space forbids all details, but it is due not only to the ' 
inventive genius of our people, but to their mechanical skill 
and readiness that, although isolated from tlie outside v/orld 
they achieved results not unw^orthy oi communities with 

ample resources and unlimited mechanical appliances. { 

Blockade Ruxxing.— A prominent feature of the war \ 

perioci was tlie extensive export and import business con- \ 

ducted in defiance of the blockade squadron. These ven- i 

tures involved large investments of capital, and required t 

skill, courage and tlie best seamanship for success. In a i 

publication made some years ago upon information furnish- \ 

ed by IMajor Willis to a prominent Western journal, it was \ 

stated that between two hundred and two hundred and ? 

fifty "runners" were engaged in this service at Charleston ; 

and Georgetown, S. C, Wilmington and Smithville, N. C, \ 

Savannah, Ga., and Galveston, Texas. • 

The first outward carijo sent from Charleston throucfh the \ 

blockade, was the steaniship ''Ella \Varlc]\' formerl)- the \ 

''Isabel^' with a full cargo of cotton to Nassau, and the first j 

inward cargo was by her return voyage. This venture was \ 

made by ^Messrs. John Fraser & Co., and its success demon- j 

strated the possibility of sending out cotton, to pay for 1 

arms, ammunition and general supplies. ' j 

l^elow^ is given, as far as ascertainable, the name of every ! 

vessel which ran in or out of Charleston, together with the .^ 

name of the ca'ptain and owner. From this li^t it will be ; 
seen that riu immense capital was invested in the business, 

and to what an extent the Corifederacy was benefitted : ; 

Names. Ow.ners. Q..\vx\\\^. \ 

Steamer Clonlon J. Frci^or lS: C"o T. J. Lockuood. \ 

Steamer Antonica : J. Fiasei c\: Co L. M. Co.\cUer. 



55^^ ^fiiyor Courlciiny s A}nnial Rn'irzv 



Na.MKS, OwN-KRS. ("AI-rMNs. 

Steamer Mar,o;riret ond Je.-sie J. Fraser v's: Co K.W.l.ockwfxid 

Steamer Pet A.R.ChisolnuK; otlievs. Foley. 



1 

i 

Sleamei Caly^iso Consolidated Co. , . . r>lack. | 

Steamer Elki and Annie l!ee Company Carlin. l 

Steamer General Moultrie .Ravenel <S: Co H. Tillon. f 

Steamer Flattie -. .Collie ."v Co II. S. Fel.hy. | 

Steamer Fox ..J. l^raser ^^ Co Fr^wn. I 

Steamer F.avlger J. Fraser <!v: Co. ...,..!). AL'rlin. I 

Steamer Leopard J. Fra^c;^ & Co Peck. '< 

Steamer Lynx J. Fraser & Co E. C. Reid. -| 

Steamer Presto J. F^iaNer &• Co J. I lor-ej-. 

Steamer Sumter J. Fra>er cV Co E. C. Reid. 

vSteamer Rattlesriake W. G. Crenshaw ^''zini. 

Steamer Wm. Lamb J. Fraser & Co T. J. Lockwfiod. 

Steamer Hope j . Fraser &; Co Wm. Hammer. 

Steamer Ruby Collie Company A. S\vaj;ey. , 

Steamer Let Her IJe, Chicora Company . . . . H. HoF^atc. , 

vSteamer Let FL^r Rip Chicora Couipany. . . . A. O. Stone. 

Steamer Republic J. Fraser & Co F. M. FLirris. 

Steamer Nina Ravenel & Co Relyea. 

Steamer Emily Bee Company E^an. 

Steamer Isabel J. I raser <S: Co , . A. Swase} . 

Steamer Elizabeth J. Fraser & Co T.J.Lockwood. ; 

Steamer Juno C. S. CJovcrnment . . .Porcher. 

Steamer General \Vliiting. Consolidated Co S. Adkins. 

Steamer Syren Cobia vV Co J. Johnson. 

Steamer Nashville J. Fraser lV Co Pegram. 

Steamer Theodora J. Fraser cK: Co MatYetl. 

Steamer Kate J. Fraser & Co T.J. Lockwood. 

Steamer Beauregard J. Frcser & Co H. Flolgate. 

Steamer Fanny Bee Company D Dunning. 

Steamer Alice Bee Company Kennedy. 

Steamer Caroline Bee Company C. Barkley. 

Steamer Dream Collie Company Lockwood. 

Steamer Secret Collie Company L Davis. 



Steamer Druid Palmetto Company. . . H. Tilton. | 



Steamer Emma Hutchin. 

Steamer Raccoon J. Fraser 6c Co .F. >L Harris. 

Steamer Ban>hee Collie & Co Speed. 

Steamer Herald ; Collie & Co Randall. | 

Steamer Maryland Combs. 

Steamer Fi^nnie T. Moore. 

Steamer Brittanic Zachison. 

Steamer Stonewall Jackson Peck. 

Steamer Thistle ^^ ■ Murray. 

Steamer Julia Cobia Company Swan. 

Steamer Gem Col;iu Company J. Johnson. 



TJte Ccnloniial of hicorporatioii. 559 



Xamus. Ownkks. CaI'TAIN^. 

Slt-anior I'litice All^ert • 

Slc.inicr Lillian ; I). Mailiu. ? 

Sltaiuor Columbia l[utchiasui\. \ 

Slc.i.mer Co^uelte. Coombs. ; 

Steamer Dii^ Scotia Swan. 

Steamer Little Scotia Swoii. \ 

Steamer Little liattie ? 

Steamer Gei\eral Clinch Miupliy. ■- 

Steamer Cetile Carlin. ' \ 

Steamer Stag ]). Vincent. _ ; 

Steamer Pearl . ^ 

Steamer Florine ■■ 

Steamer Stono 

Steamer N imoo 

Sleamer Owl C. S. G. W Maflett. ;. 

Steamer Little Ada I 

Steam.er Jtipiter - | 

Steamer Falcon \ 

Sailing Ship Emily St. l^ierre J. I'^r.i.ser cK: Co Wilson. \ 

Bark Eclio, l:nowri as jelf L)avis Hall ^ Co Co.xetler. ;. 

Bark Etiwan J. Eraser & Co J. Ste})hen.s, \ 

Brig West LvJian Aruot. \ 

Schooner Be.a; regard Hayes. i 

Schooner Sallie Lebby. \ 

Schooner E. Waterman IrLiwes. ■ ^ 

Schooner Savannah •. . . . C. S. Brivateer. ...... iJaker. 

Schooner L^ixie T, Moore. 

Schooner Major E. Willis W. M. Hale W. M. ILale. , 

Schooner Kent W.M.Hale W. M. Hale. ] 

Scliooner Ben \ 

Schooner I'almetto A. Swasey. ; 

Schooner J. W. Lad.-jn ^Tordecai ,K- Co Stone. \ 

Schooner Etiwan . . .L Hertz & Co.. ..... .A. O. Stone. ' 

Sloop Swallow Adams «!\: Willis C. Gould. 1 

Pilot Boat Petrel Perry and otliers ..... Perry. 

Pilot Boat Charle.^ton W^m. Hone Wm. Hone. 

Pilot Boat Chicora, afterwards Chace 

Pilot Boat Lei tch 

Pilot Boat Pride Street & West T. Bennett. 

Total 67 steamers and 21 sailing vessels — 8S. 

The fate of the iarc^e proportion of these vessels may be in- 
ferred. Some succumbed to the perils of the deep, some 
were run asliore and wrecked to avoid capture, some became 
prizes to the Federal fleet. It will be seen that some of the 
vessels ran into four different ports, and it may be added that 



5<JO Mtijor Courtciiay s Aiiuual Review. | 

a numbtT of them made from six to eic^hteen vo)'a;.;e.s. It 
was \?A-{^ tliat a craft was capturecl on ho' first vo}'ac^es, and 
it could be prett)' safely lli^iired that she woidd m.il-:e two 
tri[)s and this gcnerall}' paid for her cost and voyage ex- 
penses and left a handsome sum in addition. 

Among many daring and successful exploits was that of 

the steamship Siiuitcr, ('apt. E. C. Rcid, with a cargo, con- X 

sisting of two Blakely guns, each weighing, with their carri- 1 
ages, &c., thirt)'-eight tons — these, with two hundred rounds - '{ 

of ammunition, was all she had aboard- -th.e length o{ the \ 

guns necessitated their being loaded in an upright position \ 

in the hatchwa\'s, for a vo\'age across the Atlantic, and the -1 

steamer at sea had the a[)pcarance of having three smoke 3 

stacks. Capt. Reid boldly ran her, in broad da\'light, through ' 
the fleet, into W'ilinington, N. C, despite a shower of shot 

and shell. These two guns \\<::.\-^ presented to tlie Confetler- | 

ate governnient b\' Messrs. John Fraser & Co. One of these \ 

enormous guns was mounted at White Point Garden, and 4 

was never near enough to the enemy to be. fired. In Feb- i 

ruary, 1S65, at the evacuation of the city, it was burst, to :| 

prevent its falling into the hands of the Federal arm\', and | 

tills explosion damaged some of the surrounding property. ^ 
A fragment of this gun, weigliing five hundred pounds, is ■ X 

lodged now in the rafters of the roof of Gen. Siegling's resi- ^ 

dence on East Battery. | 

The Marge, ret cuul Jessie, Capt. Iv. W. Eockwood, was one i 

of the most successful "runners" of the war and paid her "^^ 

owners ten times over. One niglit in I\Lay, 1863, having a | 

very valuable cargo of arms and munitions sadly needed by .i 

the Confederacy, she laid a straight course for Charleston. 1 

There were five Federal blockade rs off the bar and the '^ 

ni<:dit was fine. The steamer ran straight in for the fleet, | 
and as soon as her character was known every blockader 
opened fire. It was estimated that one hundred and fifty 
shots w^ere fired, some from a distance of less than two 

hundred feet, and yet strange to say the steamer got into ^ 

port without having a man wounded. She was struck in ■ 
five or six places, but with no serious results. 



TJic Ccutouiial of Iiuoyporalion. 



56, 



On the iilh of November, of the s<imc year, the JA//;^'??;-;/ 
and j cssii' ■A^\.<i]\\\A<:.<\ tlie same bold dod^^e at \\'ilmiii;.'lo)i. 
She was here V^eset by three bh.'ckaders, shot t]irr)U5.di both 
wheels and hit in a dozen other spots, hut manaj.K-d to turn 
about and ^et to sea and lead five Federal vessels a chase 
of twenty hours before she was com|)elled to surrc-nder. 
. The steamer Ilatfic, Capt. II. S. Lebby, was the last runner 
in or out of Charleston. She was a small vessel, Clyde-b'uilt, 
lurnished with powerful enc^ines, and she made more trips 
than any other vessel engaged in the business. I ask'ed men 
in Charleston who knew all about her to estimate the value 
of the cargoes taken out and brought in by this one vessel, 
and their figures were enormous. On severed occasions she 
brought such munitions of war as the Confederacy was in 
pressing need of, and at least three battles were fought 
vv'itli munitions for which the Confederates liad waited, and 
which she landed safely in tlieir hands. Plot after plot was 
formed at Nassau to get hold of the llaitic, but none of 
them were succcssfud. She slipped in and out like a ])han- 
torn, taking the most desperate risks and being attended by 
a spirit of good luck quite extraordinary. 

The last entrance of tlie flattie into Charleston occurred 
one night in February, 1865. The Confederacy was then 
in extremis, and the Federal fleet off Charleston number- 
ed eighteen oi' twenty sail. It was a starliglu night and 
at an early hour that the Ifottie crept forwcird among the 
fleet. She had been freshly painted a blue white, her hres 
made no smoke and not a light was permitted to shine on 
board. With her engines moving slowly, she let the wind 
drive her forvrard. There were eight or ten vessels outside 
the bar, and a.s many within. Those outside were success- 
fully passed without an alarm being raised. The Ilattie 
ran within three hundred feet of two different blockaders 
without her presence being detected. To the naked eye of 
the look-outs she must have seemed a haze or mist moving 
slowly along. 

ddie little steamer was quietly approaching the inner line 
of blockaders when a suddeii fire was opened on her from a 
71 



:| : " C'- J. 



5^^2 Mayor Coiirlcuay s Aiuiual Rnnci^', 

gun-boat not two lumdred feet distant, and the air was at 
the same time filled with rockets to announce tlie runner's 
presence. At that time the h\.'derals had the whole (.if 
Morris Island, and Fort Sumter had been so battered to 
pieces that monitors took up tlieir stations almost within 
pistol-shot of it. As soon as the liatiic was discovered she 
was L^iven all steam and headed straight for the channel. 
She ran a terrible gauntlet of shot and shell for teii nfinutes. 
but escaped untouched. Then came the real peril. Just 
below^ Sumter, in. the narrowest part of the channel, the 
I'lattic encountered two barge loads o{ men stationed there 
on picket. Her extraordinary speed saved her from being 
boarded, but the x'olleys fired after lier wounded two or 
three men and cut three fingers off the hand of the pilot 
holding the spokes of the wheel. 

Two hundred yards ahead lay a nnonitor, and she at once 
opened fire and kept her guns going as long as the liattic 
could be seen, but not a missile struck. This was marvel- 
ous, considering that- the steamer ran so close that she could 
hear the orders given on the monitor. 

Charleston was being bombarded, many of the business 
houses closed, and all could see that the end was drawing 
near. The Hattic was in as m.uch danger lying at the wharf 
as she would be outside, and a cargo was made up for her 
as quickly as possible and she was made ready for her last 
trip. Just before dark the sentinels on Fort Sumter counted 
twent\'-six F'ederal blockaders off Charleston harbor, and yet 
the Hattic coolly made her preparations to run out. Just 
before midnight, v/ith a starlight' night and a smooth sea, 
the lucky little craft picked her way through all that fleet 
without being hailed or a gun fired, and she was lying at 
Nassau when the news- of Lee's surrender v/as received. 

The following gives an idea of the magnitude of the busi- 
ness, and a glimpse at the reckless and wasteful manner of 
living in those times: 

" I never expect to see such flush times again in my life," 
said the captain of a successful blockader-runner in speaking 
of Nassau. '' Money was almost as plenty as dirt. 1 have 



IJic Ctiiiciiuial of hicorporo.f'uvi. 563 

seen a m.'in toss up twcnt)' dollar i2;oUl- pieces on ' ln:<id or 
tail,' and it would be followed by a sccjre of the ' yellow-bo^-s ' 
in five seconds. Tliere were times wIumi the bank vaults 
^vould not hold all the i^old, and the coins were dumped 
down by the bushel and guarded by soldiers. Men waii^ered, 
gambled, drank and seemed craz\' to get rid of their mc>ne)'. 
i once saw two captains put up five hundred dollars each on 

the length of a certain porch. Again 1 saw a wager of (^ight i 
hundred dollars a side as to how mau)^ would beat the din- ^ \ 
ner table of a certain hotel." The Confederates were pa\'-- ' i 

ing the English importers and jobbers at Nassau large prices \ 

for goods, but these figures of cost were multiplied enor- \ 

mousl}' in the Confederacy. The price of cotton was not \ 

increased in the same ratio, and this large difference in val- \ 

ues between imports and exports gave the enormous profits, '• 

which induced these ventures. Ten dollars invested in qui- \ 

nine in Nassau would bring froni four lumdred dollars to six ■ : 

hundred dollars in Charleston. It was come easy go eas}-. -. 

As an item of curiosity, indicating tlie prices of imported \ 

goods in Confederate currency, I cop\' the following bill of \ 

purchases from a blockading company : * { 

\ 

Major E- Willis .• • ) 

To HENRY COiUA Oc CO., Dr. \ 

1863. . \ 

October 15. For 1 Box (K) containing 400 doz. Coato' Spool ': 

Cotton, ^n; $12 /'2 per do/ -5 5,000.00 \ 

" 17 Rolls Sole Leather, H. E., W'g 3204 lb>,, \ 

@ %^]'i P^'i" 11^ 29,637 .00 \ 

" 5 Rolls Sole Leather, n(\V)C. W'g 575>2 lbs., '■■ 

(gi^Qj+perlb 5.323.37 

" 4 Cases Foolscap Paper, II(^\\')C, 50 reams ; 

each— 200 reams, @, $72 14,400.00 \ 

" I Case Yellow Envelopes (II F) No. 46, 100 M. _) 

Envelopes, QJ), §40 4,ooo.{k) ? 

" 3 Cases Steel Pens, II(\V)C, No. 405 507, 5(X) 

gross each — ^'1500 grc.^-^s, (r^- .^S.5f) l2,75').c>o 

*' 6 Gross in case, iS Handles, QV/ $35 630. <k) 

" 40 \)oz. Spades (\V), (T/) .f^iSo per do/ 7,200.00 

;^7S,94o.37 



564 Mayor Courtoiay s Annual Review. 

TiiK POST r.KLi.r.M rKiiioi). 

ISG.")-??. In A])ril, 1865, the wai- wliicli foi' nioix- \\\\\\\ four 
years liaci been \vai;e(l with sueh fierce contention between 
the seceding- States and tlie States wln'cii insisted on the 
mcdntenance of tlie Union, was ended. And A])}joniatt()\, 
in Virginia, as the place where the war ended, will be in all 
tinies as memorable as Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, 
where it began, luit wdiat nuist follo\'v the end of the war; 
what must be thie solution of that great probleni which was 
tlien developed; who could tell? Idie issue involved in 
thtit war liad been decided adversely to the seceding States: 
but the decision had established other iTiattei's, and these of 
the gravest kind. ]^\)ur millions of those who liad been 
held in servitude \^'ere at once decl.ired free. Idic Cc^nsti- 
tution of the United States had been amended, and in tlve 
fourteenth Article declared that " 7\!1 persons born or natu- 
ralized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State 
whereiii thc}' reside." To make this comprehensive declara- 
tion of citizensliip effectual, it was necessary to protect it. 
And, therefore,' it was declared that "No State shall make 
or enforce an)^ law which shall abridge the privileges or im- 
munities of citizens of the United States." To this \\'as 
added the further declaration that no State shall ''deprive 
an)' person of life, liberty or propert}% without due process 
of law, nor den\' to an)' person within its jurisdiction the 
equal protection of the laws." The Thirteenth Amendment 
had provided that " neither slavery nor involuntar\- servi- 
tude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the part)- 
shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United 
States, or an)' place subject to their jurisdiction." Mow 
far these amendments which, as has been said, made a 
"complete change of organic law," could be made, and 
be freed from exception because of a want of conformit)' 
with the provisions (^f the Constitution, the Congress of the 
United States proceeded, and successfully, to remcd)' by 
the Act of 2(\ Marcli, 1869: which in the preamble recited 



The Ccntoiuinl of fjic<>rparniic>ii. 565 

that "no legal State govcnimenl or adcMjuate pi-olecl io!i for 
life or property now exists in the rr'bel Staters;" aii'l that 
"peace and good order shoidd be (^nforce<l in said Slates, 
until lo)'cd and repul^liean State goverrinients can be- lcc;all\- 
establislied." To this end the "said rcd^el Stales" were 
divided into " military districts, and made subject to the 
militar)' auth.orit\' of th.e United States." And this wns to 
be the " law of the land,", until " the people of any one* of 
the said rebel States shall ha\'e formed a constitution 
of government in conformity with the Constitutirjn of the 
United States in all respects, framed by a convention (){ 
delegates elected b}- the male citizens of said State twentx'- 
one years old and upwards, of whatever race, color or pre- 
\n"ous condition: who have been residents in said State for 
one yeai' prcvicuis to the day of such election." This 
should continue until the people of the," said rebel States" 
shall be by law admitted to rejrrcsentation in Congress. 
"Any civil government which may exist therein shall be 
deemed provisional only, and in all respects subject to the 
paramount authority of the United Stiites at an}- time to 
abolish, modif}', control or supersede the same." Wlien the 
"said rebel vStatcs," by convention c;dled in the manner 
prescribed, sliall have adopted a constitution and the Four- 
teenth Amendment, and that had become part of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, then the senators and repre- 
sentatives shall be admitted to Congress on " their taking 
the oath presciibed by law." 

Under the operation of this Act of Congress, and others 
supplcmentar)^ thereof, a convention was heUJ in the City 
of Charleston ; which framed the constitution now ^A force 
and known as the Constitution of 18^)8 ; and having been sub- 
mitted to and approved b)^ Congress, the State became en- 
titled to its representation in Congress. 

In this rapid narrative of Federal legislation, it is not at 
all within the limits or tlie purpose of this paper, to make 
on it comment of any kind. It is in. what has been, and in 
what will be said, a narrative of events, a staten~!ent of facts. 
With the close of actual hostilities and the suspension of 



v:/- 



S^^'^ ^hiyor Court niays Ajiiiual Riviciv. 

'*. 

law in the States, except so far as was perinilted 1)\- the \ 

military authority of the United States, a Provisional (iov- » 

crnor was ap|)ointed by President Johnson, the Courts were 1 

opened, the Judges then in commission proceeded as well as I 

they could to discharge their fui^ctions; and to the time 1 

when officers of the State and general government wei-e I 

elected under the Constitution of 1 868, the internal State ] 

government was subject to the .military authority of the '; 

United States. To speak of a civil government as so ad- \ 

ministered, is, of course, in itself a contradiction. It was \ 

aptly declared, " subject to the paramount authorit\' of the ! 
United States." And if during its continuance, there were 

either no, or few if any, cases of oppression and wrong, it I 

must be rather referred to the temper of those who were \ 

delegated to exercise tlic power, than an)- limitation of Its \ 
extent, to any point short of the w\\\ of any one, to whom 

it had been given. ; 

Puit in 1 868 there was inaugurated a new condition m the 

State; the like of which no one could have anticipated, cer- \ 

tainly not to the extent to which it was carried : and most ; 

certainly tlie like of which can be never, under any circum- ■: 

stances, again presented. \ 

'*Thc oath prescribed by law," disfranchised almost the | 

entire white population of the State, excepting such as by I 

an Act of Congress had their disability removed, I'hc op- \ 

portunity for plunder u'as eagerly seized b\' a horde oi the | 

most unscrupulous adventurers who have ever been known « 

in this or any other State. Availing themselves of the cir- | 

cumstances as then existing, these " ill-omened birds of : 

prey " addressed themselves at once to the prejudices which \ 

were easily, perhaps naturally, excited with that portion of ? 

the population who had been recently emancipated : and b)' \ 

cunningly devised falsehoods and artful niisrepresentations \ 
of the temper and inclination of the white population of the 

State, endeavored to excite such an enduring liostilit)- as \ 

would make the two classes committed to a i)Osiiion at war \ 

with the peace and welfare of both. And it was under the f 
influence of such feelings by the votes of those whom they 



TJic Cc'iitcimial of hicorporatio)!. 567 

kissed on])' lo bctra}-, tluil ihcy became possessed oflluit 
power in the State ^^;()vernnu;nt ; b)' the exercise of wliich 
lht:y proceeded in tlieir c.ireei' of ph.inder and rapine to an 
extent that beo^^^ars description, and when told ahnost taxes 
behef. 

Such a career ever works its o\vii overtlirow. I'\jr eiglit 
long years the St.ite labored under tliis, the most Lpicvous 
yoke that could be imposed. The re\'eIations of the wro'ngs 
done to all at length reached even those who had been the 
victims of the cupidit)- cjf others in whom the\' confided : 
and the })eop!e of the State rose in an united and miglUy 
effort for their deliverance. The effort was successful, and 
the year 1876, in which tliis great end was accomplished, 
will ever be well remembered in the history of this State. 

CHARLESTON'S WELCOME TO COVERXOR ILAMl'TON. 

Ijstli April, 1.S77. But as lasting as will be the recollec- 
tion of the }-ear in which our State was restored to those to 
whom it rightfully belonged, so will be the remembrance 
in Charleston of that public reception which she accorded 
to the distinguished citizen under whose wise guidance the 
redemption of the State had been acconiplished. 

In the dark hour which preceded the dawn he had con- 
ducted all classes to the full light of da}', and had inspired 
all with confidence in liis sense of what was right and just, 
and so long as the people of the State rejoice in their rights, 
as restored to them in 1876, the name of Wade Hampton 
will be cherished by them. 

Here, in this cit}^ of his birth, his public reception and 
welcome as Governor will be remembered as a red letter 
day, and pass into our local annals to be referred to through 
all tinie wdth the public greetii gs extended to Washington, 
Monroe, Tafayette and the other distinguished visitors to 
our city in the centur}-. 

Nearly of.e hundred years before, Gov. Mathews accom- 
panied by Gens. JMoultrie, Horr\', and others, entered our 
city on a memorable occasion, the day on which the evacu- 



5^8 Mayor Courtoiay s Annual Review. 

at-on by the I'ritish took place ; as we read of tlie tliorou.pji- 
fares crowded' \vith jK-(T))]e, balconies, doors and windows 
filled with tlie patriotic fair, the aj^ed and the )'oun^r^ wav- 
ing friendly salutations, tcnderiii!j;- conL^ratulations, sheddin-i' 
tears of joy at th.eir liberation from foreign rule; so on tlic 
ever meniorable iSth April, 1877, Charleston's whole popu-' 
Jation was abroad, and witli hearts throbbing witli grateful 
pride gave public expression to their feelings at their escape 
from ignorant and corrupt rule, and symi^athctic emotion 
for their great leader. 

" i\1en had planned and labored for ?. grand ovatit^n. )-outlis 
liad given themselves up to military enthusiasm, fair women 
had worked with eager fingers day and night, children had 
danced with eager glee, and even tottering infants lisped 
' Hooyah f'r Ampton!'"and the result was that never in 
the Idstory of Charleston liad there been a m.ore ujiiversal 
pu.blic demo Pi strati on of joy, nor had any citizen ever receiv- 
ed a more gratifA'ing public greeting. In short, as Charles- | 
ton witli ever)' attention that hospitality, public and pri- \ 
vate, could devise, liad welcomed Washington in the olden I 
time, so with the same deep and glad expressions of popu- I 
lar enthusiasm they greeted Hampton who had liberated \ 
them in the new time. . I 



CONCLUSION. 

To an extent too great, 1 fear, for your patience, and an 
incompleteness that is only too evident, .,vhen it is measured 
with my theme, I have outlined some of many topics, all of 
which fully developed and written would make up an in- 
structive and glowing histor\' of our city. In conclusion 
let me add a \c\\ thoughts suggested by the topic — " the 
sources of population." ^ 

The record shows that this cit3-'s life-blood rose in th.e 
veins of the best race stocks of the modern world. 'Idiosc 
peoples and races who have made this civilization, and arc 



TJic Coitouiial of fiicorporation. 569 

now still leadin<^^ aiul still tlcvclupini^ this iicw era in llic 
world's liistory, have licrc their representatives in liuea^^e, 
and tl)ey are the dominant and controlling.; fcjrces in our \ 

midst. Their bone and flesh and blood are here; their : 

mind and heart and will arc licre also. Tliis community is 
moulded together of comj)onent race elements which, in ; 

their combined results, form a strong enduring active power \ 

in political and civil life standing for the higlicst, and work- i 

ing for the best things. Thus it is, that whenever the life, the -. \ 

loyalt)-, the honor or safety of the city has been threatened, 
through the fire and storm of war, and the more desperate ; 

and fearful trial of anarchial peace, not* only has high and I 

grand struggle been made, but even in seeming defeat the \ 

conservative forces have survived all possible disaster, and \ 

new life has sprung up, ors the very scene of ruin, a v/itness \ 

to the heritage of moral manhood and mental- doinlnion, \ 

enciurin^" in her sons, and the unqucnch.able faith and 
courage and heroism of her leaders. j 

In the first years, when small in numbers, the early set- 1 

tiers stood successfully against the Indian and the Spaniard. \ 

Fifty years after the first landing they bravely threw off the ; 

government of the Proprietors and became a Colony of the ' 

Crown of England. A half century later, Lossing says: : 

'' While the people of New England were murmuring 
because of writs of assistance and other grievances, the 
Carolinians were not indifferent listeners, especially those 
upon the seaboaid ; and before the Stamp Act lighted the 
flame of general indignation in America, leading men in 
South Carolina were freely discussing the rights and privi- 
leges of each Colony, and saw in day dreams a mighty 
empire stretched along the Atlantic coast from Penobscot 
to the St. Johns. " "^' When intelligence of the Stamp 
Act came over the sea, the Assembly of South Carolina did 
not wait to consult the opinions of those of other Colonies, 
but immediately passed a series of condemnatory resolves." 
The closing of the port of Boston, by Act of Parliament, 
on the 1st of January, 1774, aroused the indignation and 
sympathy of the South Carolinians, and substantial aid was 



57^ Mayor Coiirtoiay s Aiiiiitai l\ivic7i.>. | 

frccl)' sent to tlu; suffering inhabitants of that city. When 
tlic pi-opositio!! for a General Coni^ress went fortli, the af 

firmative \'oice of South Caroh'na was amony; tlie first he.iicl J 

ill response. They effectually resisted the Starn[) Act, - 
when three companies of cit)- infantr\-, unchjr INIarion, 

Pinckney and Elliott, inarched to LambolTs Bridcre, em- • 

barked for James Island, surprised and cajUured l^^ort John- | 

son, and caused the stamp-paper to be reshippcd to England. i? 
They resisted the three-penny tax on tea, by throwiiu; the ^ \ 

tea overboard uitJioui disguise, and that which had been | 

landed and stored went to slow decay through long years of \ 

neglect, but z^'as, never drank. ■ | 

" IDuring th.e struggle for independence, South Carolina ] 

was given up to plunder and bloodshed ; the war here was 1 

marked b)' a degree of barbarity which had no parallel in | 

the Eastern or ^liddle States, except in the small plunder- | 

ing expeditions in the neighborhood of New York. Provost's ^ 

soldiers carried on this barbarous style of warfare, and the | 

marks of their plundering were visible in every house on the | 

islands they had occupied near Charleston." | 

The prison ship and ^he crowded fever-stricken dungeon I 



did not suppress the spirit of liberty in this city, nor did the i 



victor's torch effect any change in the surroundiiig country. , | 

In the closing years of the last century, when the Federal | 

government was without money and w^ithout credit, our 1- 

citizens, headed by Crafts, Morris, Tunno, Cross, Gilchrist, -^ 

Hazlchurst, Rus.ell, and many other merchants, advanced | 

over one hundred thousand dollars in cash, and ]Messrs. | 

Pritchard and Marsh, representative Charleston mechanics, '| 

built the sloop-of-\var /o/in Adams for the defence of the I 

Union. The Non-Intercourse and Embargo Acts were ob- 1 

served with the strictest fidelity here, though the comnui- :j 
nity was equally divided on this issue, which brought deso- 
latioii to nearly all our homes, while elsewhere plenty was 
enjoyed by violating the law. 

War was declared against Great Britain in \\\Tshington 

on the !8th June, i8i2. On the 24th August, Governor S 
Middleton, of South Carolina, reported to an extra session 



The Coiiciiiiial of lucorporntioii. 



D/ 



of the Legislature that the State's quota of five thousand 
troops had been organized with expedition, and was com- 
posed princii)ally of volunteers. In man\' cases the draft 
was resorted to, onl}' to decide who should be accepted as 

part of the qut^ta, in some instances ofjicers who could not j 

obtain commands volunteered as privates. ' 

On the 22d December, 1814, Governor D. Iv. Williams ! 

notified tlie Secretary of the l^reasury that the J.egislafure, j 
having been informed the da)- before that tlie ]"\'deial ofh- - } 

cers in this State were without money, liad that e\ening \ 

placed the amount necessary, two hundred and sixty thou- \ 

sand dollars, to their credit in the ]>ank of South Carolina, [ 

that being the State's estimated proportion of the direct \ 

tax about to be laid b\' Congress. • 

As in the war of 1812-15 so in the Mexican war, the men ' \ 

of Ch.arleston were not wantinc!; in duty to flao' and to \ 

country; of the ninety-six Charleston volunteers wlio land- [ 

ed at Vera Cruz, less than forty entered tlie Halls of the i 

Montezunias six' months after. In more recent years, " in i 

obedience to a sentiment of honor and the call of dut)-, and \ 
in pledge of their sincerity," thousands from Charleston 
went forth to do the bidding of South Carolina, and lum- 

dreds " made tlie last human sacrifice and laid dov/n their ; 

lives on the battle-fields of the Confederac}'." And in the \ 

defence of this city, against the gigantic efforts made to \ 

capture it, wh.at a record of heroism, of patient endurance * 

for four desolating }-ears, does Charleston present! Amid I 

the ruins of Fort Sumter men stood for man}- iTionths with j 

only rifles in their liands, with the' arsenals and h.eav)- ord- i 

nance of the world in use by the besiegers — on the Islands ■- 

every foot of barren sand was contested, and when before \ 

overwhelniing numbers, and the heaviest guns by sea and i 

land, and then not until the picks and spades of the Miners * 

and Sappers had penetrated into the walls o{ Batter)- Wag- ; 

ner-^ was Morris Island given up; v/hat is the testimon\- of ; 

*i'>AT'ri:RV WAiiNKii. — About one thousand yards Soutliea>t of Cuininiiiti^' ; 
i'oiiiL, an carlli-w oik was piojerled in Sr^ilcinbci-, 1S02, a^ an i)u[]>(i-,i dI l-'ml 
Sumter, under the dirccrion of Capt. Laiigdou (Jhcvcs, ConfcdLialc Male;, 1:1;- ' 



gineer. The original plan covered the width of the Island from high water 
to high water, enehjsing an acre and a half of ground. I'hrce liundrcd yards 
in front of the woik a canal was to liave been cut, and the action of the sea 
was expected to make it too deep for fording, and, certainly, would prevent 
approach by sap and mine ; the canal was never cut, and tlie fort was at last 
taken by regular approach. Negro labor was hrst used in its construction, but 
these were finally withilrawn by owners on account of exposure to the enemy. 
These were succeeded liy tlie Gist Guard Artillery and Matthews' Artillery, 
who, while they worked, were many times under fnc. It was scarcely comple- 
ted when the bombardment an.d attack commenced July loth, 1S63, at which 
time its armament consisted of one rifled and banded 32-pounder. five sn\ooth 
bore 32-puunders on siege carriages, one S-inch cohiml)iad and one lo-incli 
columbiad, and two brass howitzers. Connected with the work was a bond>- 
inoof shelter capable of protecting an infantry garrison of six hundred men, 
also secure niaga/ines. The two companies already named, under Ca})t. J. K. 
Matthew^ and Lieut. R. C. t'.ilcluist, formed during the siege from loth July 
to 7lh Se[)Lcinbcr, with brief intervals of relief, the regular artillery garrison — 
Capt, C. E. Ghicllc^ter acting as Chief of Artillery. 



572 Mayor Courtoiays Annual Review. 

the victorious general, whose military skill, persistency and 
unlimited resources, in men and material, had achieved its \ 

possession? General Gilmorc says of tliis fori of sand : 
" Fort Wagner was found to be a work of the most 
formidable character-far more so, indeed, than the mo.st 
exaggerated statements of prisoners and deserters had led 
us to expect. Its bomb-proof shelter, capable of containing 'y 

fifteen hundred or sixteen liundred men, remained perfectly | 

intact, after one of the niost severe bombardments to v/hicli 
any earth-work v/as ever ex])05ed." 

All around the circuit of our city are historic places -for 
four years, Sullivan's Island, Alorris Island, James Island 
and Fort Sumter v/t-re reverberating with the roar of heavy 
cannon, and the historian when he comes to write of our 
memorable defence will exclaim— 

" Ne\"cr on earthly anvil 
Did such rare armour gleam." 

As comes the bourgeoning of the tree from the secret 
force that fills its veins, so must it ever be with us of 
Charleston as long as the life-blood that flowed in the veins 
of those gone before continues to warm the heart of the 
city we so love and cherish and guard. Such relation to a 



The Ccjitcniiial of I)iLorporatio}i. 573 \ 

i 

past ennobles this transient and vanisliing life ; such a powcr 
of influence on the future is the supremest terrestial privi- 
lege. 

In a spirit worthy of such memories, let us as citizens 
consecrate ourselves to those further duties which wait to 
be fulfilled, and so discharge them that, as the )'ears roll b)-, 
our city may expand to higher honors and a larger useful- 
ness. With memories of the jo)'s and sorrows of an event- f 
ful past, standing on the threshold of a new century, with - \ 
hope elate and purpose high, join me in sa)'ing with the j 
poet : I 

" Oh! clieckered train of years farewell, { 

Witli all tl'.y sLrifes and hopes and fears, | 

But with us let thy memories dwell, \ 

To \\arm and teaeh the coming years. « 

J 

And thou, the new hei^inning age, | 

Warned by the past, and not in vain, \ 

Write on a fairer, \\hiter page, \ 

The record of thy happier reign." \ 



PROCEl-i)lX(JS OP Till' CITY COUXCIL. 

At a regular meeting of the City Council, held on Sep- 
tember iith, 1883, Alderman Dingle, chairman of the 
special conimittc on the Centennial, submitted the follow- 
ing resolutions, which were inianimously adopted : 



Resolved, That the thanks of the City Council are due and hereby tendered | 

to the Rev. John Jolmson, Rector of St. Phili[)'.-. Church, {ex his services as ? 

chaplain of the day on the receiit Centennial occasion. . \ 

\ 

Kesohed, That tlie thanks of the City Council are due and hereby tendered \ 
to Middleton Michel. M. D., for his acceptable reading of tlie Centennial Otles 

at the recent celebration. \ 

Rcsolvfd, That the City Council of Charleston recnu-.t that ^\x. Paul II. ; 

tiayne, [he |)oel-M.>i), son of our city, accept their sincere congratuhif ions and "j 

heartfelt thaid.s fur th.e high tribute of his genius to the cidebration of the City's I 
Centennial, and that a Centennial Medal of gohb suitab!)- niounlt.<l and m- 
sciibed, he prepared lor him as a token of their legard and esteeni. 



[\l-u. 



574 Mayor Coiiriciiay s Ainiiin/ Riz>ic7i>. \ 

Filled with fc-rvent love of her ami hci pa->l, and hopeful of Ikt Inicdiilv 
dawning fuUiie, paiiUiii|;^ her sore triaU, lur diie di-;tress, hci _o|-,i,ul struj^i'l.--, 
and trrandei ti i'.iinpliN, aitvl in iIk: insjiirini^ words of his nd>sii)n and Ids ail, o> 
a teacher of his fellow-man, suninK-ninL'. us, a> lit- ehecrs us, lo a IarL,a-r drsliny, 
his words have come to us a> the awakening of mii^hl)- memory and the vision 
of bra\c hopes realized. 

We thank him fervently for his auspicious ^rectini^, hir tin.' truth, iju- L.dad- * 

ness, the majesty and power of his noble ode. i 

Whereas, througli tire good offices of the Hon. A. Loudon Snowden, director ^ | 

of the United States Mint, at Philadelphia, the City Council of Chailcston has :< 

heoi able to add to the- comniemoralion of their lecent Centennial celebralion i 

a beautiful medal in the In^^diest style of numisniatic ait, j 

. A'eso/z.'cu', 'i'hat the thanks of the City (.'ouneil are eminently (]uc and. are i 

hereby tendered to Mr. Snowden for tl-.is very acceinable service, whicli is -5 

hij^hly appreciated. ;• 

Resolved, That the thanks of the City Council are >\\\q and heiel)y tendered 4 

to Mrs. Mary M. Ilut-on for the kindly loan at the recent Centennial cekbra- > 

tion of the portrait of Chaiicellor Richard liutson, the fust Intendant of tlie \ 

city. I • 

Resolved, That the thanks of the City Council are due and are liereby ten- w 

dered to the officers and members of the German Artillery and the Lafayette \ 

Artillery lor their prompt response to our request to fiie the Centennial salute i 

of one hundred guns u!'. the occasion of llie recent celebralion, and that a co'.y -I 

of tlds resolution, suitably engrossed, be prepared and forwarded to Captain ^ 

Wagener and Caj-tain ^L'lntoue. ^^ 

■s 

So ordered. % 

I 

Alderman IJingle then moved llial tlie Mayor be re- \ 

quested to vacate the chair. Adopted. | 

On motion Alderman Swecgan was asked to preside. J 
Alderman Dingle then presented the following resolutions : 

Whereas, on the occasion of the Centennial celebration of our city, his Hop-or 
the Mayor presented to the City of Charleston a marble bust of Jame- L. 
Petigru, now adorning this eliamber, the satisfying and, noble product of the 
genius and faithful labor of the sculptor Ilarniscli : 

And, whereas, this tribute of ])er|:)etual eonrmernoration of our city's gieal 
jurist, orator and fearless citi/en is the wortlriest homage v. e can pay to tlie 
illustrious dead, as well as the truest and w iscst lesson we can teach to the 
living, 

Bi it resolved. That the City Council, in belialf of the cltL-ens of Ch.arleston, 
in accepting this nvaaificent gift, recalling in its vivid power ^o truly the great 



The Ctutcuiiial of Incorporatiou. 57 



Unanimously adopted, 



man wlio i^ !.r,,,|(', (.•xtciul tlu'it lic.uiicst lli.uikv to lii> llonor tlic M;iyni l,.,tli | 

for the i;cnci-fMiN t.hou;^1it that piomplod lliis ciiduiin;.; le^liiiionial to his fc-lhtu-- j 

('iii/,(.'ii->, ,iiwl al>o for \.\w hii;h and in>l.riu:livi; u;iy he has so h.ippil) (ho.cn to - 

nuuk l>3' so ch"ji.i.enL d ^ift hi-. tli(n\L;ht of and hi-, fceliiii; for hi^ ix-oplf. I 



UnanimoLisl)' adopted. \ 

Alderman Dingle then presented the aecompan}-!!!!^ rcso- | 

lutions: , \ 



Whereas, in fulfdliny I'le request of this body to deliver the t)!:itiun \\\m\\ the "" \ 

Centennial of tlie Cdty of Charh-slur, liis Honor the Mayor lias reviewed rno'-t • 

faithfully, iustiuetively and eloquently the history of this city from its earliest f 

scnlement, and amid the duties of an active administrativju has, in marked zeal | 

and industry, found time to exanune into the sources of our history ar.d tlie | 

prot^rcss (jf our civic life, and in his vi\id outlines revealing and suL^gesting the \ 

wider fields for and the larger results of the study, the writiiig and the jireserva- \ 

tion of her municipal past, be it \ 

Resolved, That tlic City Council of Charleston would express their heartfelt t 

gratification at this ni(_)SL valuable anid instructive addiess, and that they join I 

with his Honor the Mayor in the iKqic thaa the history of this city may soon | 

be rescued, fully written and thus preserved for our.^elves and posterity \ 

Resolved, I'hat his Honor the Mayor lie requested to furnish a coi)y of his f 

Centeuiual address, unal)rid;^^ed, hu' publication. I. 

i 

Unanimou.^h^ adopted. i 

Alderman A. Johnson offered the following resolution : \ 

\ 

I^csoh'rd, That a Centennial Med.d in gold, .suitably mounted and in.^cribed, » 

be presented to his Honor the Mayor, as an acknowledgment fiom the City \ 

Council for his Centennial address. \ 

I 

\ 



Mayor Courtenay was tlien eseorted to the hall by Alder- .; 

men Rodgers and Barkley, who had been appointed a eom- \ 

mittee for that puroose, and the resolutions were communi- ! 

cated to him by the acting Mayor. ' 

The Mayor, who was visibly affected during the reading \ 

of the resolutions, spoke as follows: i 

\ 

Gen'1lemj:n or- CcL'NCIL — Hie service tliat I have been able to render in 1 
preparing the addre-soa the occasion of the Centennial was congenial to me. 



i;;.r^"i 



y/C:> " Mayor Courioiay s A)uiual Rdncw. 

as I h.ive for many years takt-n a j^rcal itilcicsl in llii.-. altiactivc >nl>i(i.i, and I 
only tiust. it will be the niean^ of leading to a uiore thorou;^di reseaieli and to 
the pre[)ai-ation and iierpetiuiticMi (>f ou.r C(.»i j>ur;ue history. 

In inescnlinj.^ llie bu-t of Janie-. L. rotit^rn \n the cil}', it i> jiroper that I 
should say that when 1 ordero<i il I had intended lo make it- presentation the 
occasion of announcinL; to y^iu that J de>i!ed to retiie from the niayoralty at the 
end of in}- term, in December. I wished at the snme time to ceh-l-iate in a 
permanent form the \irtues ol a jnominent cili/en, who, <dlhough for many 
years in a minority, was ever appreciated b}, l"ii-> fellow-citi/.en->, and ha-< left us 
the record of a long life of honor and patriotism. I hardly know how to* thank 
you, gentlemen of Council, for your xnifoim kiiidncss lo nte during all ihe-e 
long years we have served togetlicr. \Vc have had diiVerenee> of (.'pinion, it is 
true, but 1 am ha'pj'y to state that our personal relations have lieen and are of 
the most pleasant character, k'or this e\pressit>n of kind feeling 1 beg, in all 
sincerity, lu express my warmest thanks. 



At the renular meetinc^ of the Cit\' Ci-Uincil, held on the 



4 

evening of October i6th, 1SS3, the following letters were | 

read and received as information : | 

h 

"Copse Hall," GF.onoiA. ] *- 

C~>ctober 15th. 1S53. [ \ 

To the IIoTcombk ilic Mavor aitd City Coinuil of C';arleslon, S. C. : ■•• 

GknTLEMKN — I acknowledge the receipt of your " Resolutions" of the 13th | 

inst., in relation to my " Centennial Poem" — " Resolutions,"' the earnest feel- 4 

ing and eloquence of w hich have profoundly moved me ! 5 

Accept, at the same time, my aj^jireciative thanks for the superb gold medal ,i 

accompanying them. '| 

As a token of regard from my native I'lace I must a/ic-ays value it, associating ) 
its purity and brightness with the ]Hirc lustre of many memories— memories of 
boyhood, and youth, and early manhood indissolubly connected with our "fair 

City by the Sea." i 

Nor can I ever forget the gracious manner in which it has been presented ! '-: 

A^ot in vain, then, has your Poet toiled, and sometimes, in exile, sufiered ! 

The hope grows strong within. him that when thus hand is dust he may yet 
survive (so long as God willelh) in tlie hearts of his fellow-citizens. 

Yirgilhalf mournfully, half ironically inquires, " Ci)i.res iredis tiinvr Scpa/los ^^ . \ 

At all events, to a man wliile living, hope of some fragrant post-f)io)icin re- \ 
menrbrance, c.-^pecially in tlie place of one's birth, is beyond measure, consoling ! 

I am, gentlemen, gratefully and respectfully yours, . 

PAUL HAM 1 1. TON IIAVNE. ^ 



The Centennial of Ineorporation. 57^7 

The Mayor stated that he desired to return his acknowl- 
edgment for the medal presented to him. ' 

Mint of the United States, at PuiLADELriiiA, Pa., ) 

vSuperixtemjenj-'s Office, I 

October i5lh, 1883. ) 

My Dear Sir — I have to acknowIeJi^e, tlirough your courtesy, tlie receipt 
of a beav,tifulIy-eiigro>>ed copy of resolutions adopted by the Countil of the 
City of Charleston, expre^'>ing thanks for services rendered by nsc in coniicction 
•with your Centennial celebration. 

I am lionored by the action of your city authorities, and, in exiMX-ssing my 
thank-; for the same, can only legret that my services were not of a more im- 
portant character. 

I beg you will convey to his Honor the Mayor and to the menibers of the 
Council my high, appreciation of the honor c(jnferred upon me. 

Trusting tliat your beautiful city may continue to make progress in all that 
appertains to the liappiness of her people, the honor of her name and the wel- 
fare of our couimon country. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. LOU DON SNOWDEN. 
G. \V. DiXGLK, Esq., 61 Broad Street, Cliarleston, S. C. 

Council tlien adjourned. 

W. W. SIMONS, 
Clerk of CounciL 



TJ]}- CEXTKXXIAL MEDAL. 

The Cit)^ Council of Charleston arranged with Mr. Snow- 
den, the courteous and obliging director of the United 
States Mint at Philadelphia, for a memorial medal ; its 
size and inscription are fully illustrated at page 324. The 
issue comprises two in gold, twenty-one in silver (for the Al- 
dermen serving at that time) and two hundred in bronze — 
total, two hundred and twenty-three. 

The medals were mounted in handsome morocco cases, 
and copies in bronze vvere presented to Gov. H. S. Thomp- 
son, Lieut. -Gov. J. C. Shepherd, Mr. Speaker James Simons, 
and Attorney-General Cli. Richardson Miles, who represent- 
va 



57S Mi^.yor Courtcnay s Atuiiial Review. 

cd the State at tlic ceremonies — to cx-Ma)'ors '1". L. llutclj- 

inson, \V, Porcher Miles, V. C. Gaillard, (). 1. Cunningham, ' 

and \V. \V. Sale — to Mrs. Ilannalt Knsto.i, Mrs. Jolm A. ] 
Wagener; W. Noel Sainsbuiy, Record Office, London; 
John Stolle Artist, of Dresden ; Ed. V. Valentine, Sculptor, 
Richmond, V'a. ; Rev. John Johnson, Chaplain of the da)-; 

Miduleton Michel, M. I)., Reader; to Recorder Pringle and ^ 

the officers of the City Court ; to the Commissioners 'of the -I 

Public Institutions of the City, and the chief City Officials. '^' | 

The two gold medals were voted by special resolve o( the ( 

City Council, to the Poet and Orator of the da)-. Quite a | 

num.ber of bronze medals were subscribed and paid for by | 

private citizens, in and out of the cit)-. The dies, which are ? 

very fine specimens of numismatic art, remain for safe keep- f 

ing at the United States Mint, Pliiladelphia. 4; 



1 he Cintouiial of 1 ncorporaticni. yji) 

E R R A T' A . 



Ah error having been made in the inscriplior. on tlu' l•.Clle•^(aI of the Hiist of 
Fulton, page 169, it is coirectcd here: 

RoliEKT Fri.Tox 

'I'he Fatlier of Steam Navigation. 

iJy liis genius and labor, with the generous 

assistance of Robert R. Fiving->ton, 

American Minister to Fiance, 

He contributed largely to 

The progrc'-s of C'iMiimerce th)Oughout the world. 

Th.c City of Charleston 

Re-erects here thi-. memorial l!u-t. 

To keep hi- beuehcent achievement^ in constant remembrance. 

Rom 1765 — Died 1015. 

1883. 



5 
THE COXGREGATIOX -'RETII EFOHIM." (Page 301.) \ 

The Vv-riier of the avticle on The Congregation " Reth Elohim," of Charle-^ton, 
S. C, has liad sircce its publication, and consequently too late for correction in 
the l)ody of the article, some errojs pointed out to him In- a t'riend, which he 
desires to correct : " ' 

1. The name of \\\t Congregation Kahal Kadosli Deth Elohim is in the 
Act of Incorporation " The Charleston Jewish Congregation Iieth l-]loliim or 
House of God." The \'.-ords"of Israel" in the article was an error oi tlie 
copyist. 

2. The Rev. Dr. Moses Colien was elected Flaham, or Chief Rabi)i, which ;. 
office he retained until his death, April 19th, 1762, arid not rre.->ident of the ( 
congregation ; and as late as 1S40, under the, rules of the congregation, a prayer 

for the dead was once a year oftered for him. 

3. Flis son, Jacob Cohen, was President of the congregation in 1790, and 
not Israel Joseph. 

4. The statement with regard to the old Synagogue and the new Synagogue 
wdiile substantially correct as to the time in which the Jews A\'orshipped at tlie 
old Synagogue is wrong in this: The property was owned by Toluas, and was 
only sold by his estate to the congregation on 20th March, 1792, and th.e con- 
gregation bought from the same estate the lot West of the same on May l5th^ 
1792. Roth deeds are ofiecord in the Rcgistci's Office for Ch-.irle>ton, in Rouk 
M 6, page--, 45 and 4S. The lot on v/hicli the new S)nagogLie was built w as 
bought froni Susann.ah Quince, l2Lh September, 1791. This deed is oi record 
in the same ofiice, in P)Ook H 6, page 9S. 



5<*^0 Mayor Court ciiay s Amnia! Rivinv. 

5. The iioiric-t between llie U\'C) i^.ulic,-. in the Syiin^oi;uc, :\ro-.e in thi.-. way ; 
Tlie St.ite at the relation of A. Ottolengui et al,, fileii ihiduj^h Mr. J-Jailcy procecd- 
^-"'C"^ •^y;^^'i^--t ( ".. V. .Nncker a;ul i^lliers, who churned to he iiicnihers of the congre- 
j.-;ation by virtue of re-admission by a majority of the trustees. The ease was heard 
IjcIow by Judge \Var;ih"i.w, and the opiiiion above was (kdivered by Tudge I'.atler, 
7'he case deeiiled that the meeting of tlic trustees having been im].'rui'erly 
called, all acts done h.y them and at the meeting of tlie congregation calh-rl by 
tliem were void — Mr. Memminger represented the defendants. The case is 
fully reported in 2 Kichardson's Law Reports, page 245. Judge O'N'cale, in 
his Cench and iJar, refers to this case in his life of Judge l'>utler as a fine -speci- 
men of Judge Butler's style of judicial leasoning. 

6. The })uiia] Ground in Coming Street was eonveved by Isaac ])aCo.:ta to 
certain trustees as a place of burial foi- Jews in South Carolina conforming to 
the vxil'C'i, of the c<)rigregation, and an examination of the deed shov,-s tluu it v.-as 
apparently a gif?, thougli among the recitals a|)i-)ears, among oiliei-s, a nomin.il 
consideration of "seventy }>.junds lawful money of the Province." This deed 
is recorded ir^ Book C, No. 3, page loS, Register Mesne Conveyance OlTice, 
Charleston County. 

7. Dr. .Shecuit, in Iris Essays, page 30, gives an account, in .--ome respects 
slightly dilTering from that of the writer, of the places in wliich the congrega- 
tion v;orshipped Ijeforc they moved to Ilasell Street, and it may be th.at his 
account is correct. This difference, however, is scarcely inii)ortant. 



CITOVKN GENET. (Page 509.) 
By a misprint, his arrival is stated in 1792 ; of course it should be 1793- 



4964 



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